当前在线人数8897
首页 - 博客首页 - 梦使宝贝@缘聚天涯 - 文章阅读 [博客首页] [首页]
美国文化的点滴:聚会及节假日
作者:home99
发表时间:2010-08-28
更新时间:2010-08-28
浏览:12401次
评论:0篇
地址:98.
::: 栏目 :::
写给准妈妈1
宝宝护理与成长3
写给准妈妈3
为人父母3
英语学习
为人处世
休闲娱乐
理财话题
为人父母2
写给准妈妈2
实用资料
宝宝护理与成长2
为人父母1
其它
医药健康话题
写给新妈妈
宝宝护理与成长1
异国他乡

这里除了各种名目的Party,节假日也与国内有较大的不同。国内庆祝的一些我们认为是国际性节日,这里并不庆祝,如三八、五一、五四、六一等,除了Halloween,圣诞和元旦等之外,多数节日并不固定日期,而是规定是第几第几个星期几什么的,很多是星期一,这是为了好与周末合起来有一个Three days weekend;固定的节日如果落在周末,通常也会挪到星期一。

将我看到的关于美国Party及节假日等的资料一起贴这里供大家需要时参考啊!

●美国各种聚会Party大全
●List of Parties in the United States
●美国传统节日及简介
●Federal holidays in the United States
●美国州名的来源
●美国各州中英文名称及简称

――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――
美国各种聚会Party大全

Birthday Party(生日PARTY)
其中16,18,21岁最为重要。

Bachelor/bachelorette Party(单身汉/单身女郎PARTY)
为准新郎和准新娘准备的,一般参加的都是单身朋友,会请Stripper来表演,有的时候表演发展为别的节目。

Housewarming Party(暖屋会)
从字面上解释就是“把屋子弄热”,一般是搬了新家以后开,给新家增加人气,SEX AND THE CITY里Samantha曾经开过。与会者常带上一两件小礼物,如炊具等家庭实用物品,以帮助主人开始新的生活。

Baby Shower(婴儿洗礼)
虽然是叫“给宝宝洗澡”其实没有BABY也没有水。是准妈妈的朋友们为她开的Party。

Farewell Party(欢送会)
在办公室里,占用上班时间开,一般是买点礼物点些Pizza就完了。

SuperBowl Party(超级杯PARTY)
超级杯总决赛的时候开,一般不管是不是球迷都会参加,因为一年里最精彩的新广告会在比赛中间播出。

Oscar Party
和SUPERBOWL相似,大家在一起看Oscar颁奖典礼,评论明星衣服或者预测得主,是比较安静的Party。

Holiday Party(节日会)
包括Fourth Of July,Christmas,New year's eve,Mardi Gras(狂欢节)

Theme Party(主题PARTY)
很受年轻人欢迎,定下主题然后根据主题风格购买衣服,礼物,等等。

Pimps, hos and superheroes(皮条客,妓女和大英雄)
年轻人常见的PARTY,皮条客的装扮是礼帽,风衣,墨镜和拐杖,大英雄则一般是漫画人物(比如蜘蛛人,蝙蝠侠,超人等等,还有猫女等女英雄),妓女则和一般的打扮没有区别,也有男人装扮成妓女的模样。

Redneck(农民)
要求是大家尽量穿得土。

St. Patrick'S Day
原本是爱尔兰宗教节日,到了美国成了大家狂欢喝酒的PARTY。代表饮品是爱尔兰黑啤酒,但一般没有人喝。

Surprise Party(惊喜PARTY)
FRIENDS里经常开,大多是为某人生日,搬家,升迁等举行的。PARTY主角一般事先不知情,被骗到现场后大家从藏身之处跳出来大喊:“SURPRISE!”

Stag Party (“雄鹿会”或男子聚会)
stag party只限于男子参加,女性一律谢绝。在stag party上,男士们主要是打扑克,一起看拳击赛或者足球赛。有时候,在新郎举行婚礼的前夜举行stag party,纪念他告别单身生活。

Hen Party (女性聚会)
典型的女人聚会是摆上咖啡和糕点,大家闲聊。

Tailgate Party (车尾野餐会,又叫“球迷场外野餐会”)
这是一种不分男女老少的聚会。Tailgate原是一种箱形轿车尾部的车门,它可以翻下来当桌子用。一些球迷在比赛开始前几小时就捷足先登,把三明治、热狗或者烘烤肉类放在这张车尾的临时桌子上举行野餐,这就是tailgate party 的由来。

No-host Party(费用分担的社交聚会)
no-host是“没有主人”的意思。这种社交集会由参加的人各自分担费用,形式上有主办者,但没有担负全部费用的主人(host)。大家可分担现金,也可各自带食品和饮料。

Apple Picking Party(摘苹果郊游会)
秋天学校邀请外国师生到郊外果园摘苹果的活动,为秋季欢度周末的方式之一。

Brown Bag Party(棕色纸袋会)
一种自带食品的聚会。与会者各自从中取出食品,边吃边谈,是一种经济实惠的交际活动。

Christmas Tree Decorating Party(圣诞树装饰会)
为圣诞节各家各户举办的活动,边唱边跳边装饰,节日气氛浓厚。参加者需带绸带、剪纸、纸花等装饰品。

Picnic Party(野餐会)
野餐是美国人最喜欢的活动之一。除hot dog和hamburger需要火烤外,一般都吃冷食。

Potluck Party(家常聚餐会)
一般为几家在一起举行。各家带足供几家人吃的食品,然后共同享用各家精制的饭菜。

我们还参加过朋友孩子的Graduation Party,国内考上大学会庆祝,不同的是,这里似乎都是毕业了才庆祝。

――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――
List of Parties in the United States

Types of parties:

● Dinner party

A dinner party is a social gathering at which people eat dinner together, usually in the host’s home. At the most formal dinner parties, the dinner is served on a dining table with place settings. Dinner parties are often preceded by a cocktail hour in a living room or bar, where guests drink cocktails while mingling and conversing.

At less formal dinner parties, a buffet is provided. Guests choose food from the buffet and eat while standing up and conversing. Women guests may wear cocktail dresses; men may wear blazers.

At some informal dinner parties, the host may ask guests to bring food or beverages (a main dish, a side dish, a dessert, or appetizers). A party of this type is called a potluck or potluck dinner. In the United States, potlucks are very often held in churches and community centers.

● Tea party (social gathering)

In Anglo-American culture, a tea party is a formal gathering for afternoon tea. These parties are traditionally attended only by women, but men may also be invited.

Tea parties are often characterized by the use of prestigious tableware, such as bone china and silver. The table, whatever its size or cost, is made to look its prettiest, with cloth napkins and matching cups and plates.

In addition to tea, larger parties may serve punch or, in cold weather, hot chocolate. The tea is accompanied by a variety of easily managed foods. Thin sandwiches such as cucumber or tomato, cake slices, buns, and cookies are all common choices.

● Reception

A reception is a style of party that is well-suited to receiving many guests. The hosts and any guests of honor form a line in order of precedence near the entrance and greet every guest in turn as he or she arrives. Each guest greets the first (lowest precedence) person in the line and, if necessary, introduces himself. The first person then introduces the guest to the next person in the line, and turns to the next guest. As each guest properly speaks little more than his name (if necessary) and conventional greetings or congratulations to each person in turn, the line progresses steadily without unnecessary delays. Because of this, receptions are popular for large events, such as holiday events at the White House.

After formally receiving each guest in this fashion, the hosts can mingle with guests, eat, and enjoy more extended conversations. Although the term wedding reception is commonly applied to any celebration held after a wedding, a reception does not technically encompass full, seated dinner parties or a wedding ball. Refreshments at a reception may be as minimal as coffee or lemonade, or as elaborate as desired.

● Balls and other dances

A dance is a social gathering at which guests dance. Dances may be casual, informal affairs, or they may be a structured event, like a charity ball or a school dance.

Dances commonly take place during the evening, although some occur earlier during the day; such events are formally known as tea dances.

A ball is a formal dance with ballroom dancing or waltzing. Women wear ball gowns to balls; men wear white tie. Other dance events feature specific forms of dancing, such as square dances and raves.

● Block party

A block party is a public party that is attended by the residents of a specific city block or neighborhood. These parties are typically held in a city street that has been closed to traffic to accommodate the party.

At some block parties, attendees are free to pass from house to house, socializing, and often drinking alcoholic beverages.

● Showers

A shower is a party whose primary purpose is to give gifts to the guest of honor, commonly a bride-to-be or a mother-to-be. Guests who attend are expected to bring a small gift, usually related to the upcoming life event, like getting married or having a baby.

As a gift-giving occasion, it may not properly be hosted either by the guest of honor or the close relatives of the guest of honor, as requesting gifts from friends for a near relative is seen as either greedy or begging.

Baby shower

Traditionally, a baby shower is held only for the mother-to-be, and only women attend. The original intent was for women to share wisdom and lessons on the art of becoming a mother. Sometimes men attend baby showers and they give their lessons and wisdom as much as women.

Many people choose to have baby showers for both parents, and some people have a men-only shower. In Russian, Jewish and Ethiopian tradition, a celebration and gift reception is held only after the birth of a child.

Traditionally, baby showers were given only for the family's first child, but over time, it has become more common to hold them for subsequent or adopted children.[citation needed] Even when a shower is held for only the first child, it is not uncommon for a parent to have more than one baby shower, such as one with friends and another with co-workers.

* Grandma's shower refers to a shower at which people bring items for the grandparents to keep at their house, such as a collapsible crib and a changing pad.
* A sprinkle or a diaper shower refers to a small-scale baby shower, generally for subsequent children, when the parents don't need as many items.

Bridal shower

A bridal shower is a gift-giving party held for a bride-to-be in anticipation of her wedding. The custom originated in the 1890s and is today most common in the United States, Canada, and by American influence, in Australia.

The history of the custom is rooted not necessarily for the provision of goods for the upcoming matrimonial home, but to provide goods and financial assistance to ensure the wedding may take place.

● Costume or fancy dress parties

At a masquerade ball, guests wear masks to conceal their identities. Guests at a costume party, or fancy dress party, wear costumes. These parties are sometimes associated with holiday events, such as Halloween and Mardi Gras.

● Surprise party

A surprise party is a party that is not made known beforehand to the person in whose honor it is being held.

Birthday surprise parties are the most common kind of surprise party. At most such parties, the guests will arrive an hour or so before the honored person arrives. Often, a friend in on the surprise will lead the honored person to the location of the party without letting on anything.

The guests might even conceal themselves from view, and when the honored person enters the room, they leap from hiding and all shout, "Surprise!" For some surprise birthday parties, it is considered to be a good tactic to shock the honored person. Streamers, silly string, and balloons may be used for this purpose. Evidence of a party, such as decorations and balloons, are not made visible from the exterior of the home, so that the honored person will suspect nothing.

● Parties for teenagers and young adults

A “house party” is a party where a large group of people get together at a private home to socialize. House parties that involve the drinking of beer pumped from a keg are called keg parties or “keggers.” These parties are popular in the North America and Australia but are illegal for persons under the legal drinking age. Sometimes, even older party-goers run afoul of the law for having provided alcoholic beverages to minors. Arrests may also be made for violating a noise ordinance, for disorderly conduct,[1] and even for operating a “blind pig.”

Dance parties are gatherings in bars or community centers where the guests dance to house music, techno music, or disco. The music for dance parties is usually selected and played by a disc jockey.

A spin-off of dance parties, the rave involves dancing to loud house music or techno music. Rave parties may be attended by as few as a score of people in a basement or, more likely, by a few hundred people in a club, to as many as thousands in a large warehouse, field, or even tens of thousands in a sporting arena, city block, or other large space.

Outdoor parties include bush parties and beach parties. Bush parties (also called “field parties”) are held in a secluded area of a forest (“bush”), where friends gather to drink and talk. These parties are often held around a bonfire. Beach parties are held on a sandy shoreline of a lake, river, or sea, and also often feature a bonfire.

School-related parties for teenagers and young adults include proms and graduation parties, which are held in honor of someone who has recently graduated from a school or university.

A crush party is a party in a sorority or fraternity where the sisters or brothers are given a certain number of invitations (according to their “crushes”). These are passed on to friends outside of the sorority/fraternity and given to the “crushes” (while keeping secret the name of the inviter). There may be some sort of disclosure at the party, so that the guests can find out who has a crush on her/him.

● Singles dance party and mixer

A singles dance party and mixer is a party which is organized for people who are not married and who want to find a partner for friendship, dating, or sex.

Usually a “mixer game” is played, to make it easy for people to meet each other. For example, each guest may be given a card with an inspiring quotation on it. The game is to find someone of the opposite sex who has the same quotation. Couples who have matching cards may be given a small prize.

These parties are sponsored by various organizations, both non-profit and for-profit.

● Fundraising party

A fundraising party, or fundraiser, is a party that is held for the purpose of collecting money that will be given to some person or to some institution, such as a school, charity, business, or political campaign. These parties are usually formal and consist of a dinner followed by speeches or by a presentation extolling whatever the money is being raised for.

It is very common to charge an admission fee for parties of this kind. This fee may be as high as several thousand dollars, especially if money is being raised for a political campaign.

★ Associated with special occasions

● Birthday party
Children at a birthday party.

A birthday party is a celebration of the anniversary of the birth of the person who is being honored. Birthday parties are a feature of many cultures.

In Western cultures, particularly in the United States, the United Kingdom, Australia, and New Zealand, birthday parties are often accompanied by colorful decorations, such as balloons and streamers. In these cultures, a birthday cake is usually served with lit candles that are to be blown out after a “birthday wish” has been made. The person being honored will be given the first piece of cake. While the birthday cake is being brought to the table, the song Happy Birthday to You is sung by the guests.
A birthday cake with lit novelty candles.

A child’s birthday party may be held at his/her home or in a public place. Soft drinks and both sweet and savory foods are usually served. Birthday parties for children often feature entertainment, party games, and goody bags. Themed birthday parties are increasingly popular, as plates, streamers, napkins, and piñatas are being sold with themes taken from kids' games, books, television shows, movies, and websites.

Adults’ birthday parties in Western cultures are sometimes held in restaurants, bars, or nightclubs. In some cultures, guests are expected to bring a gift for the honored person.

● Coming of age parties
Main article: Coming of age
See also: Quinceañera and Sweet sixteen (birthday)

Many cultures celebrate the transition from childhood to adulthood with a party.

● Graduation parties

In some places, parties to celebrate graduation from school are popular.

● Marriage-related parties

* Bridal shower
* Bachelor party (aka UK: stag night; Australia: Bucks Night)
* Bachelorette party (aka hen night, hen party)
* Wedding reception
* Divorce party

● Housewarming party
Main article: Housewarming party

A housewarming party may be held when a family, couple, or person moves into a new house or apartment. It is an occasion for the hosts to show their new home to their friends. Housewarming parties are typically informal and do not include any planned activities other than a tour of the new house or apartment. Invited family members and friends may bring gifts for the new home.

● Welcome party

A welcome party is held for the purpose of welcoming a newcomer, such as a new club member, a new employee, or a family's new baby.

● Farewell party

In many cultures, it is customary to throw a farewell party in honor of someone who is moving away or departing on a long trip (sometimes called a bon voyage party). Retirement parties for departing co-workers fall into this category.

● Cast party

A cast party is a celebration following the final performance of a theatric event, such as a play, a musical, or an opera. A party of this kind may also be held following the end of shooting for a motion picture (called a “wrap party”) or after the season’s final episode of a television series. Cast parties are traditionally held for most theater performances, both professional and amateur.

Invited guests are usually restricted to performers, crew members, and a few others who did not participate in the performance.

● Pre-party

A pre-party is a party that is held immediately before some event, such as a school dance, a wedding, a birthday party, or a bar mitzvah. These parties are usually of short duration and sometimes involve getting ready for the event (e.g., the guests may put on makeup or costumes). Guests usually leave at the same time and arrive at the event together.

● After-party

An after-party is a party that is held after a musical or theatric performance or after some other event, such as a wedding or a school dance. Guests are usually limited to friends of the host.

● Parties on special days

* New Year's Day
* New Year's Eve
* Halloween
* 420 (cannabis culture)
* Independence Day, aka the Fourth of July
* Super Bowl Sunday
* Festivus, a secular and satirical winter holiday

――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――
美国传统节日及简介

美国是一个文化大国。短暂然而独特丰富的历史把它造就为一个民族的熔炉和世界文化的汇聚之地。若想到这座庞大的社会人文宝库中去一探究竟,我们不妨取一条捷径,那就是对他的节日做一个大概的了解,因为节日是美国文化的缩影。

透过复活节和圣诞节,我们不难看到美国人宗教信仰的影子;透过圣帕特里克节和愚人节,我们可以找到美国民族构成的渊源;透过感恩节、国旗日和一个个历史名人的诞辰,我们又会感受到美国历史的积淀;也许,当我们了解了美国人是怎样度过母亲节和植树节时,我们还能对美国人的日常生活和思想观念略见一 斑。下面按照时间顺序,对美国节日做一个简要介绍。

★ 1月1日 新年(New Year's Day)

新年是全美各州一致庆祝的主要节日。美国人过新年,最热闹的是除夕晚上。是夜,人们聚集在教堂、街头或广场,唱诗、祈祷、祝福、忏悔,并一同迎候那除旧更新的一瞬。午夜12点,全国教堂钟声齐鸣,乐队高奏著名的怀旧歌曲《一路平安》。在音乐声中,激动的人们拥抱在一起,怀着惜别的感伤和对新生活的向往共同迎来新的一年。

新年在美国并不是最热闹的节日,但仍有不少盛大的庆祝活动,加利福尼亚州的玫瑰花会是美国规模最大的新年盛典,届时用鲜花特别是玫瑰花扎成的彩车绵延数英里,车上摆满鲜花做的各种模型,不仅吸引加州的男女老少簇拥街头,而且还吸引着上百万电视观众。在费城,有举行化装游行的传统,参加游行的人们,有的装扮成小丑,有的装扮成妇女(按照古老的习俗,这个游行不允许女人参加),随着彩车载歌载舞,热闹非凡。

美国人还有一个有意思的习惯,就是在新年许愿立志,他们称之为“新年决心”。这决心通常不是什么宏图大志,而是一些朴实而实际的打算,例如“我一定戒烟”、“我要好好对待邻居”等等。他们总是坦率地讲给大家听,以期得到监督和鼓励。

据说美国的印第安人也有独特的新年习俗。每到除夕之夜,他们就举行富有特色的篝火晚会,一家人围在篝火旁边,载歌载舞。待至晨曦微露,他们就把破旧衣物付之一炬,作为除旧迎新的象征。

★ 2月12日 林肯纪念日(Lincoln's Birthday)

亚伯拉罕·林肯是美国南北战争的领导者,为废除奴隶制立下了不朽功勋。其诞辰日2月12日现为美国除南部外的26个州的法定纪念日。

1809年2月12日,林肯诞生于肯塔基州一农民家庭。1834年,林肯被选入伊利诺斯州议会,1847年当选为国会众议员。他公开抨击蓄奴制。 1860年,林肯当选美国第16任总统。这时南部7州组成南方邦联政府,企图分裂美国。林肯内阁遂决定用武力维护联邦统一。1861年南北战争爆发。 1863年1月,林肯宣布了《解放宣言》,使美国所有的奴隶从法律上获得了自由。1865年,历经4年苦战的美国内战终于结束,北方获得最后胜利,为美国资本主义的发展彻底扫清了道路。1865年4月14日,林肯在华盛顿福特剧院看戏时,被一个名叫约翰·布思的南方暴徒连击数枪,子弹射中头部,伤及大脑,翌日凌晨与世长辞。

多少年过去了,林肯仍然在美国人民心中占有崇高的地位。每逢林肯诞辰日,人们便举行讲演,发表纪念文章,去林肯纪念堂的瞻仰者更是络绎不绝。

★ 2月14日 圣瓦伦丁节(情人节)(St. Valentine's Day)

2月14日,是西方传统的圣瓦伦丁节,又称“情人节”,它具有悠久的历史。古罗马时代的牧神节,就是一个情侣们的节日。是日男女青年欢聚一堂,姑娘们把表达爱情的祝词放在签筒里,小伙子依次抽签,抽到哪位姑娘的祝词,那位姑娘就成为他的恋人。

基督教兴起,教会对牧神节习俗不以为然。但由于这个节日受到青年人的偏爱,到公元7世纪,教会便把这个节日同基督教联系在一起,用基督教殉教者圣瓦伦丁主教的名字为这个节日重新命名,并把日期由原来的2月15日改为2月14日。传说,公元3世纪,罗马皇帝认为已婚男子不愿离家当兵,因此发布了一道禁止结婚的法令。圣瓦伦丁主教因违背皇帝旨意,秘密为青年人举行婚礼,而遭到监禁,于公元273年2月14日死于狱中。

圣瓦伦丁节曾是英国人喜爱的节日,随着新大陆的开发,英国移民把这一富有浪漫色彩的节日带到了北美,逐渐在美国生根开花。

年轻人是圣瓦伦丁节当之无愧的主角,他们要在这一节日里郑重其事地为恋人选择礼物、赠送鲜花,表达自己的爱慕之情。痴情的姑娘可能会按照古老的传说,在圣瓦伦丁节前夜把月桂树叶放在枕头上,盼望在梦中同自己的心上人相会。

在美国,圣瓦伦丁节已不仅仅是青年人的节日,亲人朋友之间都可以互送小礼品以表达感情增进友谊。不少商店专门出售这类礼品,如装饰成心形的巧克力糖、或者系着缎带的红玫瑰和郁金香花束。至于各式各样的情人卡,更是比比皆是。

★ 2月18日 华盛顿诞辰日(Washington's Birthday, President’s Day)――好象总是周一放假(a federal holiday in the United States on the third Monday of February)

乔治·华盛顿作为美国的开国元勋和第一任总统而为美国人民永远纪念,其诞辰日2月22日是美国各州的法定假日。

1732年2月22日,华盛顿诞生于弗吉尼亚州。早年曾在英国殖民军中服役。1756~63年英法七年战争中因作战有功升为上校。1775~81 年独立战争期间,当选为大陆军总司令,率领殖民地人民浴血奋战,迫使英国于1783年正式承认美国独立。1789年,华盛顿当选美国第一任总统,连任两届。任期内为新生国家的巩固做出了巨大贡献。美国最高法院、国务院、财政部以及其他重要政府机构都是在华盛顿执政时设立的。1797年,华盛顿功成身退,为美国确立总统内阁制,废除世袭制起了决定性作用。1799年12月14日华盛顿病逝。

美国独立前,人们每年都要为英国国王庆祝诞辰。宣布独立后,美国人民转而庆祝华盛顿将军的生日。这一习惯始于1778年。当时华盛顿正率军坚守瓦利要塞,一支炮兵乐队在他生日之际为他演奏了小夜曲。现在华盛顿诞辰日已成为联邦各州的法定节日,届时各州都普遍举行隆重的公众仪式、盛大宴会等庆祝活动。美国人在这一天还喜欢吃樱桃馅饼,玩纸制小斧,这一习俗来源于华盛顿幼小时用斧砍坏樱桃树后向其父诚实认错的故事。

★ 3月17日 圣帕特里克节(St. Patrick's Day)

圣帕特里克节为3月17日,以纪念爱尔兰守护神圣帕特里克。这一节日5世纪末期起源于爱尔兰,美国从1737年3月17日开始庆祝。

公元432年,圣帕特里克受教皇派遣前往爱尔兰劝说爱尔兰人皈依基督教。他从威克洛上岸后,当地愤怒的异教徒企图用石头将他砸死。但圣帕特里克临危不惧,当即摘下一棵三叶苜蓿,形象地阐明了圣父、圣子、圣灵三位一体的教义。他雄辩的演说使爱尔兰人深受感动,接受了圣帕特里克主施的隆重洗礼。公元 493年3月17日,圣帕特里克逝世,爱尔兰人为了纪念他,将这一天定为圣帕特里克节。

1737年,一些爱尔兰绅士和商人们在美国马萨诸塞州波士顿聚会纪念圣帕特里克,并成立了爱尔兰慈善社团。1780年和1784年,费城和纽约先后成立了圣帕特里克友谊之子等团体,从此美国每年都庆祝这个节日。

美国的圣帕特里克节这一天,人们通常要举行游行、教堂礼拜和聚餐等活动。美国的爱尔兰人喜欢佩带三叶苜蓿,用爱尔兰的国旗颜色——绿黄两色装饰房间,身穿绿色衣服,并向宾客赠送三叶苜蓿饰物等。

★ 4月1日 愚人节(April Fools' Day)

4月1日是西方也是美国的民间传统节日——愚人节。愚人节起源于法国。1564年,法国首先采用新改革的纪年法,即目前的公历,以1月1日为一年之始。但一些因循守旧的人依然按照旧历固执地在4月1日这一天庆祝新年。主张改革的人对这些守旧者大加嘲弄。在4月 1日给他们送假礼品,邀请他们参加假招待会,并把上当受骗的保守分子称为“四月傻瓜”。从此人们每逢4月1日便互相愚弄,成为法国流行的习俗。18世纪初,愚人节习俗传到英国,接着又被英国的早期移民带到了美国。

愚人节,人们常常组织家庭聚会,用水仙花和雏菊把房间装饰一新。典型的传统做法是布置假环境,如把房间布置得像过新年一样,等客人到来时则祝他们“新年快乐”,令人感到别致有趣。

不过愚人节最典型的活动还是大家相互开玩笑,捉弄对方,比如,小孩子会告诉父母说自己的书包破了个洞,或者脸上有个黑点,等大人俯身来看时,他们就一边喊着“四月傻瓜”,一边笑着跑开去。

如今的愚人节在美国已主要是淘气的男孩子们的节日。

★ 4月***日 复活节(Easter)(一般指春分月圆后第一个星期日)

复活节是基督教纪念耶稣复活的一个宗教节日。每年,春分过去,第一次月圆后的第一个星期日就是复活节。日期年年不同,一般在3月22日至4月25日之间。

复活节有不少传统习惯,最典型的要数复活节彩蛋。古人常把蛋视为多子多孙和复活的象征。后来基督教徒又赋予蛋新的涵义,认为它是耶稣墓的象征,未来的生命就是从其中挣脱而出世的。复活节时人们把鸡蛋染成红色,代表耶稣受难时流出的鲜血,同时也象征复活后的快乐。还有一种古老的习俗,是把煮熟的鸡蛋送给街头的孩子们做游戏,他们把蛋往前滚,谁的蛋最后破,谁就获得胜利,蛋全归他所有。

兔子也是复活节的象征。因为兔子繁殖力很强,所以人们把它视为新生命的表现者。大人常绘声绘色地告诉孩子复活节彩蛋是兔子下的,并把彩蛋放在花园里,让孩子们玩找蛋游戏。

现在每逢复活节,美国大小糖果店总要出售用巧克力制成的复活节小兔和彩蛋。这些彩蛋小的和鸡蛋差不多,大的竟有甜瓜那么大,孩子们自然喜欢,送给亲戚朋友,也不失为上佳礼品。

★ 5月***日 植树节(Arbor Day)(五月的第二个星期五)――这个好象并非Holiday,不曾放过假

植树节是一个州定节日,没有全美统一规定的日期。但是每年4、5月间,美国各州都要组织植树节活动。例如,罗得岛州规定每年5月份的第二个星期五为植树节,并放假一天。其他各州有的是固定日期,有的临时决定日期。每当这一天到来,以学生为主的社会各界群众便组成浩浩荡荡的植树大军,投入植树活动。

植树节是由内布拉斯加州发起的。19世纪以前,内布拉斯加州是一片光秃秃的荒原,大风一起,满天黄沙,人民深受其苦。1872年,美国著名农学家莫尔顿提议在内布拉斯加州定立植树节,动员人民有计划地植树造林。当时州农业局通过决议采纳了这一提议,由州长规定每年4月份的第三个星期三为植树节。这一决定做出后,当年就植树上百万棵。此后的16年间,又先后植树6亿棵,终于使内布拉斯加州10万公顷的荒野变成了茂密的森林。为表彰莫尔顿的功绩,1885年州议会正式规定以莫尔顿的生日4月22日为每年的植树节,并放假一天。

★ 5月***日 母亲节(Mothers' Day)(五月的第二个星期日)

美国的母亲节始于1907年5月,要求定立母亲节这一倡议是费城安娜·贾维斯提出的。她曾亲自在教堂安排仪式,组织活动,要求前来参加者胸前佩带白色石竹花。这一活动引起了不少人的关注和兴趣,翌年便有更多的教堂纷纷组织同样的活动。人们一致决定将每年5月的第二个星期日定为母亲节。

1911年,庆祝母亲节的活动已经开展得非常广泛,不仅席卷美国各州,而且连加拿大、墨西哥和南美的一些国家也都开始庆祝这个节日。此后几年中,庆祝母亲节的热潮有增无已。1912年,美国专门成立了母亲节国际协会。1913年5月,美国众议院一致通过决议,号召总统及内阁、参众两院和联邦政府的所有官员一律在母亲节佩带白色石竹花。1914年,美国国会正式命名5月的第二个星期二为母亲节。紧接着,威尔逊总统昭告全国公民在自己的住宅上悬挂国旗以表达人们对美国全体母亲的热爱和尊敬。此后美国总统每年都要发表一篇内容相同的宣言。

在胸前佩带石竹花,颜色是有讲究的。初时一律为白色,后来则变成那些母亲已经去世的人佩带白色石竹花,而母亲仍然健在的人则佩带红色石竹花。这一天,人们总要想方设法使母亲愉快地度过节日,感谢她们一年的辛勤劳动。最普通的方式是向母亲赠送母亲节卡片或礼物,还有些家庭则由丈夫孩子们把全部家务活包揽下来。

★ 5月***日 阵亡将士纪念日(Memorial Day)(五月的最后一个星期一)

阵亡将士纪念日是美国大多数州都要纪念的节日,时间原为5月30日,1971年以后,为保证联邦雇员都能享有这一休息日,许多州将它改在5月的最后一个星期一。

美国南北战争中,无数将士在战火中阵亡。战争结束,南部许多家庭开始祭奠战争中阵亡的将士。他们不分南北双方,在春天向双方死者的墓地都奉献鲜花,北方人为此深受感动,将这一举动视为民族团结的象征。1868年,5月30日这一天被正式批准为向为保卫祖国而英勇牺牲的士兵们敬献鲜花的日子。

第一次世界大战后,人们开始在阵亡将士纪念日这一天祭奠所有的战争死难者,后来在民间又逐渐发展为一般家庭祭奠逝去的亲人。今天已成为一个普遍的祭扫日,同我国的清明节十分相似。

每逢阵亡将士纪念日,美国现役军人和老战士便排成长长的队伍前往墓地,鸣枪向阵亡将士致意,吹响军中熄灯号让死难将士安息。

★ 6月14日 国旗日(Flag Day)

国旗日是纪念美国大陆会议1777年6月14日通过了美国第一面正式国旗。目前,每逢是日,到处可见美国国旗迎风飘扬,全国各地都要举行纪念活动,以示对国旗的敬意。

美国第一次大规模的国旗纪念活动是1876年庆祝建国100周年时进行的。19世纪90年代,不少公立学校倡议每年在6月14日举行国旗纪念活动,很快得到了广泛的响应。1893年费城首先承认6月14日为国旗纪念日,1897年纽约州也承认了这一节日,并要求这一天各大建筑物上必须悬挂国旗。进入20世纪后,美国国旗协会再次发起纪念活动,国会为响应他们的倡议,于1949年正式确认6月14日为美国国旗日。

★ 6月***日 父亲节(Fathers' Day)(六月的第三个星期日)

人们在庆祝母亲节的同时,也没有忘记父亲的功绩。1909年就有人建议确定父亲节。据说第一个提出这种建议的是华盛顿的约翰·多德夫人。多德夫人的母亲早亡,其父独自一人承担起抚养教育孩子的重任,

把他们全部培养成人。1909年,多德夫人感念父亲养育之恩,准备为他举行活动,同时想到所有的父亲对家庭和社会的贡献,于是给当地一家教士协会写信,建议把6月的第三个星期日定为父亲节。该协会将建议提交会员讨论,获得了通过。1910年6月,人们便在此庆祝了第一个父亲节,当时,凡是父亲已故的人都佩带一朵白玫瑰,父亲在世的人则佩带红玫瑰。这种习俗一直流传至今。

开始时父亲节的日期在各地有所不同。而且有的地方用蒲公英作为父亲节的标志,有的地方则用衬有一片绿叶的白丁香作为父亲节的标志。1916年父亲节得到了美国第28任总统威尔逊的首肯,1924年美国第30任总统柯立芝建议将其定为全国性节日。1934年6月,美国国会统一规定6月的第三个星期日为父亲节。

★ 7月4日 独立日(Independence Day)

独立日即美国国庆节,日期为7月4日,以纪念1776年7月4日大陆会议通过《独立宣言》。

《独立宣言》由托马斯·杰佛逊起草,1776年7月4日由大陆会议主席约翰·汉寇克签字生效。《独立宣言》提出了一切人生而平等,具有追求幸福与自由的天赋权利,政府的权力来自人民;历数了英国对北美13州进行殖民统治的罪行;最后庄严宣告美利坚合众国脱离英国而独立。从此,通过《独立宣言》的这一天成为美国人民永远纪念的节日。

早期独立日的庆祝活动主要是游行和演讲,后来又增加了户外活动、体育比赛等项目。燃放爆竹、烟花的活动曾一度十分流行,20世纪后为防止发生火灾等危险而取消。

今天,独立日在美国是一个相当热闹的节日,每逢这一天,全美大大小小的教堂钟声齐鸣,首先敲响的是费城自由钟。各地居民自发地举行庆祝游行,各种彩车、小型乐队和欢乐的人群排成浩浩荡荡的队伍,景象十分壮观。

★ 9月***日 劳动节(Labor Day)(九月的第一个星期一)

劳动节是美国全国性节日,为9月的第一个星期一,放假一天,以示对劳工的尊重。

1882年,美国木工兄弟会主席彼得·麦奎尔首先提出设立一个劳动节。同年,美国劳动骑士团也通过同样的决定,并在纽约举行了庆祝游行。1884年,劳动骑士团进一步决定,每年劳动节都要举行游行等庆祝活动。

1887年2月,俄勒冈州第一个通过立法确定劳动节为法定节日,紧接着卡罗来纳、新泽西、纽约、马萨诸塞各州也通过了同样的立法,均把劳动节的日期定为9月的第一个星期一。1894年,美国国会正式宣布劳动节为全国性节日。

★ 10月12日 哥伦布日(Columbus Day)

哥伦布日为10月12日或10月的第二个星期一,以纪念哥伦布于1492年首次登上美洲大陆。

克里斯托弗·哥伦布是意大利航海家,出生于热那亚。1476年移居葡萄牙。他相信地圆说,认为自欧洲大西洋沿岸西行,可达东方。1492年10 月,哥伦布率船3艘,水手87人,横渡大西洋,到达巴哈马群岛中的圣萨尔瓦多岛,成为西方第一个发现美洲新大陆的人。1493、1498、1502年他先后三次航行到美洲大陆沿岸进行实地考察。但他至死都误认为他所到达的美洲大陆是印度,故称当地居民为“印第安人”。

哥伦布日是美国于1792年首先发起纪念的。当时正是哥伦布到达美洲300周年纪念日,纽约市坦慕尼协会发起举办了纪念活动。1893年,芝加哥举办哥伦布展览会,再次举办了盛大的纪念活动。从此,每年的这一天,美国大多数州都要举行庆祝游行,教堂礼拜和学校活动以纪念这个具有历史意义的日子。

★ 10月***日 退伍军人节(Veteran's Day)(十月的第四个星期一)

10月份的第四个星期一是退伍军人节。这是美国全国性节日,以向历次战争的退伍军人表示敬意。

退伍军人节是从原11月11日的第一次世界大战停战日演变而来的。1919年一战结束后,美国人每年都要照例举行庆祝活动。但是事过境迁,到 1953年,人们的庆祝热情已经明显减退。1954年6月1日,美国总统艾森豪威尔签署了一项国会法案,将停战纪念日更名为退伍军人节,将纪念的意义也扩大为向全体退伍军人表示敬意。从此每逢这一天,美国总统和各州州长都要宣布向全体美国退伍军人致敬,缅怀他们在战争期间的功绩。这一天,到处旗帜招展,退伍老兵纷纷集队游行。在华盛顿的阿林顿国家公墓无名战士墓前,人们还举行各种纪念活动,在美国人眼里,无名战士象征着所有为保卫国家而战死的军人。

1968年,美国国会通过了“星期日假日法”,将退伍军人节改在每年10月的第四个星期一,以使人们可以度过三天周末。这一立法从1971年开始生效,目前美国大多数州都采用这个日期纪念退伍军人节。

★ 11月1日 万圣节(Halloween)

11月1日万圣节是西方的传统节日。万圣节前夜,即10月31日夜晚,是儿童们纵情玩乐的好时候。它在孩子们眼中,是一个充满神秘色彩的节日。夜幕降临,孩子们便迫不及待地穿上五颜六色的化妆服,戴上千奇百怪的面具,提上一盏“杰克灯”跑出去玩。“杰克灯”的样子十分可爱,做法是将南瓜掏空,外面刻上笑眯眯的眼睛和大嘴巴,然后在瓜中插上一支蜡烛,把它点燃,人们在很远的地方便能看到这张憨态可掬的笑脸。

收拾停当后,一群群装扮成妖魔鬼怪的孩子手提“杰克灯”,跑到邻居家门前,威吓般地喊着:“要恶作剧还是给款待”、“给钱还是给吃的”。如果大人不用糖果、零钱款待他们,那些调皮的孩子就说到做到:好,你不款待,我就捉弄你。他们有时把人家的门把手涂上肥皂,有时把别人的猫涂上颜色。这些小恶作剧常令大人啼笑皆非。当然,大多数人家都非常乐于款待这些天真烂漫的小客人。所以万圣节前夜的孩子们总是肚子塞得饱饱的,口袋装得满满的。

为了保护儿童和对他们加以引导,美国的学校和家庭常在万圣节前夜为他们组织丰富多彩的晚会和娱乐活动。孩子们自己动手布置会场,装饰环境,然后装扮成女巫或海盗等模样表演各种节目或做游戏玩。万圣节前夜最流行的游戏是“咬苹果”。游戏时,人们让苹果漂浮在装满水的盆里,然后让孩子们在不用手的条件下用嘴去咬苹果,谁先咬到,谁就是优胜者。

★ 11月***日 感恩节(Thanksgiving Day)(十一月的最后一个星期四)

11月的第四个星期四是感恩节。感恩节是美国人民独创的一个古老节日,也是美国人合家欢聚的节日,因此美国人提起感恩节总是倍感亲切。

感恩节的由来要一直追溯到美国历史的发端。1620年,著名的“五月花”号船满载不堪忍受英国国内宗教迫害的清教徒102人到达美洲。1620年和1621 年之交的冬天,他们遇到了难以想象的困难,处在饥寒交迫之中,冬天过去时,活下来的移民只有50来人。这时,心地善良的印第安人给移民送来了生活必需品,还特地派人教他们怎样狩猎、捕鱼和种植玉米、南瓜。在印第安人的帮助下,移民们终于获得了丰收,在欢庆丰收的日子,按照宗教传统习俗,移民规定了感谢上帝的日子,并决定为感谢印第安人的真诚帮助,邀请他们一同庆祝节日。

在第一个感恩节的这一天,印第安人和移民欢聚一堂,他们在黎明时鸣放礼炮,列队走进一间用作教堂的屋子,虔诚地向上帝表达谢意,然后点起篝火举行盛大宴会。第二天和第三天又举行了摔交、赛跑、唱歌、跳舞等活动。第一个感恩节非常成功。其中许多庆祝方式流传了300多年,一直保留到今天。

初时感恩节没有固定日期,由各州临时决定,直到美国独立后,感恩节才成为全国性的节日。

每逢感恩节这一天,美国举国上下热闹非常,人们按照习俗前往教堂做感恩祈祷,城乡市镇到处都有化装游行、戏剧表演或体育比赛等。劳燕分飞了一年的亲人们也会从天南海北归来,一家人团团圆圆,品尝美味的感恩节火鸡。

感恩节的食品富有传统特色。火鸡是感恩节的传统主菜,通常是把火鸡肚子里塞上各种调料和拌好的食品,然后整只烤出,由男主人用刀切成薄片分给大家。此外,感恩节的传统食品还有甜山芋、玉蜀黍、南瓜饼、红莓苔子果酱等。

感恩节宴会后,人们有时会做些传统游戏,比如南瓜赛跑是比赛者用一把小勺推着南瓜跑,规则是不能用手碰南瓜,先到终点者获胜。比赛用的勺子越小,游戏就越有意思。

多少年来,庆祝感恩节的习俗代代相传,无论在岩石嶙峋的西海岸还是在风光旖旎的夏威夷,人们几乎在以同样的方式欢度感恩节,感恩节是不论何种信仰、何种民族的美国人都庆祝的传统节日。

★ 12月25日 圣诞节(Christmas)――大多数人会在圣诞与新年之间休一周的假,学校似乎圣诞前几天就放假,直到新年之后,大概10天到2周的时间放假;Daycare多数也在圣诞与新年之间放一周的假

12月25日圣诞节是美国最大最热闹的节日。可以说从感恩节过后,美国人就开始为圣诞节大忙特忙起来。

圣诞节的许多风俗都来源于《圣经》中的传说。根据耶稣诞生在夜里这种说法,圣诞节的庆祝活动从12月24日夜间开始,午夜时分达到高潮,这一夜就被称为圣诞夜。美国人通常通宵达旦地举行庆祝或。他们有的聚在酒馆、舞厅、俱乐部中尽情欢乐;有的全家共进丰盛的晚餐,然后围坐在壁炉旁享受天伦之乐;还有那些虔诚的信徒们则在灯火通明的教堂里,参加纪念耶稣诞生的午夜礼拜。

圣诞夜里最有趣的活动要数“报佳音”,象征天使在伯利恒郊外向牧羊人报告基督降生的喜讯。深夜来临,教堂里的唱诗班挨家挨户地来到教徒家门前齐声唱起圣诞颂歌。于是这家人便走出来加入合唱。唱罢,主人把大家邀入屋中,以茶点招待。说笑一番后,唱诗班再到别人家去唱,主人一家也往往随同前去,“报佳音”的队伍愈来愈大,他们一家家地唱,欢乐的气氛有增无减,常常持续到天明。

圣诞节里最典型的装饰是圣诞树,人们会在小杉树或小松树上挂满礼物和彩灯,树顶再装一颗大星。这些装饰都是有象征意义的,树上的彩灯象征耶稣给世界带来光明,树顶的大星则代表耶稣降生后将三位东方贤士引到伯利恒的那颗星。除了圣诞树,冬青和榭寄生也是圣诞节里常见的点缀。美国人常常用冬青树枝编成花环挂在大门上,或是将几枝冬青摆放在餐桌上作为节日的装饰。还有一些家庭会在门框或天花板上悬挂一束榭寄生,按照传统习俗,圣诞节时,凡是女子站在榭寄生下面,任何人都可以去亲吻她。顽皮的男孩子常常故意把女孩子引到榭寄生下,理直气壮地吻她一下。

圣诞节在美国如此受人重视,人们恐怕很难想象,他们的祖先曾经禁止过圣诞节。当年英国清教徒受尽英国国教的迫害,千里迢迢来到新大陆,他们对英国国教的倒行逆施深恶痛绝,以至发展到凡是国教所实行的,他们都加以反对,对圣诞节的庆祝也因此严加禁止。他们规定,凡移民中有人胆敢庆祝圣诞节者,必须罚款。这条禁令一直到19世纪德国及爱尔兰移民大量移入美国后才逐渐解除。今天圣诞节已成为美国人民最喜爱的节日之一,这段往事也成为一件历史趣闻了。

――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――
Federal holidays in the United States

● January 1 New Year's Day
Celebrates beginning of the Gregorian calendar year. Festivities often include countdowns to midnight (12:00 AM) on the preceding evening.
Third Monday in January Birthday of Martin Luther King, Jr. Honors Martin Luther King, Jr., Civil Rights leader; combined with other holidays in several states (King's birthday was January 15)

● Third Monday of January MLK Day

Also commonly called Martin Luther King Day, or MLK Day for short, this federal holiday celebrates the birth of Martin Luther King Jr. Though King was born on January 15th, the holiday is held on the third Monday in January each year. It was Ronald Regan who signed the law in 1983 to make King’s birthday a national holiday, however it wasn’t observed as a holiday until 1986. Even then not all states celebrated the holiday officially until the year 2000.

That is because Martin Luther King Day was met by opposition and controversy from the very beginning. Many states were reluctant to accept the federal holiday under that name and even those who voted in the designation of the holiday didn’t like the fact that it was a national holiday for a private citizen. Many states observed the holiday only under different designations, such as Civil Rights Day, and sometimes in connection with other holidays.

The initial opposition to naming Martin Luther King Day a federal holiday finally did come to an end after petition to Congress was began. The petition was signed by more than 6 million U.S. citizens showing that the American people were favor of honoring the Civil Rights leader.

● January 20, every fourth year, following Presidential election
Inauguration Day Swearing-in of President of the United States and other elected federal officials. Observed only by federal government employees in Washington, D.C., and certain counties and cities of Maryland and Virginia, in order to relieve congestion that occurs with this major event. Note: Takes place on January 21 if the 20th is a Sunday (although the President still takes the oath of office on the 20th).

● Third Monday in February Washington's Birthday
Honors George Washington. Often popularly, but erroneously, observed as "Presidents Day" in recognition of other American presidents, such as Abraham Lincoln (who was born February 12). The legal name of the federal holiday, however, remains "Washington's Birthday". (It was historically observed on February 22, prior to passage of the Uniform Monday Holiday Act by Congress)

● Last Monday in May Memorial Day
Also known as "Decoration Day", Memorial Day originated in the nineteenth century as a day to remember the soldiers who gave their lives in the American Civil War by decorating their graves with flowers. Later, the practice of decorating graves came to include members of one's own family, whether they saw military service or not. Memorial Day is traditionally the beginning of the summer recreational season in America. (It was historically observed on May 30, prior to the Uniform Monday Holiday Act)

● July 4 Independence Day
Celebrates the signing of the Declaration of Independence. Also known as "the Fourth of July".

● First Monday in September Labor Day
Celebrates achievements of workers and the labor movement. Labor Day traditionally marks the end of the summer recreational season in America. The following day often marks the beginning of autumn classes in primary and secondary schools.

● Second Monday in October Columbus Day
Celebrated since 1792 in New York City, honors Christopher Columbus, who landed in the Americas on October 12, 1492. In some areas it is also a celebration of Italian-American culture and heritage. Congress and President Franklin Delano Roosevelt set aside Columbus Day in 1934 as a Federal holiday at the behest of the Knights of Columbus (historically observed on October 12, prior to the Uniform Monday Holiday Act)

● November 11 Veterans Day
Also known as Armistice Day, and (although rarely in the US) occasionally called "Remembrance Day", 'Veterans Day' is the American name for the international holiday which commemorates the signing of the Armistice ending World War I. In the United States, the holiday honors all veterans of the United States Armed Forces, whether or not they have served in a conflict; but it especially honors the surviving veterans of World War I, World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War. The American holiday was briefly moved to the final Monday in October under the Uniform Monday Holiday Act, but the change was greatly disliked and soundly criticized - among other reasons, because it put Veterans Day out of sync with international observance; so it was restored to November 11.

● Fourth Thursday in November Thanksgiving Day
Americans have a Turkey dinner such as the dinner shared by Native American Indians and the Pilgrims at Plymouth, Massachusetts. Historically, Thanksgiving was observed on various days, although by the 1930s it was observed on the last Thursday of November. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt fixed it on the fourth Thursday of November, at the request of numerous powerful American merchants. (Many Americans also receive the Friday following Thanksgiving Day off work, and so many people begin their Christmas shopping on that Friday. In years when November had five Thursdays instead of the more common four Thursdays, this week of delay could cause a substantial decrease in Christmas-related revenue for merchants.)

● December 25 Christmas Day
A Christian holiday that celebrates the birth of Jesus Christ. Popular aspects of the holiday include decorations, emphasis on family togetherness, and gift giving. Designated a federal holiday by Congress and President Ulysses S. Grant in 1870.

――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――
美国州名的来源

地名志或地名研究(Toponymy)属于语言学范畴。语言学家对地名的来源作了相当的研究。美国内务部曾汇集了一批能干的语言学家,成立了专门机构,其任务是对美国的地名来源进行研究,给以准确的解释。
在美国的地名中,一半以上始源于印第安语。其余的始源于欧洲,如纪念皇帝皇后,或某一特殊地区,还有是为纪念重要人物及记载活动的。
由于语言和是休戚相关的,人们通过研究地名的始源,可以了解关于这个国家的背景。活动,甚至价值观。
我们从不同的资料汇集了美国洲名的来源,供学习研究英语、美国与的人们参考。

ALABAMA(阿拉巴马):
来源于巧克陶印第安语,意思是 "thicket-clearers" 或者 "vegetation-gatherers","拓荒者"或者"打草人"。

AlASKA(阿拉斯加):
来源于阿留申语,意思是"at land"或"that which the seas breaks against","伟大的土地"或"分割海的地方"。

ARIZONA(亚利桑那):
来源于印第安语"Arimnac",意思是"hule spring","小泉水"。

ARKANSAS(阿肯色):
来源于印第安语,意思是"a breeze near the ground","靠近地面的微风"。

CALIFORNIA(加利福尼亚):
来源于法语"Califerne",是一部11世纪法国史中所想象的地方。

COLORADO(科罗拉多):
来源于西班牙语,意思是"ruddy"或"red","红色的"。

CONNETICUT(康涅狄格):
来源于印第安语,意思是"beside the long tidal river", "在长长的潮河旁"。

DELAWARE(德拉华):
纪念托马斯·魏斯特爵士"Sir Thomas West, Lord De La Warr",德拉华河和德拉华湾也以此命名。

FRORIDA(佛罗里达):
来源于西班牙语,意思是"feast flowers(Easter)","花的节日",即复活节。

GEORGIA(乔治亚):
纪念英国的乔治二世皇帝。In honor of George II of England.

HAWAII(夏威夷):
来源不确定。这个群岛可能是以其发现者夏威夷·罗亚(Hawaii Loa) 命名,也可能以传统的波利尼西亚人的家乡Hawaii or Hawaiki命名。

IDAHO(爱达荷):
来源于印第安语,意思是:"gem of the mountains", "山中的宝石";另一种说法的意思是"Good morning""早上好"。

ILLINOIS(伊利诺):
来源于印第安语加上法语后缀,意思是"tribe of superior men","贵人的土地"。

INDIANA(印第安纳):
来源于印第安语,意思是:"land of Indians","印第安人的土地"。

IOWA(依阿华):
来源于印第安语,意思是"the beatiful land","这块美丽的地方",另一种说法是"the sleepy ones","爱睡觉的人们"。

KANSAS(堪萨斯):
来源于苏族印第安语,意思是"people of the south wind", "南风的人们"。

KENTUCKY(肯塔基):
来源于易洛魁印第安语"Ken-tah-ten",意思是"land of tomorrow"or"the dark or bolldy ground","希望的土地",或"黑色的沃上"。

LOUISIANA(路易斯安那):
纪念法国路易十四世皇帝,"In honor of Louis XIV fo France".

MAINE(缅因):
纪念英国查理一世皇后海丽塔·玛丽亚,"Henrietta Maria, Queen fo Charles I of England"据说她拥有过法国的缅因省,"The province of Mayne in France"

MARYLAND(马里兰):
纪念英国查理一世皇后海丽塔·玛丽"In honor of Henrietta Maria, Queen of Charles I of England".

MASSACHUSETTS(麻萨诸塞):
来源于印第安语,意思是"at mountain place","伟大的山地"。
MICHIGAN(密执安):
来源于印第安语,意思是"at lake"or"big water","大湖"。

MINNESOTA(明尼苏达):
来源于达科他印第安语,意思是"sky-tinted water","天色的水域"。

MISSISSIPPI(密西西比):
来源于印第安语,意思是"father of waters","水之父"。

MISSOURI(密苏里):
来源于印第安语, 意思是"town of the Large canoes","大独木舟之乡"。

MONTANA(蒙大拿):
由J.M. 阿西从拉丁词典中选的词,是拉丁化的西班牙语,意思不详。

NEBRASKA(内布拉斯加):
来源于澳托印第安语,意思是"flat water","平川之水"。

NEVADA(内华达):
来源于西班牙语,意思是"snow- capped","雪山"。

NEW HAMPSHIRE(新罕布什尔):
来源于英国的罕布什尔郡,"Hampshire"。

NEW JERSEY(新泽西):
来源于海峡的泽西岛,"the Channel Isle of Jersey"。

NEW MEXICO(新墨西哥):
来源于墨西哥,"the country of Mexico"。

NEW YORK(纽约):
纪念英国的约克公爵,"In honor of the English Duke of York"。

NORTH CAROLINA(北卡罗来纳):
纪念英国的查理一世,"In honor of Charles I of England".

NORTH DAKOTA(北达科他):
来源于达科他印第安语,意思是"allies"or"leagued","同盟"或"联盟"。

OHIO(俄亥俄):
来源于印第安语,意思是"at river","大河"。

OKLAHOMA(俄克拉荷马):
来源于巧克陶印第安语,意思是"red people","红种人"。

OREGON(俄勒冈):
来源不明。人们一般认为这个名字第一次在1778年由乔那森·卡佛(Jonathan Carver)使用,取自于英国军官罗伯特·罗杰斯(Robert Rogers)之书。

PENNSYLVANIA(宾夕法尼亚):
纪念维廉·宾爵士"Sir William Penn”,意思是"penn's Woodland","宾的树林"。

RHODE ISLAND(罗德岛):
来源于希腊的罗德岛,"the ek Island of Rhodes"。

SOUTH CAROLINA(南卡罗来纳):
纪念英国的查理一世皇帝,"In honor of Charles I of England"。

SOUTH DAKOTA(南达科他):
同北达科他。

TENNESSEE(田纳西):
来源于柴罗基印第安语,意思是:"the vines of the big bend","大弯的蔓藤"。

TEXAS(德克萨斯):
来源于印第安语,意思是"friends","朋友"。

UTAH(犹他):
来源于犹特印第安语,意思是"people of the mountains","山里人"。

VERMONT(佛蒙特):
来源于法语"vert mont",意思是"en mountain","绿山"。

VIRGINIA(佛吉尼亚):
纪念伊丽莎白一世英国圣洁女皇,"In honor of Elizabeth I,'Virgin Queen' of England"。

WASHINGTON(华盛顿):
纪念乔治·华盛顿,"In honor of George Washington"。

WEST VIRGINIA(西佛吉尼亚):
同佛吉尼亚。

WISCONSIN(威斯康辛):
法语化的印第安语,意思不详。

WYOMING(怀俄明):
德拉华印第安语,意思是"mountains and valleys alternating","起伏的山谷"。

――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――
美国各州中英文名称及简称

Alabama 亚拉巴马州 -AL
Alaska阿拉斯加州 -AK
Arizona亚利桑那州 -AZ
Arkansas阿肯色州 -AR
California加利福尼亚州 -CA
Colorado科罗拉多州 -CO
Connecticut康涅狄格州 -CT
Delaware特拉华州 -DE
Florida佛罗里达州 -FL
Georgia佐治亚州 -GA
Hawaii夏威夷 -HI
Idaho爱达荷州 -ID
Illinois伊利诺伊州 -IL
Indiana印第安纳州 -IN
Iowa艾奥瓦(衣阿华)州 -IA
Kansas堪萨斯州 -KS
Louisiana路易斯安那州 -LA
Maine缅因州 -ME
Massachusetts马萨诸塞州(麻省)-MA
Maryland马里兰州 -MD
Michigan密歇根(密执安)州 -MI
Minnesota明尼苏达州 -MN
Mississippi密西西比州 -MS
Missouri密苏里州 -MO
Montana蒙大拿州 -MT
Nevada内华达州 -NV
New Hampshire新罕布什尔州 -NH
New Jersey新泽西州 -NJ
New Mexico新墨西哥州 -NM
New York纽约州 -NY
North Carolina北卡罗来州 -NC
North Dakota北达科他州 -ND
Ohio俄亥俄州 -OH
Oklahoma俄克拉荷马州 -OK
Oregon俄勒冈州 -OR
Pennsylvania宾夕法尼亚州 -PA
Rhode Island 罗得岛 -RI
South Carolina南卡罗来州 -SC
South Dakota南达科他州 -SD
Tennessee田纳西州 -TN
Texas德克萨斯州 -TX
Utah犹他州 -UT
Vermont佛蒙特州 -VT
Virginia弗吉尼亚州 -VA
Washington华盛顿州 -WA
West Virginia西弗吉尼亚州 -WV
Wisconsin威斯康星州 -WI
Wyoming怀俄明州 –WY

――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――

[上一篇] [下一篇] [发表评论] [写信问候] [收藏] [举报] 
 
暂无评论
 
用户名: 密码:
发表评论
评论:
[返回顶部] [刷新]  [给home99写信]  [梦使宝贝@缘聚天涯首页] [博客首页] [BBS 未名空间站]
 
Site Map - Contact Us - Terms and Conditions - Privacy Policy

版权所有BBS 未名空间站(mitbbs.com) since 1996