Baby comes into the birth canal face first.
A protein in the blood that promotes clotting of the blood by accelerating the activation of prothrombin to thrombin. Activated factor V is inactivated by activated protein C.
【Factor V Leiden Mutation (activated protein C resistance) 】凝血因子V莱顿突变（活化蛋白C抵抗）
A genetic mutation in the factor V gene that makes the activated factor V protein resistant to inactivation by protein C. The increased activity of factor V in the blood leads to a higher risk of forming a blood clot (thrombophilia) . The factor V Leiden mutation has a prevalence of 5?% in the general population.
Factor V Leiden mutation in the mother has been associated with an increased the risk of early first trimester recurrent pregnancy loss and stillbirths.
【failure to thrive】发育不良，发育停滞
A term which refers to the slow growth and development of a baby, characterised by failure to gain weight, delayed development, unwillingness to interact, and gastrointestinal problems. Failure to thrive is almost always the result of inadequate nutrition.
There are two fallopian tubes, one each side of the uterus, that lead from the area of the ovaries into the uterine cavity. When an ovary releases an egg, the nearest fallopian tube draws it in and transports it down to the uterus.
Tightening of uterus without dilatation of the cervix.
【Fasting blood sugar】空腹血糖
Blood test to evaluate the amount of sugar in the blood following a time period of fasting.
spontaneous contractions and relaxations of the muscles brought about by a high temperature】
【Femur length (FL) 】股骨长度
The distance from end to end of the thigh bone (the longest bone in the body). The distance is measured by sonogram along the femur shaft (diaphysis) and should NOT include the DFE (distal femoral epiphysis) a secondary bone forming center.
To obtain the appropriate plane for measurement of the FL align the ultrasound beam perpendicular the bone.
Conception or fertilization is the moment when sperm and egg meet, join and form a single cell. It usually takes place in the Fallopian tubes. The fertilized egg then travels into the uterus, where it implants in the lining before developing into an embryo and then a fetus.
Dating a pregnancy from the time of fertilization. 2 weeks earlier than the gestational age.
An obstetrician/gynaecologist who specialises in treating people with fertility problems.
【fetal alcohol syndrome】胎儿酒精综合症
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) involves physical and mental birth defects caused by a baby's mother drinking large amounts of alcohol during pregnancy.
Fetal malformation or abnormal development.
Signs of fetal distress - including slowed heartbeat or absence of fetal movement - are watched for throughout labor. If a fetus's life is believed to be in danger, usually because of lack of oxygen, the immediate delivery of the baby is called for.
【Fetal fibronectin (fFN) 】胎儿纤连蛋白
Fetal fibronectin (fFN) is a glycoprotein that acts like "glue" holding the fetal sac to the uterine lining during pregnancy. It can normally be found in the cervicovaginal secretions of women up to 22 weeks of gestation. However, the presence of fetal fibronectin in cervicovaginal secretions between 24 and 34 completed weeks of gestation is reported to be associated with preterm delivery.
Pregnant women between 24 weeks, 0 days and 34 weeks, 6 days gestation with signs and symptoms of early preterm labor, intact amniotic membranes and minimal cervical dilation (<3cm) may be tested for the presence of fetal fibronectin by swabbing secretions from the posterior fornix (the vaginal area under the cervix) . The test is reported as positive or negative.
The probability that a pregnant woman will deliver prematurely after a positive test is only 40 to 60 percent. However, if the test is negative there is a 99.5 percent chance the pregnant woman will NOT deliver within seven days and a 92 percent chance that she will NOT deliver before 37 weeks. The test is, therefore, much more valuable for predicting who is unlikely to deliver.
Enlargement of the thyroid in the fetus.
【Fetal-growth retardation (IUGR)】宫内生长迟缓
Inadequate growth of the fetus during the last stages of pregnancy.
The transfer of oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the baby and the transfer of waste from the baby to the mother.
The device used to track a fetus's heartbeat and a woman's uterine contractions during labor.
Tracking the heartbeat of a fetus and a woman's uterine contractions during labor.
Fetal movement refers to motion of a fetus caused by its own muscle activity. Locomotor activity begins during the late embryological stage, and changes in nature throughout development. Muscles begin to move as soon as they are innervated. These first movements are not reflexive, but arise from self-generated nerve impulses originating in the spinal cord. As the nervous system matures, muscles can move in response to stimuli.
Generally speaking, fetal motility can be classified as either elicited or spontaneous, and spontaneous movements may be triggered by either the spine or the brain. Whether a movement is supraspinally determined can be inferred by comparison to movements of an anencephalic fetus.
Time period following the embryonic period (first 10 weeks of gestation) until birth.
This describes the position of the baby - such as feet down (breech) or head down (vertex) - inside a woman's uterus. About 96 per cent of babies present in the vertex position; some who initially present in breech position turn before delivery begins.
【Fetal viability 】胎儿生活力
The capacity for sustained survival outside the uterus as determined by the judgment of the responsible attending physician.
The Textbook of Neonatal Resuscitation, 4th edition, advocates that no resuscitation of newborns less than 23 weeks gestational age and/or 400 g birth weight is appropriate . Newborns with malformations incompatible with life such as renal agenesis, anencephaly, trisomy 13 , or trisomy 18 are not considered viable regardless of the gestational age.
1. American Academy of Pediatrics. Special considerations. In: Braner D, Kattwinkel J, Denson S, Zaichkin J, eds. Textbook of Neonatal Resuscitation. 4th ed. Elk Grove Village, IL: 2000:7-9
【Fetal Warfarin Syndrome】胎儿华法林综合征
A group of birth defects associated with exposure of the developing fetus to warfarin (Coumadin? an oral anticoagulant used to prevent blood clots. The defects include nasal hypoplasia, stippled epiphyses, limb deformities, mental retardation, and seizures. Hall et al. (1980) placed the critical period for warfarin effects on the fetus as 6 to 9 weeks following conception.
Hall JG , et al. Maternal and fetal sequelae of anticoagulation during pregnancy.Am J Med. 1980 ;68:122-40. PMID: 6985765
In this antenatal diagnostic procedure, a doctor inserts a laparoscope (a small viewing instrument) through a small incision in a pregnant woman's abdomen and uterine wall to look for any abnormalities in the fetus. The procedure carries a 5% risk of miscarriage or premature labor.
The name given to a growing baby after eight weeks of development; before eight weeks, the developing baby is called an embryo.
Fever occurs when body temperature rises above its normal level - usually defined as 98.6 degrees F/37 degrees C, although this varies by individual and time of day. A fever is a sign of the immune system at work and usually indicates an infection.
【Fibroid (leiomyoma, myoma) 】纤维瘤（平滑肌瘤，肌瘤），子宫纤维瘤，子宫肌瘤（hysteromyoma，uterine myoma）
A non-cancerous (benign) growth of fibrous tissue and muscle fibers. Fibroids are often found in the uterus, and occur in about 30% of women over the age of 30.
【fifth disease(erythema infectiosum)】第五级疾病（传染性红斑）
Slapped cheek disease (erythema infectiosum) is also known as fifth disease because it was the last of five "red rash" childhood diseases to be defined after scarlet fever, measles, rubella, and roseola. It is characterised by fever and red cheeks.
【fine motor skills】精细动作技能，精细运动
The muscle control required to make small, precise movements, such as picking up a raisin or pushing a button.
A B-complex vitamin which is essential for creating new blood cells, folic acid has been shown to reduce the incidence of neural tube defects such as spina bifida (incomplete closure of the spine) and anencephaly (partially or completely missing brain). It is recommended that all women trying to conceive should take a supplement of folic acid; good natural sources include liver, beans, and leafy green vegetables.
【follicle stimulating hormone(FSH)】促卵胞激素，促卵胞生成激素，卵胞刺激素[促性腺激素]
A hormone (a chemical) produced by the pituitary gland in the brain that stimulates the growth of eggs in the ovaries and the production of sperm in the testes.
An elevated FSH suggests partial or complete ovarian failure.
Each month several of these small, egg-containing cavities develop on the ovary of an ovulating woman. Each cavity contains a single immature egg; ovulation occurs when a follicle (or sometimes more than one) ruptures and releases an egg.
A membranous gap between the bones of the developing skull.
The newborn normally has six fontanels the anterior, posterior, two mastoid, and two sphenoid fontanels. The most prominent fontanel is the diamond-shaped anterior fontanel which is closed in 96 percent of infants by 24 months of age.
Fontanelles are soft spots on a baby's head which, during birth, enable the soft bony plates of the skull to flex, allowing the head to pass through the birth canal. Fontanelles are usually completely hardened by a child's second birthday.
Instrument used to help remove baby from the birth canal during delivery.
A delivery in which a hinged, tong-like instrument (called a forceps) is used to ease the baby's head through the birth canal.
The flap of skin which normally covers the head of the penis; it is removed when a baby is circumcised.
An alternative to breastmilk, the baby formulas used in bottle-feeding are usually milk-based but can also be made from soya products.
【Fragile X Syndrome (Martin-Bell syndrome)】脆[性]X综合征（Martin-Bell综合征），遗传性智力障碍的最常见的一种形式
A disorder affecting males and females characterized by mental retardation. Males , large ears and jaws, macroorchidism in males (see illustration). In the U.S. fragile X syndrome affects approximately 1 in 4000 males and 1 in 8000 females and is a common cause of autistic-like behaviors.
Fragile X syndrome is caused by an expansion mutation that prevents the normal expression of the the Fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene located on the X chromosome.
Near the beginning of the (FMR1) gene there is normally a series of repeating nucleotide DNA bases Cytosine, Guanine, Guanine (CGG). Usually there are about 30 repeats of CGG. However some individuals have from 55 to 200 CGG repeats (the pre-mutation) which have a predilection to expand further as the gene is passed from one generation to the next through the mother. The pre-mutation does not usually expand in size when passed from father to daughter. Persons with the full mutation have more than 200 of the CGG repeats and show symptoms of fragile X syndrome.
A positive family history in a proband with developmental delay should prompt consideration of genetic testing of the FMR1 gene. The American College of Medical Genetics recommends testing for all males and females with mental retardation of unknown etiology.
Baby presenting buttocks first. Legs are flexed and knees extended.
【fraternal twins(dizygotic twins)】异卵双生，异卵双胞胎（二卵双生）
Born at the same time but resulting from the fertilisation of two different eggs, fraternal twins are no more genetically similar than siblings; identical twins result from the division of one fertilised egg and are genetically identical.
A baby is considered full-term if born between 38 and 42 weeks' gestation.
The distance from the top of the pubic bone to the top of the pregnant uterus (fundus) in centimeters. The measurement is used to approximate fetal age and growth.
The measurement in centimeters gives an estimate of the gestational age in weeks from 16 to 38 weeks (+/- 3 centimeters). The measurement may not coincide with the gestational age if there is a growth disturbance , large fibroids, or abnormalities of the amniotic fluid.
The upper, rounded portion of the uterus.
【gamete intra-fallopian transfer】配子输卵管内移植，输卵管内配子转移技术
GIFT is an assisted conception treatment similar to IVF which involves removing eggs from a woman's ovaries, mixing them with sperm, and transferring them to the Fallopian tubes, allowing fertilisation to take place within the woman's body.
An opening beside the umbilical cord that allows bowel to protrude outside of the abdomen. Gastroschisis is thought to arise from disruption of blood flow to the affected abdominal wall.
Gastroschisis occurs with an incidence of 1:10,000 births, and for unclear reasons is seen more frequently in younger mothers. The defect is also seen more frequently in mothers who use vasoactive substances such as nicotine and cocaine. The recurrence risk of 3% to 5% suggests a complex mode of inheritance. Cases of a familial pattern of inheritance have been reported.
Although gastroschisis is not associated with an increased rate of chromosomal abnormalities intestinal malrotation, atresia, volvulus, and infarction may complicate the condition. The prognosis is generally favorable with survival rates between 77% and 100% Gastroschisis is associated with intrauterine fetal growth restriction , preterm delivery, and stillbirth .
An experimental procedure to treat genetic disorders by inserting healthy genes into the body to replace damaged ones.
A doctor who treats patients of all ages and either sex and can care for the whole family.
This form of counseling helps prospective parents to evaluate their risks of having a child with congenital abnormalities, and to understand their options for testing and treatment.
A disease or condition which originates in the genes.
The DNA that is passed from parents to children.
Any test used to find genetic abnormalities.
【Genital herpes simplex】生殖器单纯疱疹
Herpes simplex infection involving the genital area. It can be significant during pregnancy because of the danger to a newborn fetus infected with herpes simplex.
The external sex organs: the penis and testicles in a male and the labia in a female.
Defects or problems involving genital organs and the bladder or kidneys.
The period of time a baby is carried in the uterus; full-term gestation is between 38 and 42 weeks (counted from the first day of the last menstrual period).
The age of the fetus while in the uterus, counted from the first day of the last menstrual period.
Occurrence or worsening of diabetes during pregnancy (gestation).
【gestational diabetes mellitus(GDM)】妊娠糖尿病，妊娠合并糖尿病
Carbohydrate intolerance with onset or first recognition during pregnancy.
A fasting plasma glucose level >126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/l) or a casual plasma glucose >200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/l) meets the threshold for the diagnosis of diabetes, if confirmed on a subsequent day, and precludes the need for any glucose challenge. In the absence of this degree of hyperglycemia patients may be evaluated using a 1 hour 50 gram oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) as screening test, or proceed directly to a diagnostic 3 hour 100 gram OGTT.
Gestational diabetes increases the risk of maternal hypertensive disorders, cesarean delivery, fetal macrosomia, neonatal hypoglycemia, jaundice, polycythemia, and hypocalcemia. In addition, fasting hyperglycemia may be associated with an increase in the risk of intrauterine fetal death during the last 4? weeks of gestation.
【Gestational trophoblastic disease (GTN)】妊娠性滋养层细胞病
Abnormal pregnancy with cystic growth of the placenta. Characterized by bleeding during early and middle pregnancy.
A viral illness characterized by severe fatigue, swollen glands, sore throat, and fever.
Blood test done to evaluate the body's response to sugar.
Glucose in the urine.
This is often the result of an ear infection, where fluid is left in the middle ear. It can lead to partial deafness. If it doesn't clear by itself, a child might be advised to have grommets fitted. These are tiny tubes which help to clear the fluid.
Coeliac disease or gluten-sensitive enteropathy is an inherited disease caused by an allergic reaction to gluten, a protein found in wheat, rye, and barley. The immune system attacks the lining of the intestines in response to the allergy. This common disease, if left untreated, can leave the intestine unable to absorb essential nutrients and vitamins leading to anaemia, bone disease and, rarely, forms of cancer.
Contagious venereal infection, transmitted primarily by intercourse. Caused by the bacteria Neisseria gonorrhea.
Softening of the cervix seen as early as probable sign of pregnancy. Goodell's sign may be observed as early as six weeks of pregnancy.
【Grand mal seizure】癫痫大发作
loss of control of body functions. Seizure activity of a major form.
This reflex is seen when a newborn baby grabs at an object, such as a finger, when it touches her hand. Her hold may be strong enough for you to pull her to a sitting position. The reflex lasts until a baby is three or four months old.
The medical term for a pregnant woman.
Grommets are tiny ventilation tubes which may be surgically inserted into the ear drum to relieve chronic ear infections, in an operation known as tympanotomy or tympanostomy.
【gross motor skills】肢体动作技能，粗大动作技巧
The ability to make movements which use the large muscles in the arms, legs, and torso - such as running and jumping.
【Group-B streptococcal infection，GBS】B族链球菌感染
Serious infection occurring in the mother's vagina and throat.
An adult who has been given legal responsibility for a minor in place of the biological parents.
A doctor who specialises in women's reproductive health.
Prominent, rounded elevation found on the surface of the brain tissue.
Occurrence of three or more spontaneous miscarriages.
【haemolytic（Hemolytic）disease of the newborn（HDN）】新生儿溶血病
Also called Rhesus disease or erythroblastosis, haemolytic disease results when a woman who is Rh-negative (meaning she does not carry the Rhesus protein in her blood) has a fetus who is Rh-positive and her immune system makes antibodies against the fetus's blood. The disorder is treated with a compound which prevents the woman's immune system from making antibodies.
Anemia in a newborn infant caused by the destruction of red blood cells. In severe cases jaundice, pallor, an enlarged spleen, or hydrops may be present. The condition is usually caused by an incompatibility between the blood types of the mother and her infant. Antibodies to the following blood groups have been implicated in the development of hemolytic disease of the newborn:
●Rh: D , E , c, C, Cw , e
●Kell: K1 , Kpa, k , Jsa ,Jsb
●MNS: M, S,s, N
A genetic blood disorder characterized by prolonged bleeding and sometimes excessive bleeding., almost always in males, in which blood does not clot properly as a result of an enzyme deficiency.
There may be bleeding into joints, gastrointestinal tract, and urinary tract. On laboratory the activated partial thromboplastin (PTT) time is prolonged. However, the prothrombin time (PT) and bleeding time are normal.
Hemophilia A and hemophilia B (Christmas disease) account for most cases of hemophilia. Hemophilia A is caused by a lack of the blood clotting protein factor VIII, and hemophilia B is caused by a lack of the blood clotting protein factor IX. Hemophilia A is 7 times more common than hemophilia B. Both diseases are caused by a defective gene located on the X chromosome.
Since the male contributes the X chromosome to form female and the Y chromosome to form male offspring, all the daughters of a male affected with hemophilia will be carriers of the defective gene. The daughters of a hemophiliac male will pass the gene to 50% of their male offspring who in turn will have hemophilia.
For the newborn at risk for hemophilia it is best to avoid fetal scalp electrodes, forceps, and vacuum extraction. The pediatrician should be notified of the baby's possible hemophilia. Circumcision, if desired, should be delayed as well as intramuscular injections until coagulation studies are completed and the diagnosis of hemophilia is either established or ruled out.
Haemorrhoids are swollen blood vessels in the anus. They are caused by increased blood volume and pressure from the uterus on the veins in the legs and pelvis, and are common during pregnancy. Constipation can also cause (or compound) the problem.
The preference for using one hand over the other. Most people are right-handed, about 10% are left-handed, and others, who don't favour a hand, are ambidextrous.
A health visitor is a registered nurse with qualifications in obstetrics and midwifery, who visits new mothers and babies at home.
Discomfort or pain that occurs in the chest. Often occurs after eating.
Softening of the lower uterine segment just above the cervix seen as a probable sign of pregnancy. Originally described by the German gynecologist Ernst Ludwig Alfred Hegar; Hegar's sign may be observed as early as six weeks of pregnancy.
HELLP is an acronym that describes the syndrome of :
H Hemolysis; EL elevated liver enzymes; LP, low platelets.
HELLP syndrome usually presents in the third trimester with right upper quadrant or epigastric pain, nausea, and vomiting. HELLP syndrome is considered to be a variant of preeclampsia. However, unlike preeclampsia hypertension and proteinuria do not need to be present for the diagnose HELLP syndrome. HELLP syndrome occurs in approximately 0.2 to 0.6 percent of all pregnancies. The cause of HELLP syndrome is unknown.
Strict criteria for the diagnosis of HELLP syndrome:
●Hemolysis (characteristic peripheral blood smear) and serum lactate dehydrogenase levels >600 U/L
●Serum aspartate aminotransferase levels >70 U/L
●Platelet count <100,000/mul.
Complications of HELLP syndrome include abruption, disseminated intravascular coagulation, adult respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary edema, hepatorenal failure, subcapsular hematoma, and hepatic rupture.
Partial HELLP syndrome is also recognized where only one or two features of HELLP syndrome are present.
Determines the proportion of blood cells to plasma. Important in diagnosing anemia.
Pigment in red blood cell that carries oxygen to body tissues.
Destruction of red blood cells.
Dilated blood vessels in the rectum or rectal canal.
A blood-borne virus (for which there is a vaccine) which primarily affects the liver and, like HIV, has few or no symptoms immediately after infection. It can be passed from mother to child during pregnancy, and can cause cirrhosis, chronic active hepatitis, and liver cancer.
A double-stranded DNA virus in the Hepadnaviridae family. Sexual transmission accounts for most adult HBV infections in the United States. 10-20% of women seropositive for HBsAg transmit the virus to their neonates in the absence of immunoprophylaxis. In women who are seropositive for both HBsAg and HBeAg vertical transmission is approximately 90% . In patients with acute hepatitis B vertical transmission occurs in up to 10% of neonates when infection occurs in the first trimester and in 80 -90% of neonates when acute infection occurs in the third trimester. Chronic infection occurs in about 90% of infected infants, 60% of infected children aged <5 years , and 2%-6% of adults.
The incubation period from time of exposure to onset of symptoms is 6 weeks to 6 months. About one half of acute HBV infections are symptomatic in adults with 1% of cases resulting in acute liver failure and death. Acutely infected individuals develop loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, fever, abdominal pain and jaundice.
Among persons with chronic HBV infection, the risk of death from cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma is 15%-25%.
HBV infection does not appear to cause birth defects. However, there appears to be a higher incidence of low birth weight and prematurity among infants born to mothers with acute infection during pregnancy.
【hepatitis B vaccine】乙肝疫苗
The vaccine against hepatitis B, a virus which primarily affects the liver.
【Hepatitis C virus (HCV)】丙型肝炎病毒
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a single-stranded RNA virus in the Flaviviridae family. Injecting-drug use currently accounts for 60% of HCV transmission in the United States. Blood transfusion, is an uncommon cause of recently acquired infections . Sexual transmission of HCV appears to be inefficient relative to hepatitis B virus (HBV). Transmission between sexual partners of persons with chronic HCV infection with no other risk factors for infection is about 5% (range, 0% to 15%) Household contact with an infected person has been associated with a nonsexual transmission rate of 4% (range, 0% to 11%). Approximately 7-8% of hepatitis C virus-positive women transmit hepatitis C virus to their offspring with a higher rate of transmission seen in women coinfected with HIV .
The average time to seroconversion after exposure to HCV is 8 to 9 weeks. Acutely infected individuals may develop clinically apparent hepatitis with loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, fever, abdominal pain and jaundice. 60%-70% of patients with acute HCV infection are asymptomatic.
Acute HCV infection progresses to chronic HCV infection in most persons (75%--85%). Cirrhosis develops in 10%-20% of persons with chronic hepatitis C and hepatocellular carcinoma in 1%-5%.. In one small study acute maternal hepatitis appears to have no effect on the incidence of congenital malformations, stillbirths, abortions, or intrauterine malnutrition. However, acute hepatitis may increase the incidence of prematurity. Pregnancy does not appear to be adversely affected by chronic HCV.
Herbal medicine uses plants or plant extracts (typically the whole plant or herb is used for the greatest effect) to treat conditions. Herbalists, like many other complementary therapists, treat the whole person and look for underlying problems, rather than specific symptoms.
Most common in the abdominal wall, a hernia is a bulge of tissue caused by a weak area or tear in the muscle through which tissue protrudes. In babies, hernias are most common in boys or premature infants, and are treated with surgery.
A vaccine given to protect against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), a serious bacterial infection which causes ear and airway infections and is the leading cause of meningitis in children under two years of age.
This term describes those babies who have a greater likelihood of developing an illness or dying within the first few months of life. High-risk babies include those born to mothers infected with HIV or to mothers who have a drug or alcohol dependency.
A pregnancy with a higher than normal risk of developing complications. Such pregnancies include those with multiple fetuses or Rhesus incompatibility, or when the mother has had problems with miscarriage, premature labor, or placenta praevia in earlier pregnancies.
Homeopathy uses highly diluted preparations which correspond to symptoms, clinical signs and pathological states. Homeopathy is based on the theory of similars - that symptoms can be cured with a small dose of that substance which causes the symptom.
An amino acid produced during the chemical breakdown of the essential amino acid methionine into cysteine. Homocysteine is also used by the body to regenerate methionine.
Elevated homocysteine levels have been associated with neural tube defects, congenital heart defects, recurrent miscarriage, coronary heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease.
A chemical messenger from one cell (or group of cells) to another. Hormones are produced to stimulate or slow down various body functions. The levels of some hormones increase ten-fold during pregnancy.
A telephone number providing direct access to a company or agency for information, advice, and referrals.
【human chorionic gonadotrophin(HCG)】人绒毛膜促性腺激素
This hormone is produced by the placenta and triggers the release of oestrogen and progesterone. As it is excreted in urine, hCG is used in testing to detect pregnancy.
【human growth hormone】人生长激素
The hormone secreted by the pituitary gland which stimulates and regulates growth.
【Human placental lactogen】人胎盘催乳激素，胎盘催乳激素
Hormone of pregnancy produced by the placenta. Found in the bloodstream.
【Hyaline membrane disease】透明膜病
Respiratory disease of the newborn.
Increased amniotic fluid.
【Hydrocephaly (hydrocephalus, water on the brain) 】脑积水（脑水肿）
Enlargement of the spaces within the brain (ventricles ) caused by excessive fluid (cerebrospinal fluid). The excessive fluid may cause enlargement of the infant's head.
The abnormally increased fluid may be the result of increased production of fluid, but more commonly is caused by obstruction of fluid flow between the different spaces in the brain. Hydrocephaly has been associated with aqueductal stenosis, spina bifida, X-linked hydrocephalus, Arnold-Chiari malformation , Dandy-Walker malformation, tumors, subarachnoid hemorrhage, infections (CMV and toxoplasmosis) , and chromosome abnormalities ( 8,9,13,15,18,21).
Hydrocephalus is a relatively rare condition caused by swelling of the fluid-filled cavities in the brain (called ventricles). It is also called "water on the brain". It is sometimes the first sign of spina bifida or can be caused by a tumor or surgery to close an open spinal column.
Enlargement of the renal pelvis (the part of the kidney that collects urine) to greater than 10 mm. Renal pelvis dilation of 4 to 10 mm in anterioposterior diameter is commonly referred to as fetal pyelectasis. The figure at right shows a normal kidney compared to a kidney with minimal hydronephrosis. Dilatation of the urinary tract is detected in utero in 1 per 100 pregnancies. However, only 1 in 500 cases results in significant pathology.
Hydronephrosis is usually caused by a blockage of the flow of urine along the urinary tract.
Upper urinary tract obstruction is the most common cause of hydronephrosis and may be the result of ureteropelvic junction (UPJ) obstruction, ureteral reflux, or ureterovesical junction. Less common causes of hydronephrosis include posterior urethral valves, urethral atresia, ectopic ureteroceles, duplication of the collecting system, megacystis-microcolon-intestinal-hypoperistalsis syndrome, and cloacal malformation.
A thin membrane which covers the opening of the vagina.
Extremely high level of bilirubin in the blood.
Severe nausea, dehydration and vomiting during pregnancy. Occurs most frequently during the first trimester.
Increased blood sugar.
Pregnancy-induced-high blood pressure that occurs during pregnancy. Defined by an increase in the diastolic and/or systolic blood pressure.
Elevation of the thyroid hormone in the bloodstream.
Abnormally low blood sugar levels. Symptoms in adults (which may indicate diabetes) include jitteriness, rapid breathing, and lethargy. In newborns, hypoglycaemia can be caused by prematurity or being small for gestational age; it can also indicate infection, asphyxia, or congenital heart disease.
Defective or incomplete development or formation of tissue.
A birth abnormality in which a boy's urethra, through which urine and semen pass, opens on the underside of the penis rather than at the end. It is almost always correctable with surgery.
Low blood pressure.
Low or inadequate levels of thyroid hormone in the bloodstream.
Limp, slack muscles in a baby.
Surgical removal of the uterus.
A test used to evaluate the health and patency of the uterus and Fallopian tubes. Dye is injected into the uterus and an X-ray is taken. A hysterosalpingogram can locate blockages or tumours which may be treated with surgery or medication.
A procedure in which a doctor uses an endoscope to examine the health of the uterus.
【identical twins(monozygotic twins)】单卵双胎（单卵孪生）
Two offspring born at the same time who look exactly alike. Identical twins are also called monozygotic twins because they develop from the same egg: a single fertilized egg splits early in development and becomes two separate fetuses. Identical twins account for about 30% of naturally occurring twins in the United States.
【Immune globulin preparation】免疫球蛋白制剂
Substance used to protect against infection with certain diseases, such as hepatitis or measles.
The network of cells and organs which defends the body against infections and foreign invaders.
Natural immunity provided by antibodies or induced immunity via inoculations.
The ability to resist a disease because the body produces antibodies to it.
Implantation occurs when a fertilised egg attaches itself to the lining of the uterus.
【in loco parentis】〈拉〉代替父母
This is Latin for "in place of a parent", referring to the rights and duties of a guardian or organization with regard to a child.
【in utero surgery】宫内手术
This is surgery to correct an abnormality in a developing fetus, carried out while the fetus is still in the uterus.
【in vitro fertilisation】体外受精
IVF is an assisted conception treatment in which eggs and sperm are mixed in a petri dish in a laboratory in the hope that the eggs will be fertilised. Up to three developing embryos can then be transferred to the woman's uterus with the aim of achieving pregnancy. "In vitro" is Latin for "in glass", and refers to the glass dish in which fertilisation takes place.
Miscarriage in which part, but not all, of the uterine contents are expelled.
"Incompetent" means that the cervix is not able to function properly. It generally means that the muscles of the cervix are too weak to hold a baby in the uterus throughout pregnancy. A stitch may be placed at the opening of the cervix to keep it together.
The inability to control one's bladder or bowels. Incontinence is a common, temporary postnatal symptom which may be helped by pelvic floor exercises.
Time during which a virus or bacteria develops in the body before symptoms appear】
A box-like apparatus in which premature babies are kept at a constant and suitable temperature.
Pregnancy complicated with bleeding and cramping. Usually results in miscarriage.
A child under one year of age.
The death of a baby during the first year of life.
The inability to conceive or carry a child to term.
Injections are used to put medicine into the body via a syringe and a needle.
Peptide hormone made by the pancreas. It promotes the use of glucose.
【intensive care unit】加护病房，重症监护病房
A department of a hospital where an individual can be constantly and closely monitored. Also sometimes called the Intensive Therapy Unit.
【intracytoplasmic sperm injection（ICSI）】卵胞浆内单精子注射
An assisted conception treatment, undertaken as part of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment, in which a single sperm is injected directly into the cytoplasm of an egg to achieve fertilisation.
Care for a pregnant woman throughout labor.
【Intrauterine fetal death】宫内胎死
A fetus with a crown-rump length more than 15 mm long without cardiac activity.
A birth control method in which a small plastic or metal device is placed in a woman's uterus to prevent implantation of a fertilised egg.
【intrauterine growth retardation】宫内发育迟缓，宫内生长迟滞
The slow growth of a fetus in the uterus, possibly resulting in a low-birthweight baby.
Bleeding into the ventricles of the brain, common in premature babies.
Medical tests which involve gaining entry into the body via a needle, tube, or hand.
【Invasive squamous-cell carcinoma】外阴鳞状细胞浸润癌
Cancer of the cervix that extends beyond the cervix into surrounding tissues or deeper layers.
A chromosomal rearrangement in which a segment of the chromosome breaks away from the chromosome and re-inserts into the chromosome 180 degrees relative to its previous orientation.
An inversion in which the breakpoints occur on both arms of a chromosome. The inverted segment includes the centromere
( the constricted portion of the chromosome).
Inversion of chromosome 3 or 8 has been associated with an increased risk for abnormal offspring . Pericentric inversion of chromosome 9 appears to be a normal variant in humans, and occurs in approximately one percent of the population. Inversion of chromosome 9 does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of miscarriage or abnormal offspring. ●Paracentric inversion
An inversion in which the breakpoints occur on one arm of a chromosome. The inverted segment does NOT include the centromere
( the constricted portion of the chromosome). Because paracentric inversions do not change the arm ratio of the chromosome they are difficult to detect on routine chromosome analysis.
The risk of abnormal children for persons who have a paracentric inversion on one chromosome is low but increases with the finding of recurrent abortions or abnormal children or both in other carriers in the family.
A mineral which works with protein in the body to make haemoglobin, essential for the blood.
Anemia produced by lack of iron in the diet. Often seen in pregnancy.
A chromosome with two identical arms due to abnormal division of the chromosome in the transverse plane instead of longitudinally.
Development of specific antibody directed at the red blood cells of another individual, such as a baby in utero. Often occurs when an Rh-negative woman carries an Rh-positive baby or is given Rh-positive blood.
Similar to an incubator】
Jaundice can bring a yellow tinge to a newborn's skin; it is caused by too much bilirubin in the blood. Newborn jaundice usually begins on the second or third day of life and starts disappearing when the baby is 7-10 days old. It is sometimes corrected by special light treatment but it is harmless and soon passes.
Yellowing of the skin, eyes, and membranes caused by too much bilirubin in the blood. Bilirubin is a yellowish pigment produced from the breakdown of red blood cells. Bilirubin is removed from the body largely by the liver. The mild jaundice that commonly occurs between the 2nd and 5th day of life in newborns is called physiological jaundice and is due to the newborn's immature liver function.
A picture of an individual's chromosomes. The 23 pairs of chromosomes are organized according to size, location of the centromere, and the pattern of bands on each chromosome. See picture
【Kegel exercises (pelvic floor muscle exercises) 】凯格尔运动（骨盆底肌肉运动）
An exercise performed to improve bladder control developed by Dr Arnold Kegel. The exercises are carried out by repeatedly tightening and releasing the pubococcygeal and levator ani muscles pelvic muscles (those muscles used to stop the flow of urine).
【Kell blood group】Kell血型
Classification of blood cells based on the presence of Kell antigens on the surface of an individual's red blood cells. The Kell antigens include Kell or K1 , Kpa, k , Jsa ,Jsb .
A condition characterized by athetoid cerebral palsy, hearing loss, vision abnormalities, and dental problems. Kernicterus is caused by very high levels of bilirubin in the newborn.
Breakdown product of metabolism found in the blood, particularly in starvation or uncontrolled diabetes.
【kidney and urological disorders】肾脏和泌尿系统疾病
The kidneys are the organs in the body which filter away waste and produce urine. "Urological" refers to the urinary system; disorders range from urinary tract infections to renal failure.
Small mass or lesion found in the kidney or urinary tract. Can block the flow of urine.
Severe curving of the spine which produces a hump on the upper back.
Process of expelling a fetus from the uterus.
The folds of skin at the opening of the vagina consisting of large outer folds called the labia majora and inner folds called the labia minora.
The process of childbirth, from the dilation of the cervix to the delivery of the baby and the placenta.
Regular contractions of the uterus that cause dilation and thinning (effacement) of the cervix leading to the delivery of the infant.
Labor is divided into three stages. The graph (Friedman curve) at right illustrates the expected rate of cervical dilation and duration of each stage of labor in a woman who has never given birth (nulliparous woman).
●The First Stage
The first stage of labor is characterized by dilatation of the cervix with descent of the fetal head into the pelvis. The first stage of labor is divided into a latent phase (early labor) and an active phase (active labor).
The latent phase (latent labor) begins when the mother feels regular uterine contractions accompanied by slow cervical dilation. Latent labor may last up to 20 hours in women who have never given birth to a child, and 14 hours in women who have given birth to a child in the past. Latent labor ends when the cervix is about 3 to 4 centimeters.
The active phase (active labor) begins when the cervix is dilated to 3 to 4 cm in the presence of uterine contractions. During the active phase uterine contractions become more frequent, the cervix dilates more quickly, and the baby descends into the pelvis.
As the mother transitions from the end of the first stage of labor to the beginning of the second stage of labor her contractions may become more frequent and intense. During transition the mother may experience shaking, shivering, nausea, and vomiting. The active phase ends when the cervix has completely dilated to 10 centimeters.
●The Second Stage
The second stage of pregnancy begins when the cervix is fully dilated. The mother will usually feel a strong pressure in her rectum and an urge to push. As the infant's scalp becomes visible the mother will also feel burning and stinging. Loss of bowel or bladder control during the second stage is common. The second stage ends with delivery of the infant.
The second stage usually lasts up to 2 hours in nulliparous women and 1 hour in multiparous women. The "normal" second stage may last up to one hour longer in women who have received regional anesthesia (an epidural).
●The Third Stage
The third stage begins with delivery of the infant and ends with expulsion of the placenta. The third stage may last up to 30 minutes.
The labor suite is where a woman goes through labor and delivers her baby. If the mother is staying in hospital, she will then be transferred to a postnatal ward.
【Laceration (Tear) 】撕裂，裂口
A cut or tear in tissues. Spontaneous lacerations of the perineum (the area between the vagina and anus) may occur as a result of childbirth. Perineal lacerations are classified by degree.
●First-degree: The laceration is limited to the perineal skin and/or vaginal mucosa.
●Second degree: The laceration involves the perineal skin and/or vaginal mucosa, and extends through the underlying fascia and muscles. It does not involve the rectal sphincter.
●Third degree: The laceration involves the perineal skin and/or vaginal mucosa, and extends through the underlying fascia and muscles.The laceration involves the anal sphincter.
●Fourth degree: The laceration involves the perineal skin and/or vaginal mucosa, and extends through the underlying fascia , muscles, and anal sphincter . The laceration extends through the rectal mucosa.
The production and excretion of milk by the breast.
A digestive disorder; the body is unable to break down milk sugar.
【Lamaze (Lamaze method) 】拉梅兹（拉玛泽）心理助产法
A method of childbirth preparation using behavioral techniques to reduce pain and anxiety in labor developed by the obstetrician Ferdinand Lamaze (1891-1957).
When laid face down, a 3- to 12-month-old baby will arch his back and raise his head.
Downy-like, fine hair on a fetus. Lanugo can appear as early as 15 weeks of gestation, and typically begins to disappear sometime before birth.
A surgical procedure in which a flexible tube is inserted through an incision in the abdomen to view internal organs. A laparoscopy is frequently used to check for potential causes of infertility.
Minor surgical procedure performed for tubal ligation, diagnosis of pelvic pain or diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy.
To "latch on" to the breast, a baby needs to open his mouth wide. When a baby latches on to the breast successfully, he will be feeding from the breast and not just the nipple. It should not hurt when your baby feeds, although you may experience a strong sensation of sucking.
【Late deceleration】 晚期减速
A gradual decrease in the fetal heart rate with onset of deceleration to nadir >30 seconds. The nadir of the deceleration occurs after the peak of the contraction
Late decelerations are believed to be caused by low oxygen blood levels in the fetus which causes constriction of peripheral blood vessels in order to divert blood to vital organs. Constriction of peripheral blood vessels leads to hypertension which stimulates a baroreceptor mediated vagal response resulting in a decreased heart rate.
Any decrease in uterine blood flow or placental dysfunction can cause late decelerations.
【lead poisoning】 铅中毒
This occurs when lead is ingested in the body and damages organs.
【learning disabilities】 学习障碍， 学习不良
A person with learning disabilities is characterised by slower than normal or limited intellectual and emotional development.
【leg cramps】 腿痛性痉挛， 小腿抽筋
Leg cramps occur most often in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, when the calf muscle cramps up. The exact cause is unknown but may be related to insufficient calcium in the diet.
【legal parent】 法定父母
The parent who has legal charge and control of a child.
【Lemon Sign】 柠檬征
Narrowing of the frontal bones of the skull giving the fetal head the shape of a lemon. Most commonly seen with Arnold-Chiair II malformation and open spina bifida early in gestation.
The lemon sign is not specific for open spina bifida and may be seen in 1% of normal fetuses.
【Leopold's maneuvers】 利奥波德氏(产科)手法（四步触诊法）
4 specific steps in palpating the uterus through the abdomen in order to determine the lie and presentation of the fetus.
Let-down is the release of milk in a breastfeeding mother as a response to the suckling of her baby. About 50% of women feel this as a tingling or warm sensation in the breast.
Leukaemia is a type of cancer of the blood where the white blood cells take over in the bone marrow. It is generally diagnosed in children aged between one and 14 years and is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths in children.
Vaginal discharge characterized by a white or yellowish colour. Primarily composed of mucus.
【lice】 (louse的复数) 虱
Lice are tiny parasitic insects that feed on blood and are highly contagious through direct contact. Head lice are the most common.
【L&D (L and D) 】 阵痛和分娩， 接生房
Labor and Delivery.
【Lie】产式，胎位 （fetal lie，胎产式，即胎体纵轴与母体纵轴的关系； longitudinal lie, 纵产式）
The longitudinal axis of the fetus in relation to the mother's longitudinal axis (i.e., longitudinal would be parallel to the mother).
【lightening (dropping, engagement)】 胎儿下降感（入盆）
This occurs when a fetus positions itself lower in the pelvic cavity during the last few weeks of pregnancy.
【linea nigra】 黑线，黑中线
A dark line which may develop during pregnancy, running from below the breasts, over the abdomen and the navel. It often fades after delivery but doesn't always disappear entirely.
【liver and liver problems】
The liver is the organ responsible for producing key proteins and other chemicals which regulate the chemistry of the blood. Potential liver problems range from hepatitis to jaundice.
Last menstrual period. Refers to date of onset of the last menstrual period.
Left occiput anterior. Describes the position of the fetal occiput as being to the left side of the maternal birth canal (position) and anterior in relation to the mother's pelvis (variety).
This is the term used to refer to the vaginal discharge of mucus, blood, and tissue, which may continue for up to six weeks after delivery.
【lordosis】 脊柱前弯症， 脊柱前凸
Severe curvature of the lower spine.
【low birth weight】 低出生体重，出生低体重
A term used to describe a full-term baby who weighs less than 5.5 pounds/3 kilograms at birth.
【Low-lying placenta】低置胎盘， 胎盘低置
Most sources define a low lying placenta as being present when the lower edge of the placenta is within 2 centimeters (cm) of the internal cervical opening but is not bordering it.
However, some investigators have proposed that the term placenta previa be used for all placentas with the lower edge within 2 cm from the cervical opening since such patients have been found to have a low chance of successful vaginal delivery in some studies.
It has also been proposed that the term low lying placenta be used if the placental edge is located farther than 2 cm but within 3.5 cm from the internal cervical opening. Patients diagnosed with a low lying placenta using the latter definition have a very good chance of having a successful vaginal delivery.
Patients with a low lying placenta appear to have an increased risk for vasa previa.
【lumbar puncture】 腰椎穿刺［术］
A procedure to draw spinal fluid from the spinal column to check for infections, tumours, and diseases such as meningitis.
【lupus erythematosus acutus】急性红斑狼疮
An autoimmune disease where the body mistakenly attacks the connective tissue in the body.
【luteal phase defect】 黄体期缺陷， 黄体功能不全
A luteal phase defect can refer to one of two problems with the luteal phase - the second part of the menstrual cycle, after ovulation has occurred. First, the phase itself may be too short (only ten days rather than the average 12 to 16), which does not give an embryo enough time to implant successfully. Second, progesterone production in this part of the cycle may be too low, meaning that the lining of the womb will not get thick enough for an embryo to implant before menstruation begins.
【luteinising hormone】 促黃体激素，促黃体生成激素
A hormone produced by the pituitary gland which stimulates other hormones of the reproductive system; it stimulates the development of the corpus luteum in women and testosterone in men.
【magnesium sulphate(Epsom salts)】 硫酸镁（艾普森盐，泻盐）
A naturally occurring mineral used to prevent and treat seizures in preeclampsia - eclampsia. Medication used to arrest premature labor.
Cancerous change of gestational trophoblastic disease.
【Mammogram】 乳房X线照片， 乳房造影
X-ray study of the breasts to identify normal and abnormal breasttissue.
An extreme case of malnutrition.
【Mask of pregnancy (melasma) 】 妊娠面斑（ 黄褐斑， 黑斑病）
See chloasma（ 妊娠斑 ）
Increased pigmentation over the area of the face under each eye. Commonly has the appearance of a butterfly.
An inflammation of the breast, which sometimes develops into an infection. Symptoms include fever, soreness, and swelling. It occurs in about one in 20 breastfeeding mothers at some time during lactation, most commonly between the tenth and 28th days postnatally.
Inflammation of the breast, usually caused by infection in a woman who is breast-feeding or has recently delivered. Signs of mastitis include painful, tender, red, swollen breasts, and fever. Breast engorgement, cracked or damaged skin around the nipple, and blocked milk ducts appear to predispose the new mother to mastitis. The condition is treated with antibiotics, and the mother may continue to breast feed while being treated.
【Mastodynia】 (乳房胀痛 乳房胀痛) 乳房胀痛
Mastodynia, mastalgia or mammalgia are names for a medical symptom that means breast pain (from the Greek masto-, breast and algos, pain).
Pain can range from minor discomfort to severely incapacitating pain. Many women are more worried about a possible cancer risk than about the pain.
Breast pain during lactation or after weaning is not included into this definition but usually classified as breast engorgement or mastitis.
【maternal deprivation syndrome】 母爱剥夺综合征，失母爱综合征
A condition in a baby who has been physically and emotionally deprived. Symptoms include failure to thrive and slow growth and development. It may occur in cases of severe postnatal depression or in other cases when a parent may be unavailable.
【maternal mortality】 母死率，产妇死亡率
The death of a mother immediately related to a pregnancy, either from the birth, a miscarriage, or an abortion.
【Maternal mortality ratio】 孕产妇死亡率
The number of maternal deaths directly or indirectly related to pregnancy per 100,000 live births in a given time period.
According to the ICD 9 " A maternal death is defined as the death of a woman while pregnant or within 42 days of the termination of pregnancy, irrespective of the duration and the site of the pregnancy, from any cause related to or aggravated by the pregnancy or its management but not from accidental or incidental causes."
Maternal deaths are further subdivided into two groups
●Direct obstetric deaths: those resulting from obstetric complications of the pregnant state (pregnancy, labor and puerperium); from interventions, omissions or incorrect treatment; or from a chain of events resulting from any of the above.
●Indirect obstetric deaths: those resulting from previous existing disease or disease that developed during pregnancy and that were not due to direct obstetric causes but were aggravated by the physiologic effects of pregnancy.
Some include both liveborn and stillborn infants in the denominator for less-developed areas.
The period of time from conception through to the first six weeks after the birth.
【maternity leave】 分娩假期，产假，分娩假
Paid or unpaid time off work after a mother has given birth or adopted a child.
Measles is a serious, infectious virus characterised by fever, small red spots, and cold-like symptoms. It can be prevented by the MMR vaccine.
【measles, mumps, rubella vaccine (MMR)】 麻腮风三联疫苗 (麻疹-流行性腮腺炎-风疹疫苗)
The MMR vaccine is used to prevent measles, mumps, and rubella. It is given to children between 12 and 15 months, with a booster between three and five years.
The dark, sticky substance released from a newborn's intestines into his first bowel movements. Meconium is composed of the bile secretions of the liver, intestinal glands, amniotic fluid, lipids, blood group substances and fetal skin cells. If visible in amniotic fluid prior to delivery, it can be a sign that the fetus is in distress.
【medical tests】 医学检验
These are procedures which enable medical experts to assess conditions in a patient. They range from non-invasive - listening to a heartbeat, for example - to invasive, such as injections or a spinal tap.
Pigmented mole or tumor. It may or may not be cancerous.
The sac or "bag of waters" filled with amniotic fluid in which the developing baby grows. The "membranes" which make up the sac may occasionally rupture naturally as labor begins, but usually remain intact until the end of the first stage of labor. The membranes may also be broken by a midwife or doctor to speed up labor.
A serious infection and inflammation of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. Meningitis may be caused by a virus or bacteria. Symptoms include high fevers, low energy, a stiff neck, headache and possible rash.
Congenital defect of the central nervous system of the baby. Membranes and the spinal cord protrude through an opening or defect in the vertebral column.
The regular growth and expulsion of the endometrium - the lining of the uterus - which occurs if no fertilised egg implants.
Regular or periodic discharge of a bloody fluid from the uterus.
【mental disorders】 精神障碍， 精神病
Dangerous, aggressive behaviour towards others, including non-communication, withdrawal, depression, and autistic, and psychotic tendencies.
【Mesodermal germ layer】中胚层
Tissue of the embryo that forms connective tissue, muscles, kidneys, ureters and other organs.
【metabolic disorders】 代谢性紊乱， 代谢病
These are genetic disorders which affect the way food is digested.
【Metaplasia】 组织转化， 转化，化生，组织变形
Change in the structure of a tissue into another type that is not normal for that tissue.
【metatarsus valgus】 跖骨外翻
Out-turning feet. This condition generally corrects itself.
In-turning feet; commonly known as "pigeon toed". This condition generally corrects itself but may need surgery in severe cases.
A small skull with small cranial capacity. Microcephaly usually indicates that a baby will have learning or developmental disabilities.
An abnormally small head (a head circumference of 3 standard deviations below the mean for the gestational age) usually associated with abnormal neurological findings and mental retardation. Microcephaly be caused by a chromosomal abnormality, a gene defect, an infection such as rubella, cytomegalovirus, or toxoplasmosis, exposure to drugs such as alcohol, aminopterin ,or hydantoin, or a maternal condition such as phenylketonuria (PKU).
Microcephaly occurring with no neurologic defect (other than mental deficiency) and no other malformation is called primary microcephaly and may be inheritable.
An abnormally small jaw (mandible).
Micrognathia may occur as an isolated finding or may be found in association with many syndromes including trisomy 18, Treacher-Collins syndrome, Pierre Robin syndrome, Russell-Silver syndrome , Seckel syndrome, Progeria, and Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome
A birth defect in which the arms or legs are abnormally short. Shortening of all the long bones (humerus, radius, ulna, femur, tibia, and fibula) of the extremities.
Micromelia is a characteristic of many forms of skeletal dysplasias including, thanatophoric dysplasia, homozygous achondroplasia, osteogenesis imperfecta Type II and III, achondrogenesis, diastrophic dysplasia, short rib polydactyly syndrome, Chondroectodermal dysplasia, Campomelic dysplasia, Kniest dysplasia, dyssegmental dysplasia, hypophosphatasia (perinatal lethal).
Abnormally small eyeballs.
Precise, delicate surgery, often performed to unblock Fallopian tubes or to reverse a vasectomy or tubal ligation.
The word literally means "with woman". Midwives provide care to women during pregnancy, labor, birth, and postnatally - usually for the first ten days, although this can be extended to 28 days if the new mother has particular needs. A Health Visitor then takes over care of the mother and baby.
There are three types of midwives practicing in the United States:
●Certified Nurse-Midwife (CNM)
Certified nurse midwives are registered nurses who are also trained in midwifery. They receive certification from the American College of Nurse Midwives.
●Certified Professional Midwife (CPM)
A certified professional midwife is trained in midwifery and has met the standards for certification set by the North American Registry of Midwives.
An uncertified or unlicensed midwife who was educated through informal routes rather than through a formal program.
【Milia (milk spots)】粟粒疹(milium的复数)（乳斑，乳色斑）
Tiny, harmless white spots or pimples on a newborn. They usually go away by themselves.
Tiny, 1 to 2 mm, white bumps (nodules) found on the face and nose of newborn infants. They also may be found on the mouth or roof of the mouth. Milia in the newborn are epidermoid cysts believed to occur in sebaceous glands that are not fully developed. The bumps usually disappear within a few weeks of delivery without treatment.
Essential elements in a diet needed to maintain health and well-being, including calcium, magnesium, potassium and so on.
【Miscarriage (spontaneous abortion, SAB)】流产（自然流产，自发性流产）
The involuntary expulsion of a fetus before the 24th week. After that, the loss of a pregnancy is called a stillbirth.
A pregnancy loss before 20 weeks' gestation calculated from the date of onset of the last menses. Spontaneous abortion occurring before 12 weeks' is called early abortion. Abortion occurring between 12 to 20 weeks' is called late abortion. Up to 20 % of all recognized pregnancies end in miscarriage with 80% occurring during the first trimester.
Symptoms of miscarriage include bleeding with or without cramping.
The risk of miscarriage recurring in a woman with no live births after one miscarriage appears to be approximately 13 %, after two prior miscarriages 25%, and after three miscarriages 50%. However, if she has had a least one live birth the risk having another miscarriage after 3 prior miscarriages is 30%.
Failed pregnancy without bleeding or cramping. Often diagnosed by ultrasound weeks or months after a pregnancy fails.
Pain that coincides with release of an egg from the ovary.
【Molding (moulding) 胎头变形
Abnormal shape of a baby’s head caused by pressure on the head during childbirth.
A large birth mark which looks light blue, usually on the lower body. It disappears or becomes less noticeable as the baby grows. They are more common in Asian and dark-skinned babies.
A bluish-gray birthmark over the lower back and rump of infants that may be mistaken for bruising. Mongolian spots are most commonly seen in infants of African, Asian, Hispanic, and Native American descent. The spots are believed to be caused by entrapment of the cells that produce skin pigment (melanocytes) in the the innermost layer of skin (dermis). They are harmless and most will have completely faded by the age five.
Infection caused by yeast or monilia. Usually affects the vagina and vulva.
One amniotic sac (bag of water)
The glands of Montgomery, or Montgomery's tubercles, are the tiny "bumps" that are scattered around the areola (the darker area which rings the nipple). During pregnancy these glands enlarge and they remain enlarged while breastfeeding. They can vary greatly in number, averaging between 4 and 28 per areola. Montgomery originally described these glands as "a constellation of miniature nipples scattered over a milky way."
It is believed that these sebaceous, or oil-producing glands, secrete a lubricating and protective substance, altering the skin's pH and discouraging bacterial growth (Williams 1992). These glands also secrete a small amount of milk (Lawrence 1995). This lubrications helps to keep the skin healthy and the areola elastic.
To preserve the antibacterial function of Montgomery's tubercles, rinsing with clear water while bathing is sufficient. Use of soap on the breasts is unnecessary and may remove these protective oils.
【Monozygotic twins (identical twins)】单卵孪生（同卵双胞胎）
Two separate embryos conceived from a single fertilized egg. Identical twins account for about 30% of naturally occurring twins in the United States.
In the first weeks of pregnancy, many women suffer food and smell aversions, nausea and occasional vomiting, especially in the morning. For many affected women, the discomfort lasts all day.
A pill (or pills) to prevent pregnancy, taken within hours of a woman having had unprotected intercourse.
If a newborn is startled by a sudden, loud noise, the Moro reflex will cause him to extend his arms, legs, and feet, arch his back and move his head back.
Cells resulting from the early division of the fertilized egg at the beginning of pregnancy.
Sometimes a baby who has a particular syndrome or disorder will have it in a mosaic form: some of the cells in the baby's body will have the extra genetic material which characterises the disorder, the others may be normal.
Motions carried out by the combination of the brain, nervous system, and muscles.
A wet layer of body tissue which lines internal parts of the body such as the nose and mouth】
【mucus plug(cervical mucus plug)】宫颈粘液栓
An accumulation of thick clear secretions in the cervical canal. A plug of mucus which blocks the cervix during pregnancy. It is often released with the onset of labor.
A woman who has been pregnant more than once regardless of whether she carried the pregnancy to term.
A woman who has given birth to a viable infant at least once before. A multiple gestation counts as a single birth.
A multiple birth occurs when more than one baby is delivered at the same time.
A multiple pregnancy is one in which there is more than one fetus in the womb.
MS is a neurological disease, chiefly of young adults, marked by speech disturbances, lack of muscular co-ordination, weakness, and numbness, caused by damaged patches in the brain and spinal cord. It varies in severity. No cure is available and the cause is unknown.
Mumps is a viral disease characterised by fever, headache, and inflammation of the salivary glands. It may lead to complications such as meningitis. The MMR vaccine can protect against mumps.
Muscular dystrophy is a disease of unknown origin which leads to progressive muscular deterioration and wasting, usually in childhood.
【Myelomeningocele (meningomyelocele , spina bifida cystica) 】脊髓脊膜突出(脊膜脊髓膨出，囊肿性脊柱裂)
A birth defect in which the spinal cord and the membranes covering the spinal cord (meninges) protrude through a cleft in the bones of the spine (veretebrae) usually in the lower back or tailbone (lumbosacral) region. Myelomeningocele is a form of spina bifida that typically results in paralysis and loss of sensation below the level of the spinal defect.
A mucus-filled cyst of the cervix.
A birthmark or mole on the skin, especially a raised red patch.
A general term for a labor and delivery which is free of medical intervention.
【natural family planning】安全期计划生育，自然家庭计划
Contraception without the aid of drugs or devices, based on the rhythm method, basal body temperature, or the cervical mucus (Billings) method.
The impression or scar left on the outside of the abdomen after the umbilical cord falls off.
A newborn's reflex to turn his trunk and shoulders to the same side his head is turned.
【Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC) 】坏死性小肠结肠炎
An inflammatory disease of the bowel (enterocolitis) usually seen in premature infants. Injured bowel may die (necrosis) and allow the intestinal contents to leak into the abdominal cavity causing severe infection which can be fatal.
Symptoms include lethargy (sluggishness) and feeding intolerance. The abdomen may appear swollen, and the infant will often pass bloody stools. Although the cause of NEC is unclear an infectious agent is suspected.
To do with the first four weeks after birth.
Medical care for newborns.
【neonatal intensive care unit(NICU, newborn intensive care unit)】新生儿重症监护治疗病房，新生儿特别护理病房
An intensive care unit which specialises in the care of premature, low-weight babies and seriously ill infants.
【neonatal screening tests】新生儿筛查
Initial tests on a newborn baby to determine any birth abnormalities or metabolic disorders.
A newborn infant until 28 days of age.
A physician who has completed specialty training in pediatrics and additional subspecialty training in the care of newborns that are ill or require special medical care
The internal network of nerves which registers and receives information and causes the body to take action.
【Neural-tube defect (NTD)】神经管缺损
A general term for birth defects caused by incomplete closure of the cylinder shaped structure, the neural tube, which gives rise to both the brain and spinal cord.
Closure of the neural tube occurs from the middle of the neural groove and progresses toward the ends of the tube. Closure of the end towards the head (cranial) occurs around day 24 and closure of end towards the lower end of the body (caudal) occurs about day 26.
Failure of the cranial end to close results in lack of a complete brain (anencephaly) . Failure of the caudal end to close results in an open spinal cord (spina bifida).
Neural tube defects usually cause elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein levels detectable in the mother's blood and may be seen using sonogram.
A doctor who specialises in treating and diagnosing disorders of the nervous system and brain.
The development of a child's control over gross and fine motor skills.
A doctor who specialises in surgery on the nervous system.
A general term that refers to a pigmented lesion of the skin for example a mole or birthmark.
Also known as vitamin B3. Niacin is a water soluble vitamin which cannot be stored by the body. Good sources include meat, flour, eggs and milk.
Flexible plastic covers which can be placed on the breast before feeding. Some women find they give temporary help for soreness but it is important long term to sort out the reason for the soreness. Check how well your baby is latched on to your breast. Nipple shields can cut down the amount of milk a baby takes at any one feed.
A test on the fetus which is done by measuring the fetal heart rate in response to his or her movements.
A method of testing fetal well-being. The study is performed by making a graphical recording of the fetal heart rate using an electronic monitor. The test is considered normal (reactive) if there are two or more fetal heart rate accelerations that peak (but do not necessarily remain) at least 15 beats per minute above the baseline and last 15 seconds from baseline to baseline within a 20-minute period with or without fetal movement discernible by the woman.
The nonstress test applies no stress to the mother or fetus. In contrast, the contraction stress test (CST) records the fetal heart rate in response to induced mild contractions of the uterus. The CST tests uteroplacental function whereas the NST tests the fetal condition.
Time-released birth control, administered through six tiny tubes which are implanted in a woman's upper arm. It remains effective for up five years.