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口腔护理与保健(上)
作者:home99
发表时间:2014-12-25
更新时间:2014-12-25
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大宝的baby teeth有好一阵子没什么动静了,最近好象有一颗开始松动,吃最喜爱的icecream也开始有些犹豫,说是怕不小心将baby tooth吞下去,呵呵;而小宝呢,这一年掉了好几颗小牙,刚开学那阵两颗大门牙都掉了,还笑她Christmas wish将是two front teeth呢,没想到很快就长起来了呢。早该给两个宝找牙医的,看来是尽早的事了。先将从网上收集的关于牙齿护理的一些常识(英汉对照)与JMs分享一下啊,呵呵。

●Knowing Your Teeth认识牙齿
●Oral Care Tips护齿秘诀
●Oral Care Products口腔护理用品

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Knowing Your Teeth认识牙齿

★Knowing Your Teeth─Tooth structure 认识牙齿─牙齿的结构
★Knowing Your Teeth─Shapes of teeth 认识牙齿─牙齿的形状
★Knowing Your Teeth─Types of Teeth 认识牙齿─牙齿的种类
★Knowing Your Teeth─Names of tooth surfaces 认识牙齿─牙面的名称
★Knowing Your Teeth─Functions of teeth 认识牙齿─牙齿的功用
★Knowing Your Teeth─Abnormal tooth structures 认识牙齿─异常的牙齿结构
★Knowing Your Teeth─The Occlusion 认识牙齿─牙齿的咬合

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Knowing Your Teeth─Tooth structure 认识牙齿─牙齿的结构

In our life time, we have two sets of teeth: deciduous teeth and permanent teeth. There are 20 deciduous teeth and 32 permanent teeth. Usually, dentine is slightly yellowish in colour. Since enamel in permanent teeth are more transparent than that of deciduous teeth, the colour of dentine shows through more easily in permanent teeth. Therefore, permanent teeth are usually more yellowish when compared to deciduous teeth. Since dentine thickens as we get older, our teeth may become more yellowish with age. 人的一生有两副牙齿:乳齿和恒齿。乳齿共有20只,恒齿共有32只。象牙质通常是微黄色的,由於恒齿的珐琅质较乳齿的透明,象牙质的颜色较易透出来,令恒齿看起来比较黄。年纪渐长,象牙质增厚,牙齿会变得更加黄。

A. Hard tissues 硬组织

Enamel 珐琅质
●The outermost layer of the crown. 牙冠的最外层
●Mainly consists of minerals (calcium, phosphorus, etc.) 主要由矿物质(钙、磷...等)所组成
●The hardest tissue of human body. 人体最坚硬的组织
●Generally transparent or milky white in color. 一般是透明或乳白色

Dentine 象牙质
●The second layer of the crown. 牙冠的第二层组织,被珐琅质覆盖
●Generally light yellow in color. Its color determines the overall color of the tooth. 一般是微黄色的,它的深或浅,会影响牙齿外观的颜色
●There are many microscopic tubules inside the dentine which connect to the pulp. 内有很多微细管道连接牙髓

Cementum 牙骨质
●A hard tissue covering the root surface of a tooth. 覆盖牙根表面的一层硬组织
●Connecting the periodontal membrane and dentine of the root of a tooth. 连接牙周膜和象牙质

B. Soft tissues 软组织

Pulp 牙髓
●The chamber inside a tooth. 牙齿的中腔部分
●Filled with blood vessels and nerve fibers. 满布血管和神经组织

C. Periodontal tissues 牙周组织

Gingivae 牙龈
●Also known as "gum". 俗称牙肉
●A layer of soft tissue covering the surface of alveolar bone. 一层软组织,覆盖牙槽骨表面
●Healthy gingivae is pink in color. 健康的牙龈呈粉红色

Periodontal membrane 牙周膜
●A layer of fibrous tissue. 一层纤维组织
●Connecting cementum and alveolar bone. 连接牙骨质和牙槽骨
●A buffer for teeth to sustain pressure from chewing to avoid damages to the teeth. 牙齿的缓冲器,能承受日常咀嚼的外力,避免牙齿受伤

Alveolar bone  牙槽骨
Bony tissue surrounding a tooth for its support. 包围着牙齿的骨骼组织,支撑牙齿

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Knowing Your Teeth─Shapes of teeth认识牙齿─牙齿的形状

Name      Shape                Function
名称      形状                        功用
Incisor       Chisel shape            Chopping food
门牙      凿形e                       切开食物
Canine       Sharp、pointy            Tearing food
犬齿      锥形、较尖锐                    撕开食物
Premolar     The occlusal surface is wide and uneven.   Grinding food
(Does not exist in   Diamond shape with pits and fissures on it.
deciduous teeth)
小臼齿     齿面阔大成菱形,凹凸不平,牙面有坑纹        磨碎食物
(乳齿没有这种类)
Molar       The occlusal surface is wide and uneven.    Grinding food
            Rectangular shape with pits and fissures on it.
大臼齿  齿面阔大成方形,凹凸不平,牙面有坑纹,体积较小臼齿大   磨碎食物

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Knowing Your Teeth─Types of Teeth

Eruption time of deciduous teeth乳齿出牙时间
Deciduous乳齿             Eruption Time出牙时间
Central Incisor正门牙          6-12 months(6-12个月)
Lateral Incisor侧门牙          9-13 months(9-16个月)
Canine犬齿              16-23 months(16-23个月)
First Molar第一臼齿          13-19 months (13-19个月)
Second Molar第二臼齿          23-33 months (23-33个月)

Eruption time of permanent teeth恒齿出牙时间
Permanent Teeth恒齿          Eruption Time出牙时间
Central Incisor正门牙          6-8 years(6-8岁)
Lateral Incisor侧门牙          6.5-9 years(6岁半 -9岁)
Canine犬齿              8.5-12.5 years (8 岁半-12岁半)
First Premolar第一小臼齿        8-12 years(8-12岁)
Second Premolar第二小臼齿       8.5-13 years (8 岁半-13岁)
First Molar第 一 大臼齿         5-7 years (5-7岁)
Second Molar第二大臼齿         10-14 years (10-14岁)
Third Molar (Wisdom Tooth) 第三大臼齿 (智慧齿)   17-25 years(17-25岁)

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Knowing Your Teeth─Names of tooth surfaces认识牙齿─牙面的名称

Both deciduous teeth and permanent teeth have four kinds of surfaces; they are the inner surfaces, outer surfaces, chewing surfaces and adjacent tooth surfaces. 乳齿和恒齿都可分外侧面、内侧面、咀嚼面及牙齿邻面四类牙面。

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Knowing Your Teeth─Functions of teeth 认识牙齿─牙齿的功用

Chewing food 咀嚼食物
Teeth are a part of the digestive system. They are used for chewing food. 牙齿是消化系统的一部分,用以咀嚼食物。

Pronunciation and articulation 帮助发音
Pronunciation is basically controlled by the vocal cord, but it needs to work together with the teeth to pronounce different sounds accurately. 发音基本上由声带控制,不过要靠牙齿配合,才能发出不同的声音。

Keep pleasant appearance  保持仪容美观
Teeth can keep our facial profile. Without teeth, our face will look collapsed. If teeth are kept healthy, our appearance will even be better. 牙齿有保持面部轮廓的作用,失去牙齿会令面貌改变。如果牙齿健康,样貌会更加美观好看。

Reserve space for permanent teeth to erupt  为恒齿预留位置生长
Underneath each deciduous tooth, there is one developing permanent tooth. Deciduous teeth reserve space for permanent teeth to erupt. When permanent teeth erupt, deciduous teeth will naturally fall off and be replaced by permanent teeth. 每一颗乳齿牙根下面都有一颗发育中的恒齿,乳齿会为恒齿保留位置。恒齿要长出的时候,乳齿便会脱落,位置由该恒齿取代。

If a deciduous tooth is lost prematurely, the adjacent teeth will then move toward the empty space, leaving insufficient room for the permanent tooth to erupt. The permanent teeth may have poor alignment. 如果乳齿过早脱落,两旁的牙齿便会移向空位,没有足够空间容纳新长出的恒齿,便可能导致恒齿的排列不整齐。

Premature loss of a deciduous tooth leading to poor alignment of teeth due to space loss 乳齿过早脱落,导致空间不足,恒齿在不适当位置长出

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Knowing Your Teeth─Abnormal tooth structures 认识牙齿─异常的牙齿结构

Supernumerary 多生齿

A supernumerary tooth is an abnormally developed extra tooth. It is mostly related to heredity. It can appear at any region of the dental arch, but most commonly erupts in between the upper front teeth, or is completely embedded inside the jaw. 多生齿是发育异常的牙齿,多半因遗传而产生。它会在任何位置出现,但一般会於两只上正门牙之间长出来,或完全藏在颌骨内。

Oral problems associated with supernumerary teeth: 多生齿带来的影响:
●Failure of eruption of permanent teeth 造成牙齿阻生,令恒齿不能长出来
●Delayed eruption of permanent teeth 延误恒齿的生长
●Displacement of permanent teeth 影响正常牙齿生长的位置
●Irregular alignment of teeth 令牙齿排列不整齐

If the above situations happen, the supernumerary tooth needs to be extracted. If the supernumerary tooth cannot erupt, surgical extraction of the supernumerary tooth is required. 如果有以上的情况,便需要拨除多生齿。若多生齿未能长出,就可能要接受简单的小手术拨除。

Leong's Premolar  梁氏小臼齿

A Leong's premolar differs from an ordinary premolar by having some tooth structure projecting from its occlusal surface. The structure is very fragile and is liable to fracture. If it is not properly treated after fracture, the pulp may undergo necrosis due to an infection and may lead to dental abscess formation. 「梁氏小臼齿」的咀嚼面上长有凸出而脆弱的部分。如果这个凸出而脆弱的部分折断而又缺乏妥善护理,牙齿最内层的牙髓可能会受细菌感染而坏死,甚至导致牙根尖周炎,亦即是生牙疮。

In order to prevent this from happening, preventive treatment is advocated. The dentist will, according to the tooth condition, either reinforce the fragile structure or remove the structure and restore the defect. 要预防「梁氏小臼齿」的脆弱部分折断,便须接受以预防为本的治疗。牙科医生会按不同情况进行以下治疗:
●Projection strengthened with composite material 将脆弱部分加以巩固,并以牙科物料「复合树脂」填补
●Projection removed and restored with composite material 将脆弱部分切除,并以牙科物料「复合树脂」填补

Fused teeth  黏连牙

When two teeth are united during the developmental stage by the union of their tooth germs, a fused tooth will be formed. There will be a groove on the surface of the tooth, and it is commonly found on deciduous front teeth.When there is a deciduous fused tooth, a succeeding permanent tooth may be missing. 当两只牙齿的胚胎在发育期间黏连在一起生长,便会形成黏连牙。黏连牙通常发生在乳门牙的位置,牙齿的表面会有一条坑纹。如果乳齿出现黏连牙,继承恒门牙亦可能会少一只。

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Knowing Your Teeth─The Occlusion认识牙齿─牙齿的咬合

The occlusion is determined by the placement of upper and lower jaws. In a normal occlusion, the lower front teeth should touch the inner surface of upper front teeth. One-third of the outer surface of lower front teeth should be covered by upper front teeth. The outer surface of lower front teeth should be 2mm to 4mm apart from the inner surface of upper front teeth. 牙齿咬合是由上、下排牙齿的位置决定。在正常的咬合位置,下门牙应触及上门牙的内侧面,而下门牙大约三分之一的外侧面被上门牙覆盖。下门牙的外侧面距离上门牙的内侧面大约2 至4 毫米。

If the upper jaw bone is too big when compared with the lower jaw bone, it results in 'projected upper teeth'. 如果上颌骨相对下颌骨的比例过大,便会出现「哨牙」的情况。

However, if the lower jaw bone is bigger than the upper jaw bone, it results in 'reversed bite'. 如果下颌骨较上颌骨大,便会出现「倒」的情况。

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Oral Care Tips护齿秘诀

★Oral Care Tips─Clean the teeth护齿秘诀 ─彻底清洁牙齿
★Oral Care Tips─Establish good dietary habits护齿秘诀 ─培养良好的饮食习惯
★Oral Care Tips─Have regular dental check-up护齿秘诀 ─定期接受口腔检查
★Oral Care Tips─Do not smoke护齿秘诀 ─不要吸烟
★Oral Care Tips─Apply fissure sealant护齿秘诀 ─涂上窝沟封闭剂 (牙纹防蛀剂)
★Oral Care Tips─Use fluoride护齿秘诀 ─使用氟化物
★Oral Care Tips─Sugarless chewing gum护齿秘诀 ─咀嚼无糖香口胶

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Oral Care Tips─Clean the teeth护齿秘诀 ─彻底清洁牙齿

In order to clean the teeth effectively, you have to thoroughly remove the dental plaque that adheres on the tooth surfaces, false teeth and orthodontic appliances. The accumulation of plaque will cause Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease. 要彻底清洁牙齿,必须将黏附在牙齿、假牙或矫齿器上的牙菌膜全部清除,因为牙菌膜积聚会引致蛀牙及牙周病。

A. Clean the tooth surfaces by toothbrushing清洁牙齿表面 - 刷牙

Toothbrushing can remove dental plaque on tooth surfaces. We should brush our teeth in the morning and before bed at night everyday. Thorough removal of plaque can prevent Periodontal Disease. 刷牙能清除牙齿表面的牙菌膜,我们应每天早上起床及晚上睡前刷牙,彻底清除牙菌膜,才可预防牙周病

1. Place the toothbrush at an angle towards the gingival margin牙刷斜放在牙龈边缘
The head of the toothbrush should be placed with the tips of the bristles tilted at an angle towards the gingival (gum) sulcus at the gingival margin where plaque tends to accumulate. 由於牙菌膜最易积聚在牙龈(牙肉)边缘的龈沟内,因此刷牙时要把牙刷斜放於这位置。

2. Brush the teeth systematically必须有次序地刷牙
●Firstly, brush the outer surfaces of the upper and lower teeth. The head of the toothbrush should be placed with the tips of the bristles tilted at an angle towards the gingival margin. Gently move the toothbrush in small scrubbing motion, working on two to three teeth at a time. 先刷上、下排牙齿的外侧面,把牙刷斜放在牙龈边缘的位置,以两至三颗牙齿为一组,用适中力度来回移动牙刷。
●Then brush the inner surfaces of teeth in the same way as brushing the outer surfaces. 然後再刷牙齿的内侧面,重复以上动作。
●When we brush the inner surfaces of front teeth, we should hold the toothbrush upright using gentle motion scrubbing from the gingival margin towards the crowns of the teeth. 刷门牙内侧面的时候,牙刷要直立放置,用适中的力度从牙龈刷向牙冠。
●Finally, brush the chewing surfaces of the teeth with the toothbrush moving backward and forward. 最後要刷咀嚼面,把牙刷放在咀嚼面上前後移动。

3. Points to note注意事项
●Even if you have grasped the toothbrushing technique, it is important to use appropriate toothbrush and toothpaste. 即使能掌握刷牙技巧,也要选用合适的牙刷和牙膏。
●Toothbrushing cannot remove plaque from the adjacent tooth surfaces. They have to be cleaned by dental floss or floss holder. 刷牙只能清洁牙齿表面的牙菌膜,要清除牙齿邻面的牙菌膜,便要使用牙线或牙线叉。
●The order of brushing and flossing does not affect the effectiveness of tooth cleaning. As long as we use the correct technique, we can achieve satisfactory results. 有效预防蛀牙,应先用牙线,然后刷牙。

4. Solutions to common problems encountered during toothbrushing刷牙时常遇到的困难及它的解决方法
●Areas that are hard to reach by a toothbrush are difficult to be cleaned by toothbrushing. For example, the inner surfaces of lower teeth or crooked teeth: 有一些牙刷毛难以接触到的牙面,例如下排牙齿近舌头的内侧面及叁差不齐的牙齿,较难刷得乾净:
●The solution is to clean with a small head toothbrush or a single-tuft toothbrush. 解决方法是使用刷头细小的牙刷或单头牙刷清洁。
●Gagging when brushing刷牙时想呕吐:
●Some people may gag when they brush their teeth. To improve this situation, you can choose to use a toothbrush with a small head. 有些人刷牙时刷到某些部位会想呕吐,要改善这种情况,可选用刷头细小的牙刷刷牙
●Gingivae bleeds and hurts when brushing刷牙时牙龈出血及肿痛:
●The accumulation of dental plaque causes gingival inflammation. In that case, the gingivae (gum) will bleed when brushing. You can choose to use a soft toothbrush to clean away the plaque in such areas. Gingival inflammation will slowly subside and the gingivae will become healthy when the oral hygiene has improved. 由於牙菌膜积聚,引致牙龈发炎,刷牙时便会有牙龈出血及肿痛的情况。可选用软毛牙刷清除积聚在该位置的牙菌膜,发炎的现象便会逐渐消失,牙龈亦会回复健康。

B. Clean the adjacent tooth surfaces by flossing清洁牙齿邻面 - 使用牙线或牙线叉

Toothbrushing cannot clean the adjacent surfaces of teeth. If we want to remove the plaque accumulated on the adjacent tooth surfaces, we must use dental floss daily. Parents or caregivers can assist children or people in need to clean adjacent tooth surfaces by using a floss holder. 刷牙只可以清洁牙齿表面,要清除牙齿邻面的牙菌膜,必须每天使用牙线。家长或护理人员亦可使用牙线叉协助孩子或有需要人士清洁牙齿邻面。

1. Flossing technique使用牙线方法
●Use a piece of dental floss which is approximately 20-25 cm long. Tie both ends to make a loop. Use the thumbs and the forefingers of both hands to hold the floss, leaving about 2 cm of floss in between. 首先取出大约20-25厘米长的牙线,结成一个圈。用双手的拇指及食指操纵一段约2厘米长的牙线。
●Use a sawing motion; gently slide the floss towards the gingival (gum) margin. 将牙线左右拉动,慢慢地让它滑进牙缝内。
●Wrap around one tooth making a "C" shape and gently slide it up and down against the tooth. Then wrap around the adjacent tooth and repeat the up and down motions. 把牙线紧贴牙齿邻面成「C」字形,上下拉动,然後将牙线紧贴另一边邻面重复上下拉动的动作。

2. Method of using floss holder使用牙线叉方法
●Move the floss holder left and right and slowly slide the floss towards the gingival margin. Pull the floss tightly against one of the adjacent tooth surfaces. 牙线左右移动,慢慢「滑」进牙缝,把牙线紧贴其中一边牙齿邻面。
●Start from the bottom of the gingival margin; gently slide the floss up and down to clean the adjacent tooth surface. 由牙齿邻面最贴近牙龈的地方开始,轻轻上下拉动牙线清洁该牙齿邻面。
●Pull the floss tightly against the other adjacent tooth surface. 然後把牙线紧贴另一边的牙齿邻面。
●Using the same technique, starting from the bottom of the gingival margin, gently slide the floss up and down to clean the other adjacent tooth surface. 同样由牙齿邻面最贴近牙龈的地方开始,轻轻上下拉动牙线清洁。

Points to note: 注意事项:
In case of gingival recession due to Periodontal Disease, the gap between the roots of neighbouring teeth will be wide. Then, an interdental toothbrush may be used instead of dental floss. 如患有牙周病而引致牙龈萎缩,牙根与牙龈之间会形成较宽的罅隙,这情况下可选择使用牙缝刷代替牙线。

3. Solutions to common problems encountered when using dental floss使用牙线常遇到的困难及解决方法
●Difficult to control the dental floss: 难於操控牙线清洁牙齿邻面
●The further the distance between the two fingers holding the floss, the more difficult it will be to control it. Therefore, you should keep the distance between the fingers at about 2 cm and you can tighten up the floss when flossing. This will help improve the situation. 双手操控牙线的距离越大,牙线便越难操控。所以应将距离缩短至两厘米,并拉紧牙线,情况便会改善。
●Difficult to clean the posterior teeth後面的牙齿邻面难於清洁:
●To clean the adjacent tooth surfaces of posterior teeth, you will need to use the forefingers to control the floss inside the mouth. 要将操控牙线的手指放进口内,才能够清洁後面的牙齿。
●Improper use of dental floss causes injury to the gingivae不正确使用牙线以致弄伤牙龈:
●Correct use of dental floss will not cause any damage to the gingivae. Remember you have to slowly “slide” the dental floss into the interdental space, pull the floss taut against one side of the adjacent tooth surfaces, start from the bottom of the gingival margin, and pull the floss up and down to clean the surface. This will not injure the gingival tissue. 正确地使用牙线是不会弄伤牙龈的。紧记使用牙线时,要将它慢慢「滑」进牙缝,紧贴其中一边牙齿邻面,由牙龈的最低点开始,轻轻上下拉动牙线清洁,这样便不会弄伤牙龈。
●Difficulty in sliding the floss into the interdental space牙线难於「滑」进牙缝:
●This can be caused by the accumulation of calculus. The situation will be improved once the calculus has been removed by scaling. Remember to brush and floss your teeth daily after the calculus has been removed. 牙线难於「滑」进牙缝可能由於牙石积聚的缘故。只需让牙科医生将牙石清除,情况便会改善。牙石清除後,切记每天刷牙和使用牙线清洁牙齿。

C. Clean the false teeth (bridge and denture) 清洁假牙(牙挢及假牙托)

If you are wearing false teeth, do not neglect the hygiene of the false teeth because dental plaque also forms on them. 配戴假牙的人士请勿忽略假牙的卫生,因为牙菌膜也会黏附在假牙上。

1. Cleaning a removable denture清洁活动假牙(假牙托)
Dental plaque forms on the surface of a denture. In order to maintain the hygiene of the mouth and denture, the denture should be taken out for cleaning every night. 牙菌膜会黏附在假牙托表面。要保持口腔及假牙托卫生,必须每晚临睡前除下假牙托清洗。

Denture cleaning清洁活动假牙(假牙托)的方法
●First, fill the washing basin with some water (to prevent accidental drop and fracture of the denture). Apply some detergent onto the toothbrush. Then clean every surface of the denture. 首先在洗手盆内注入适量的水(避免假牙托掉在洗手盆里而碎裂),用牙刷揩些洗洁精彻底清洁假牙托的每一部分,然後用清水清洗乾净。
●Before bedtime, immerse the cleaned denture into a cup of water overnight. 把清洁的假牙托放於清水中浸过夜。

Consequences of poor denture hygiene假牙托不洁的後果
Wearing a unclean denture for a long period of time may lead to inflammation of the soft tissue under the denture with redness, swelling, pain, ulceration etc. This condition is called "Denture induced Stomatitis".长期配戴不洁的假牙托,可能会导致与假牙托接触的口腔黏膜出现红肿、疼痛、溃烂等情况,医学上称这情况为牙托性口炎。

Points to note注意事项
●Avoid using toothpaste to clean the denture. The coarse particles in the toothpaste may scratch the surfaces of denture and enhance plaque accumulation. 避免使用牙膏清洁假牙托,因牙膏中的微粒粗糙,会磨损牙托表面,让牙菌膜更容易积聚在假牙托上。
●The unworn removable denture should be immersed in a cup of plain water to avoid warping of the denture. 在不需戴上假牙托时,应把它浸在清水中保持湿润,以免变形。
●If the denture is accidentally dropped and broken, you should pick up all broken parts and take them to the dentist for assistance. 如果不慎令假牙托碎裂,应尽量拾回所有碎裂部分,然後带往见牙科医生,寻求帮助。

2. Cleaning a fixed bridge清洁固定假牙(牙挢)
As dental plaque also accumulates on the surface under the bridge, people wearing bridges should use superfloss to clean the area daily. 牙菌膜会积藏在牙挢底部,因此镶配牙挢的人士必须每天使用特效牙线清洁牙挢底部。

Fixed bridge cleaning清洁固定假牙的方法
●Firstly, insert the stiffened end into the area beneath the bridge. 首先要把特效牙线较硬的部分穿入牙挢底部。
●Then, gently thread the spongy floss between the gum and the bridge, use a soft back-and-forth motion to remove plaque. 再把纤维部分分别紧贴牙龈及牙挢底部,来回拉动牙线。
●Finally, slowly pull it out from the space between the gum and the bridge. 然後慢慢把牙线从牙缝拉出。
●The regular floss is used to remove the plaque from the adjacent tooth surfaces for the rest of the teeth. 至於普通牙线部分,可用作清除其馀牙齿邻面的牙菌膜。

Consequences of unclean bridge牙挢不洁的後果
Poor bridge hygiene may affect the health of the adjacent teeth, resulting in Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease. 牙挢不洁会影响相邻的牙齿,引致蛀牙、牙周病。

D. Cleaning orthodontic appliances清洁矫齿器

People wearing orthodontic appliances should clean the appliances everyday as dental plaque also adheres to the appliances. 牙菌膜亦会黏附在矫齿器上,因此接受矫齿治疗的人士,须每天清洁矫齿器。

1. Removable orthodontic appliances清洁活动矫齿器
The user must take it out and clean it thoroughly to remove the dental plaque in the morning and before bed at night. 使用者须每天早上起床及晚上睡前把活动矫齿器除下清洗,彻底清除牙菌膜。

Cleaning removable orthodontic appliance清洁活动矫齿器的方法
Take out the removable orthodontic appliance, use a toothbrush and some detergent to clean every surface of the appliance. After cleaning, the appliance can be worn again. 把活动矫齿器除下,用牙刷及牙线彻底清洁牙齿,用牙刷揩些洗洁精清洁活动矫齿器每一部分。清洁完毕後,便可把矫齿器戴上。

Points to note: 注意事项
When the orthodontic appliance is not worn, it should be cleaned and immersed in a cup of water. 在不戴活动矫齿器时,应把它浸於清水中。

2. Fixed orthodontic appliances清洁固定矫齿器
It is rather difficult to clean the teeth with the fixed orthodontic appliance in place. People wearing fixed orthodontic appliances should pay special attention to their oral hygiene to reduce the chance of developing Dental Caries. You should clean your teeth and the appliance everyday in the morning and before bed at night as well as after each meal. 装上固定矫齿器後,牙齿会较难清洁。因此,接受矫齿治疗人士要特别注意口腔卫生,以免患上蛀牙。除了每天早上起床及晚上睡前清洁牙齿及矫齿器外,更要在进餐後刷牙和清洁矫齿器。

Cleaning fixed orthodontic appliances清洁固定假牙的方法
●Firstly, brush the area between the orthodontic appliance and gingivae (gums). Then, brush the area between the appliance and the crown of the teeth. 首先,要用牙刷刷矫齿器与牙龈之间的位置,再刷矫齿器与牙冠边缘的位置。
●Finally, insert an interdental brush into the area between the tooth and the appliance to clean. 然後再用牙缝刷,把刷头部分置於牙齿与矫齿器之间的罅隙清洁。

Flossing is difficult for people wearing fixed orthodontic appliance. Hence, superfloss can be used to facilitate the removal of dental plaque in the adjacent tooth surfaces. 矫齿器在口腔内会令牙线的使用变得较为困难,因此可使用特效牙线清除牙齿邻面的牙菌膜。方法如下:
●Push the stiffened end through the space between the teeth and the orthodontic appliance. 先把特效牙线较硬部分穿过牙齿与矫齿器间的罅隙
●Then wrap the floss ends around middle fingers, hold it tightly between the thumbs and forefingers of both hands, leaving about 2 cm of floss in between. 然後将牙线绕着中指,用双手的拇指及食指操纵一段2厘米长的牙线。
●Gently slide the floss into the adjacent tooth surface using a sawing motion. 将牙线前後拉动,慢慢地让它滑进牙缝内。
●Wrap the floss around one tooth in a "C" shape, moving up and down to clean the tooth surface. Then wrap around the other adjacent tooth and repeat the cleaning. 把牙线紧贴牙齿邻面成「C」字形,上下拉动,然後将牙线紧贴另一边邻面重复上下拉动的动作。

As usual use the toothbrush to clean the inner surfaces and chewing surfaces of all the teeth. 至於牙齿的内侧面和咀嚼面就要以牙刷来清洁。

E. Assisting people with special needs to brush替有特殊需要人士刷牙的方法

People with special needs should also learn toothbrushing techniques. However, they need to be taught individually through a longer period of time with repetitive practices in order to master the techniques. Parents and nurses need to assist them before they can completely master the techniques in toothbrushing. 有特殊需要人士也须学习清洁牙齿的技巧,但他们需要的是贴身、长时间的教导和反覆的练习,才能慢慢学懂这些技巧。在他们仍未能好好掌握清洁牙齿的技巧之前,家长或护理员便需协助他们清洁牙齿。

1. Method方法
●First, let them face a mirror with you standing behind them. Using one hand to support their chin, and the other hand to help them brush. 首先让他面向镜子,你站在他的背後,一只手托着他的下巴,另一只手帮他刷牙。
●If they can hold their own toothbrush, let them brush on their own. You need to supervise, observe and correct their brushing technique. 如他能拿着牙刷,应让他自己刷,你需要一面观察,一面纠正他的技巧。

2. Possible difficulties encountered when assisting people with special needs to clean their teeth替有特殊需要人士清洁牙齿时可能遇到的疑难

If the person doesn't know how to spit, it is difficult for him to rinse after toothbrushing. 不懂吐水,刷牙後很难漱口
You can first let him wear an apron to avoid getting his clothes wet. Prepare a glass of drinking water for him to rinse. When he needs to rinse, teach him to first open his mouth and then slowly pour the water into his mouth. Let the water flow out from his mouth so that the foam from toothpaste will be rinsed out from his mouth naturally. 可先为他戴上口水肩,以防弄湿他的衣服,并且预备白开水给他漱口。他需要漱口时,教导他张开口,然後把白开水慢慢倒进他的口中,让水自然地从他的口中流出来,这样便可帮助他把口腔内的牙膏泡沬冲走。

Swallowing toothpaste while brushing刷牙时吞下牙膏
Use only a pea-sized blob of toothpaste to brush his teeth. No harm will be done to his body even if he accidentally swallows the toothpaste. Fluoride is effective in preventing dental caries and strengthening teeth, therefore it is essential that fluoride toothpaste is used. If you are worried that the fluoride content in toothpaste is too high, you might consider using children's fluoride toothpaste which contains only half of the fluoride content as the regular adult fluoride toothpaste. 每次刷牙只用一粒青豆般分量的牙膏,即使不小心吞服了,也不会对身体造成伤害。氟化物能有效地预防蛀牙和巩固牙齿,因此必须用氟化物牙膏刷牙。如果担心牙膏内的氟化物浓度太高,可选用氟化物浓度少一半的儿童牙膏。

Involuntary wobbling of the head头部不自觉地摇摆不定
You may stand behind him, use one hand to wrap around his head, and gently support his chin to stabilize his head. Remember to do this only if he is willing, otherwise he will refuse to brush or floss his teeth. 可以站在他背後,用一只手绕过他的头,轻轻托着他的下巴以固定他的头部。但切记要在他愿意的情况下进行,否则他会抗拒刷牙和用牙线。

Protruding tongue which interferes with toothbrushing舌头常常伸出来,阻碍刷牙
Tongue protrusion during toothbrushing is a natural reflex. You may first ask him to calm down and start toothbrushing for him as soon as he relaxes his tongue. There is only a short period of time while he relaxes his tongue. Therefore you may need to precisely place the toothbrush inside his mouth and speed up the brushing process to make toothbrushing more pleasant for him. You may also consider using an electric toothbrush to shorten the time needed for brushing. However, you should use a correct brushing technique with care in order to avoid damaging his teeth and gum. 刷牙时伸出舌头是一种自然反应,你可以叫他放松,然後趁他的舌头放软时,将牙刷放入他的口中清洁。舌头放软的时间很短,所以你要准确地摆放刷毛和加快刷牙的速度,让他觉得舒服些。你亦可考虑选用电动牙刷替他刷牙以缩短刷牙的时间,但必须小心及用得其法,避免刷蚀牙齿及弄伤牙龈。

Biting on toothbrush时常咬着牙刷
You may use some supplementary tools (e.g. a few chopsticks wrapped by a towel) for him to bite on one side of his mouth so that his mouth will stay opened. You can then place the toothbrush inside his mouth and start brushing on the other side of his mouth for him. 可使用一些辅助物件(如用毛巾把几支筷子卷在一起),着他用一边牙齿咬着,他的口便会自然张开,这时你便可以把牙刷伸进孩子口中帮他刷另一边的牙齿。

Being impatient缺乏耐性
You may start by brushing the easiest areas such as the outer surfaces. This can be done even if he is closing his teeth together. Then ask him to open his mouth so that you can brush the chewing surfaces and inner surfaces of his upper teeth. Finally, you can brush the inner surfaces of his lower teeth. 可由最容易刷的地方开始清洁,即先刷外侧面,这样,即使他轻咬着牙齿也可刷到外侧面。接着请他张开口,刷咀嚼面和上排牙齿的内侧面。最後才刷下排牙齿的内侧面。

Refuse toothbrushing抗拒刷牙
Find out the reason why he refuses to brush, then target at this reason to help him overcome his hard feelings towards brushing. If toothbrushing brings him discomfort, his gum may be sensitive due to gum inflammation. You may first choose a softer toothbrush and let him try to get used to brushing only a few teeth. After he gets used to brushing, you can then try to brush the rest of his teeth. Ask him to raise his hand when he feels uncomfortable and stop brushing to let him take a rest. It is important that you must not try to brush all his teeth by force. Otherwise, it will be difficult to change his attitude toward toothbrushing in the future. 找出他不愿意刷牙的原因,然後针对原因帮助他。如果是因为刷牙令他不舒服,这可能是由於牙龈发炎,所以变得比较敏感,你可以改用刷毛较软的牙刷给他刷牙,让他先刷一两颗牙齿,待他慢慢习惯,然後尝试刷其他的牙齿。若他觉得不舒服时,请他举手示意,即时停止刷牙,让他休息一会。切勿强行替他刷完整副牙齿,否则,日後更难改变他对刷牙的观感。

Gagging when he brushes his teeth刷牙时容易有想呕吐的感觉
You may use a toothbrush with a smaller head. When you are brushing his molars, try not to place the toothbrush too far back as long as you can brush his last tooth in order to avoid gagging. If there are sensitive areas which make him gag, you should brush those areas last. 可以选用刷头比较细小的牙刷替他刷牙,刷大臼齿时,应尽量避免将牙刷放得太後,只需刷到最後一只牙齿便可,以免令他觉得不舒服而想呕吐。若有某些比较敏感的位置,令他刷牙时容易有想吐的感觉,那麽你应留待最後才刷那些地方。

Crooked teeth which are difficult to clean牙齿排列不整齐,难於清洁
You may use a toothbrush with a small head. Pay special attention to areas of irregularity to make sure that the bristles have touched the gingival margins. This could ensure that the teeth are thoroughly cleaned. 可选择刷头细小的牙刷,并且要注意牙齿排列不整齐的地方,确保刷毛能够接触到牙齿及牙龈边缘,才可刷得乾净。

Difficulty in inserting the dental floss into the interproximal area (area between the teeth) 牙石积聚令牙线难於「滑」进牙缝
Difficulty in inserting the dental floss into the interproximal area may be caused by the accumulation of calculus. The situation will improve once the calculus has been removed by the dentist. Remember to floss daily after the calculus has been removed in order to avoid accumulation again. 牙石积聚令牙线难於「滑」进牙缝和阻碍拉动牙线。解决方法是往见牙科医生,让牙科医生把牙石清除,情况便会改善。牙石清除後,应每天早晚清洁牙齿,保持牙齿清洁,防止牙石再次积聚。

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Oral Care Tips─Establish good dietary habits护齿秘诀 ─ 培养良好的饮食习惯

A. Reduce frequency of food and drink减少吃喝次数

Many people have a misconception that if they can thoroughly brush their teeth, they can avoid having dental caries. In fact, in order to effectively prevent dental caries, we have to start from a good dietary habit. 很多人有一个误解,以为只要牙齿刷得乾净便可以预防蛀牙。其实要有效地预防蛀牙,应从饮食习惯入手。

1. What kinds of food will lead to Dental Caries? 什麽食物会引致蛀牙?
All food that contains sugar can be metabolised by the bacteria in the plaque located on the tooth surfaces to produce acid. The acid will attack enamel of the teeth which will lead to dental caries. 所有食物,只要含有糖分,就能被牙齿表面的牙菌膜分解,产生酸素。酸素会侵害牙齿表层的珐琅质,造成蛀牙。

Most of the food and drinks available in the market contain sugar which will increase the risk of getting caries. 可是市面上大部分食物或饮品,都含有糖分,同样会带来蛀牙的危机。

2. Snacking frequency and Dental Caries吃喝次数与蛀牙
As soon as we eat or drink, the bacteria in the plaque on tooth surfaces will metabolise the sugar and produce acid. The acid will then lead to loss of minerals from the tooth surfaces. Chances of getting dental caries will be reduced by allowing sufficient time in between meals for the saliva to neutralise the acid and redeposit minerals onto the tooth surfaces. 每次吃喝时,牙齿表面的牙菌膜都会利用食物中的糖分进行新陈代谢,产生酸素,酸素会引致牙齿表面的矿物质流失。但只要有足够时间让唾液中和酸素,以及补充牙齿表面流失了的矿物质,蛀牙机会便会减低。

3. Consequences of frequent snacking频繁吃喝的後果
If one snacks frequently, there will be continuous production of acid by plaque bacteria and insufficient time for the saliva to neutralize the acid. This will result in persistent acidic environment which favours the development of dental caries. 如果吃喝的次数频密,牙齿表面的牙菌膜持续产生酸素,唾液没有足够的时间中和过多的酸素,牙齿便容易蛀坏。

Therefore, even a small piece of biscuit or a sip of beverage is considered one snack, which will bring one more chance of getting dental caries. 所以我们每一次吃喝,即使是吃一小片饼乾或喝一小杯饮料如果汁等,也算是吃喝了一次,增加了一次蛀牙机会。

B. Avoid taking acidic food drinks避免吃喝高酸性的食物和饮品

Frequent intake of acidic food or drinks may cause the tooth enamel to be eroded (washed away) by the acid, leading to the exposure of dentine. Then, the tooth will become sensitive to hot, cold, sweet and sour food or drinks. Besides, you may feel pain during toothbrushing or flossing. 经常吃喝高酸性的食物和饮品会使牙齿外层的珐琅质受到酸素侵蚀,令象牙质外露。这样,牙齿便会变得十分敏感,吃喝冷热酸甜食物或饮品时,又或者刷牙和用牙线碰触到牙齿时都会感到一阵刺痛。

C. Avoid chewing hard food避免吃坚硬的食物

Avoid chewing hard food, such as bones, shells, etc., to prevent tooth fracture. For people wearing false teeth (bridge or denture), chewing hard food may also cause the false teeth fracture. 不要用牙齿咬坚硬的食物如骨头 硬壳类等,避免令牙齿崩裂。 配戴假牙(牙挢或假牙托)的人士,如用假牙咀嚼坚硬食物,亦会导致假牙崩裂。

D. Avoid eating sticky food避免吃黏性强的食物

If you are wearing orthodontic appliances or a denture, you have to avoid sticky food such as chewing gums, bubble gums, etc. This can prevent the orthodontic appliances or denture from being difficult to clean or dislodging. 假如你是配戴矫齿器或活动假牙(假牙托)的人士,就要避免吃黏性强的食物,如香口胶、吹波胶等,以免令矫齿器或假牙难於清洁,甚至黏脱。

E. Tips for establishing a good dietary habit良好的吃喝习惯小贴士
●In order to reduce the frequency of snacks, we should eat a sufficient amount of food during breakfast, lunch and dinner at regular intervals. 为了减少吃喝的次数,应每天定时进食早、午、晚三餐,三餐的分量要足够。
●If you feel hungry in between meals, you can snack once. 如果两餐之间觉得肚子饿,可吃一次茶点。
●If you want to take snacks or beverages, you can eat or drink them right after meal. 如想吃零食或喝饮品,可在正餐後一次过吃掉或喝掉。
●When you feel thirsty, just drink plain water to quench thirst. 口喝时,只喝清水解渴。
●To avoid sensitive teeth caused by acidic erosion, you should take less acidic food or beverages such as pickles, dry plums, lemons, sports drink, soft drink, alcoholic drink, etc. 为免牙齿被酸蚀,造成牙齿敏感,应减少吃喝高酸性的食物和饮品,例如酸荞头、话梅、柠檬、补充体力饮品、汽水、酒精饮品等。
●To avoid tooth fracture, one should avoid biting on hard food such as bones, shells, etc. 为了避免牙齿崩裂,应少吃坚硬的食物,如骨头、硬壳类等。
●People who wear dentures should avoid chewing on hard or sticky food to prevent the denture from dislodging or becoming difficult to clean. 配戴假牙托人士应避免咀嚼坚硬和带黏性的食物,以防假牙托崩裂和难以清洁。
●Parents can use stationeries, stickers, or praisings instead of snacks to reward their children. 家长可用文具、贴纸、口头称赞等代替食物以奖励孩子。

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Oral Care Tips─Have regular dental check-up护齿秘诀 ─ 定期接受口腔检查

A. The importance of regular dental check-up定期检查口腔的重要性
●Individual oral care advice个别口腔护理辅导
The dentist will give professional oral care advice which is specific to our oral health conditions. These include techniques in using dental floss, method in cleaning a dental bridge and dietary advice, etc. 牙科医生会按我们的口腔健康状况,提供专业的口腔护理建议如使用牙线方法、清洁矫齿器的方法、饮食建议等。
●Preventive treatment预防为本的治疗
The dentist will provide preventive treatment such as scaling, application of fissure sealant or topical fluoride to help prevent common dental diseases. 牙科医生会为我们进行一些以预防为本的治疗如洗牙、涂上窝沟封闭剂(牙纹防蛀剂)、或牙面氟化物剂等,以预防口腔疾病。
●Early diagnosis and treatment of oral diseases及早诊断和治疗口腔疾病
The initial stage of many oral diseases such as Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease has no obvious symptoms. However, the dentist can diagnose at an early stage and render appropriate treatment. 许多口腔疾病如蛀牙、牙周病等开始时都是没有徵状的,肉眼也察觉不到,但牙科医生却能诊断出来,并作出治疗。
●Total care全面看顾
Althorough dental check-up is necessary for the maintenance of oral health. The check-up includes the examination of the denture fitness, the condition of the filled teeth, etc. In case of any oral problem, the dentist can treat it promptly. 为了确保我们的口腔健康,全面的口腔检查是必要的。这些检查包括:假牙是否合戴、已修补的牙齿的情况等等,万一有问题出现,牙科医生便能作出及时的处理。

B. How often should a dental check-up be done? 该隔多久检查牙齿一次?

For most people, a dental check-up per year is adequate. However, for those with high risk or special needs, a dental check-up every six months may be necessary. People with high risk or of special needs include对一般人来说,可每年检查牙齿一次。但一些高危或有特别需要的人士,就需要6个月检查口腔一次。这些有特别需要的人士包括:
●Mentally handicapped individuals弱能人士
●Mentally handicapped individuals may have difficulties in maintaining a basic level of oral hygiene. They are very prone to Periodontal Disease and Dental Caries. 由於弱能人士在保持基本口腔生方面出现困难,他们会深受牙周病及蛀牙的威胁。
●Patients who have received radiotherapy in the head and neck region头部和颈部曾接受电疗的人士
●In the process of radiotherapy, normal oral tissues are affected. The treatment may give rise to a decrease in saliva secretion and inflammation of the oral mucosa, which may lead to Dental Caries and Periodontal Disease. 在电疗过程中,口腔的正常组织会受影响,引致唾液分泌减少、口腔黏膜发炎等及容易患上蛀牙及牙周病。
●Smokers吸烟人士
●The chance of developing Periodontal Disease of smokers is five times higher than that of non-smokers. 吸烟者患牙周病的机会比非吸烟者高出至少五倍。
●Patients with disabling oral diseases患有严重口腔疾病人士
●The patients with oral tumour or cleft palate need to have frequent oral examination to maintain their oral health. 一些患有严重蛀牙、牙周病、口腔癌、裂颚┅等人士,需要接受较频密的口腔检查,以确保口腔健康。
●Patients with systemic diseases患有系统性疾病人士
●The immunity systems of patients with Diabetes Mellitus, Haemophilia or AIDS are compromised, leading to a lowered body resistance to bacterial infections. If their oral hygiene is poor, the dental plaque accumulated on the tooth surfaces will easily give rise to Periodontal Disease. The disease will then progress rapidly. 患有糖尿病、血友病、爱滋病等人士,身体的免疫系统会受到妨碍,抵抗病菌的能力相应降低。如果口腔不够清洁,在牙齿表面的牙菌膜就会十分容易引致牙周病。并且,牙周病的病情会迅速恶化,变成严重的牙周病。

C. Oral check-up includes口腔检查的服务包括
●Recording oral health condition记录口腔健康状况
●Providing suggestions on improvement of tooth-cleaning techniques提供改善清洁牙齿技巧的建议
●Suggesting a custom-made dietary plan度身订造一个良好的饮食建议
●Conducting an X-ray check-up if necessary如有需要,会进行X-光检查
●Implementing a treatment plan according to needs按需要制订治疗计划

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Oral Care Tips─Do not smoke护齿秘诀 ─不要吸烟

Besides causing serious damages to general health, smoking also has adverse effects on oral health. 吸烟除了会严重影响身体健康外,对口腔健康亦带来一定的影响。

A. Consequences of smoking on oral health吸烟对口腔健康所带来的後果
●Smoking may cause bad breath. 吸烟可能产生口臭
●Smoking easily stains your teeth. 吸烟容易造成牙渍
●The chance of smokers developing Periodontal Disease at least times greater than that of non-smokers. 吸烟者患牙周病的机会比非吸烟者高出至少五倍
●If a smoker who is already suffering from Periodontal Disease keeps on smoking, the nicotine in the cigarettes will jeopardize the healing potential of oral tissues and reduce the body resistant. This will worsen the condition of the Periodontal Disease. 如果你已患上牙周病而仍然吸烟的话,香烟内的尼古丁会削弱口腔组织的康复能力,也会使身体抵抗力降低,令牙周病的病情变得严重。
●Smoking increases the chance of oral cancer. 吸烟会增加患口腔癌的机会

B. Ways to refuse smoking拒绝吸烟的方法
●Tell your friends that you don't like to smoke告诉你认识的人,你不喜欢吸烟
●Refuse cigarettes offered by others. Learn to say "no"不要接受别人递上的香烟,要养成拒绝的习惯
●No matter where you are, insist on choosing "non-smoking areas"不论身在何地,坚持选择「非吸烟区」
●Turn your office into a "smoke-free work place"把你工作的地方变成「无烟工作间」
●Encourage your family and friends to quit smoking. Refuse second-hand smoking推动你的家人及朋友戒烟,要拒绝二手烟
●Maintain a healthy life-style by having a balanced diet and exercising regularly to release stress经常保持身心健康,饮食要均衡,平时多做运动以纾缓压力

C. Ways to quit smoking戒烟方法

1. Discover motives发掘动力
List out reasons for quitting as motives. For example, quitting smoking can列出戒烟的原因,作为原动力。例如戒烟可:
●Save money节省金钱
●Make you look smart令仪容出众
●Make boy/girl friend adore you even more更受男/女朋友倾慕

2. Make plans订定计划
Change habits that will trigger your urge to smoke. Make a plan that will help you quit smoking. At the initial stage of quitting, you may try chewing sugarless gums instead of smoking. 改变那些令烟瘾大作的习惯,订下一个有助戒烟的计划,戒烟初期,可试咀嚼无糖香口胶代替吸烟

3. Persist to the end坚持到底
You need to be determined and persistent that you will not to be affected by cigarettes again. 要有决心,坚持下去,永远不再受香烟影响

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Oral Care Tips─Apply fissure sealant护齿秘诀─涂上窝沟封闭剂(牙纹防蛀剂)

If there are deep fissures on a tooth, dental plaque can easily accumulate in these fissures where the toothbrush bristles cannot access to and clean these areas thoroughly. Therefore, these teeth are prone to Dental Caries. 如果牙齿的纹沟既深且窄,牙菌膜就会容易积藏於纹沟内,刷牙也不能完全清除。这样,这些位置便较容易蛀坏 。

Fissure sealants can seal up fissures and prevent dental caries窝沟封闭剂能封密纹沟、防止蛀牙
Fissure sealant is a tooth-coloured resin, which is well adhered to the enamel of the tooth. Fissure sealant seals off the fissures of a tooth to prevent Dental Caries by blocking the plaque in the fissures from getting access to the dietary sugars. 窝沟封闭剂是一种胶质封闭剂,能与牙齿珐琅质黏合。注入窝沟封闭剂於牙齿纹沟内,就能封密纹沟,使纹沟内的牙菌膜不能吸收食物的糖分以制造酸素,从而减少蛀牙的机会。

Procedures过程
1. Clean the tooth surface 把牙面清洁乾净

2. Apply fissure sealant注入「窝沟封闭剂」

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Oral Care Tips─Using fluoride护齿秘诀 ─使用氟化物

A. The sources of fluoride氟化物的来源

Fluoride has been shown effective in the prevention of Dental Caries since 1901. Up till now fluoride has been widely used. 氟化物(Fluoride)在1901年时已被证实能有效地预防蛀牙,直到现在,氟化物已广泛地被使用。

1. Food and drinking water食水和食物

Drinking water: 食水
Domestic water in Hong Kong has been fluoridated since 1961. This has led to a great decline in the incidence of Dental Caries. Today in Hong Kong, the fluoride concentration in drinking water is 0.5 ppm (parts per million). Therefore, by drinking fluoridated water, the intake of fluoride is adequate to prevent Dental Caries. 香港的食水在1961年开始,已加入了氟化物,使蛀牙率大大降低。现在香港食水氟化物的含量0.5ppm (百万分之0.5),只要我们饮用食水,便可从中吸收氟化物,达到预防蛀牙的效果。

Food:食物
Fluoride is found in tea leaves and certain seafoods. 例如茶叶和一些海产食物等,都含有氟化物。

2. Oral care products口腔护理用品
Fluoride is added in most of our oral care products, such as toothpaste, mouthwash and dental floss. Researches have shown that daily toothbrushing with fluoride toothpaste reduces the incidence of Dental Caries by 30%. This has proved that fluoride toothpastes are very effective in preventing Dental Caries. 我们在市面上常见的口腔护理用品,如牙膏、漱口水、牙线,大都加入了氟化物。据研究显示,每天用含氟化物牙膏刷牙,可减低蛀牙率达30%或以上,证明含氟化物牙膏对预防蛀牙有重大功效。

List of common oral care products with fluoride and directions of use: 一般口腔护理用品含氟化物比例和使用指引
Oral Care Products   Concentration of fluoride   Directions of use
口腔护理用品    含氟化物比例       使用指引
Adult Toothpaste   1,000-1,450ppm   Brush the teeth with a pea-sized blob of toothpaste
                   in the morning and before bed at night everyday
成人牙膏 1,000-1,450ppm  每天早上起床、晚上睡前使用一粒青豆般分量的牙膏刷牙
Children Toothpaste   500ppm
儿童牙膏      500ppm
Mouthwash      230ppm 0.05%NaF      Rinse for 1 minute daily
漱口水       230ppm 0.05%NaF      每天一次含在口腔内一分钟
           900ppm 0.2% NaF      Rinse for 1minute weekly
           900ppm 0.2% NaF      每周一次含在口腔内一分钟
Dental Floss                   Use once daily
牙线                      每天使用一次

Points to note when using fluoride-containing products使用含氟化物用品的注意事项
Toothpaste牙膏:
●A young child should use a pea-sized blob of children toothpaste which contains a lower concentration of fluoride. Ingestion of excessive amount of fluoride will lead to dental fluorosis with white patches found on the newly erupted permanent teeth. 幼儿应选用氟化物含量较低的儿童牙膏,并要限制所用分量为一粒青豆般大小,因为发育中的幼儿若吸取过量的氟化物,他新长出的恒齿可能会出现白斑,这类牙齿称为氟斑牙。

Mouthwash漱口水:
●For most people, there is no need to use fluoride mouthwash. However, for those who are prone to Dental Caries, such as patients under orthodontic treatment or after radiotherapy, they need to use mouthwash according to the instruction of the dentist. 一般人是不需使用含氟化物漱口水的,但对於一些易患蛀牙的人士,如接受牙齿矫正治疗人士、接受放射性治疗後的人士,就必须在牙科医生指导下使用漱口水。
●Children under 6 years of age should not use fluoride mouthwash to avoid accidental ingestion. 为免意外吞服,6岁以下的儿童应避免使用漱口水。

3. Topical fluoride used by professionals牙面氟化物剂
These topical fluoride agents are in very high concentration. The application of topical fluoride on the tooth surfaces can prevent Dental Caries or reduce tooth sensitivity. The dental care personnel usually choose a type of topical fluoride which is appropriate for the patient's oral health condition. 牙面氟化物剂含有高浓度的氟化物,涂在牙齿表面,能预防蛀牙或纾缓牙齿敏感。牙科护理人员会根据病人的口腔情况,选用合适的牙面氟化物剂。

Types of professionally used topical fluoride牙面氟化物剂的种类
●Fluoride gel 喱状氟化物剂
●This type of topical fluoride contains 12,300ppm of fluoride. Dental care personnel will put the fluoride gel onto a pre-formed dental tray and insert it into the patient's mouth for 4 to 6 minutes to allow the fluoride to penetrate into the teeth. 这种氟化物剂含有12,300ppm的氟化物。牙科护理人员会把这种氟化物剂放在特制的胶牙托内,让病人含着4至6分钟,氟化物便可渗进牙齿内。
●Fluoride varnish黏液状氟化物剂
●This type of topical fluoride contains 23,000ppm of fluoride. It is often used to treat dental caries at its initial stage. The varnish is placed on the affected tooth surface(s) and then allowed to dry on the tooth. 这种氟化物剂含有23,000ppm的氟化物。常用於患初期蛀牙的牙齿,牙科护理人员会把这种氟化物剂涂在该牙齿的牙面上,待它乾了便可。

Points to note after topical fluoride treatment涂上牙面氟化物剂要注意的事项
To allow topical fluoride to fully function, please do not eat within 4 hours after application of topical fluoride. 涂上牙面氟化物剂後4小时内,请不要进食,这样,氟化物剂才能完全发挥功效

B. Prevention of Dental Caries using fluoride氟化物在预防蛀牙上的功效
●During the initial stage of dental caries, an appropriate amount of fluoride can enhance the saliva to replenish the lost minerals, promote the remineralization of teeth and repair the early caries. 在初期蛀牙阶段,适量的氟化物能加速唾液补充流失的矿物质,令牙齿初期蛀坏的部分回复原状。
●Fluoride strengthens teeth and increases their resistance to acid attacks. 巩固牙齿,加强牙齿抵抗酸素侵害的能力。
●Fluoride inhibits the growth of dental plaque and reduces its acid-producing capability. 抑制牙菌膜的滋长,削弱细菌产生酸素的能力。

C. Ways of fluoride intake吸取氟化物的途径
●Drink boiled tap water daily. 每天饮用食水。
●Brush your teeth with fluoride toothpaste daily in the morning and before bed at night so that your teeth will have sufficient fluoride protection. 每天早上起床、晚上睡前使用含氟化物牙膏刷牙,牙齿已获得足够的氟化物保护。
●If you think you need to use more fluoride, please consult your dentist first. 若需要额外吸取更多氟化物,一定要请教你的牙科医生。

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Oral Care Tips─Sugarless chewing gum护齿秘诀 ─咀嚼无糖香口胶

Sugarless chewing gum uses flavouring agents such as xylitol, sorbitol, mannitol, aspartame, etc. Although they taste sweet, they don't contain sugar. 无糖香口胶内加入了甜味剂,例如木糖醇(xylitol)、山梨醇(sorbitol)、甘露醇 (mannitol)、阿斯巴甜(Aspartame)┅等等,虽然它们同样是甜的,但并不含糖分。

Sugarless chewing gum and dental caries咀嚼无糖香口胶与蛀牙
●Sugarless chewing gum doesn't cause dental caries because it only contains flavouring agent which cannot be metabolised by the bacteria inside our mouth. 由於无糖香口胶所含的是甜味剂,不会被牙齿表面的细菌利用作新陈代谢,故不会令牙齿蛀坏。
●Chewing sugarless gum will increase the production of saliva. Saliva neutralizes the acids produced by bacteria on our teeth and replenishes the lost minerals. Therefore, it reduces the chance for us to get dental caries. Hence, chewing sugarless gum can help prevent dental caries. 咀嚼无糖香口胶能令唾液分泌增多。唾液可中和牙菌膜产生的酸素,令流失的矿物质得以补充,因而减少蛀牙的机会。因此,咀嚼无糖香口胶可以有助预防蛀牙。

Points to note注意事项
●It is essential to identify whether the chewing gum we choose contains sugar or not. Frequent use of chewing gums with sugar will not only fail to prevent dental caries but in fact increase the chance of getting caries. 选择香口胶时,必须清楚知道香口胶是否含糖分,因为时常咀嚼含糖香口胶不但不能防止蛀牙,相反会增加蛀牙的机会。
●One cannot solely rely on xylitol chewing gums to prevent dental caries. The most effective method in preventing caries is to brush your teeth with fluoride toothpaste every morning and at night, and to reduce the frequency of food/drinks intake. 不应依赖咀嚼木糖醇香口胶以防止蛀牙。最有效的预防蛀牙方法始终是早晚用含氟化物牙膏刷牙及减少吃喝次数。
●Chewing gum for a long time will cause soreness in the jaw joints. It is not advisable for people with jaw joint problem to chew gums. 长时间咀嚼香口胶会引致牙骹疼痛,牙骹有问题的人士未必适合。

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Oral Care Products口腔护理用品

★Oral Care Products─Toothbrush口腔护理用品 ─牙刷
★Oral Care Products─Toothpaste口腔护理用品 ─牙膏
★Oral Care Products─Dental Floss口腔护理用品 ─牙线
★Oral Care Products─Mouthwash口腔护理用品 ─漱口水
★Oral Care Products─Tooth whitening agents口腔护理用品 ─牙齿漂白剂
★Oral Care Products─Denture Cleaning Tablets口腔护理用品 ─假牙片

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Oral Care Products─Toothbrush口腔护理用品 ─ 牙刷

A. Function and method of use牙刷的功用和使用方法

The function of toothbrush is to remove dental plaque from the surface of teeth. For its method of use, please refer to “Oral Care Tips”. 牙刷的功用是清除牙齿表面的牙菌膜,其使用方法可叁考「护齿秘诀」。

B. Types of toothbrush牙刷的种类

1. Manual toothbrush普通牙刷

Shape of toothbrush head刷头形状
●Conventional方形
All conventional toothbrush head designs are effective in cleansing every tooth surface. 方形刷头能有效清洁牙齿的每一个表面。
●Diamond shape钻石形
The tips of these toothbrush heads are narrower than those of the conventional ones. These tips are designed for easy access to posterior teeth. 这类刷头的末端较方形设计为尖,较容易深入口腔内清洁。

A toothbrush with any kind of brush head cleans teeth effectively. However, the size of the brush head should be considered according to the size of the oral cavity牙刷具备任何形状的刷头都能清洁牙齿,不过,刷头的大小就必须根据口腔大小而加以适当选择:
●0-2 years(0-2岁)
Brush head size should be approximately the diameter of a Hong Kong 10-cent coin (~15mm). 刷头大小应与一香港毫子硬币直径差不多(~15mm)
●2-6 years(2-6岁)
Brush head size should be approximately the diameter of a Hong Kong 20-cent coin (~19mm). 刷头大小应与香港两毫子硬币直径差不多(~19mm)
●6-12 years(6-12岁)
Brush head size should be approximately the diameter of a Hong Kong 50-cent coin (~22mm). 刷头大小应与香港五毫子硬币直径差不多(~22mm)
●12 years and above(12岁以上)
Brush head size should be approximately the diameter of a Hong Kong one-dollar coin (~25mm). 刷头大小应与香港一元硬币直径差不多(~25mm)

Bristle pattern刷毛的排列
●Block pattern刷毛平整
The bristles are of the same length and are arranged neatly like a block. 这类牙刷的刷毛排列平整。
●Wavy or V-shape pattern波浪形或V形
The bristles form a V-shape or wavy pattern. According to the manufacturer, this is intended to give the bristles a better contact with the areas around the adjacent tooth surfaces. 这类牙刷的刷毛呈V形或波浪形,「生产商」声称较易接触牙齿相邻的位置。
●Multilevel trim pattern全接触型
If these toothbrushes are used correctly, it is claimed by the manufacturer that their bristles will naturally be pointing at the gum line at a 45 degree angle. It is also suggested that since the bristles at the brush tip are longer, it enables the toothbrush to reach the difficult-to-clean areas. 这类牙刷的刷毛据「生产商」声称如正确使用及摆放,会自动呈45度贴向牙龈边缘。这类刷毛的毛束末端较长,据称能有效清洁难刷的部位。

In fact, any of the above brush head design can effectively clean the teeth. Nonetheless, the bristles must be soft. Thus, you can choose according to your personal preference. 其实,以上任何一种类型的刷毛设计都能有效清洁牙齿,你可随自己的喜好选择。不过,要留意的是刷毛的质地必须柔软。

Handle design刷柄设计
●Straight handle直柄
All conventional toothbrushes have straight handles that are easier to control. 传统的牙刷一般都是直柄的,用起来较容易。
●Contra-angle handle曲柄
This handle design is similar to a dental instrument, intending to access to the difficult to clean areas. 曲柄的设计像牙科医生的用具,据称能深入口腔较难刷到的地方。
●Flexible handle弹性手柄
This kind of handle intends to reduce gum injury caused by excessive brushing force. 这类设计据称能避免因牙刷压在牙龈上的力度过大而令牙龈受损。
●Slip prevention grip handle防滑手柄
This handle intends to prevent the toothbrush from slipping away during toothbrushing. 这类设计具防滑功能,避免刷牙时牙刷滑掉。

None of the handle design possesses special tooth cleansing effect. You may make your choices according to your personal preference. 其实没有任何一种刷柄设计具有特殊清洁牙齿功效。你可随自己的喜好选择。

2. Powered Toothbrush电动牙刷
Mechanical motions of different brush heads刷头的转动方法
●Brush head oscillates sideways, forwards and backwards. 刷头左右前後摆动
●Each tuft of bristles rotates individually. 每束独立刷毛自动旋转
●The entire brush head rotates in clockwise and anti-clockwise direction. 整个刷头左右转动

Is it suitable for you? 电动牙刷适合你吗?
●People with special needs, such as the physically and mentally disabled people, may choose to use powered toothbrushes. 有特殊需要的人士,如手部活动有困难或残障人士,可选择使用电动牙刷。
●The oscillation/rotation speed of the powered toothbrush may cause injury to the teeth if it is not used correctly. The technique in using powered toothbrush is different from that of the manual toothbrush. You should consult your dentist to achieve an optimal cleansing effect with your powered toothbrush. 由於电动牙刷转速快,如使用不当,会容易损害牙齿。使用电动牙刷的技巧有别於普通牙刷。如果想在使用电动牙刷时得到良好的清洁效果,就须请教牙科医生。
●As powered toothbrushes are more expensive than manual toothbrushes, you may consider using it according to your financial capability. 由於电动牙刷比普通牙刷的价钱昂贵,你可以按自己的经济能力考虑选用与否。

3. Superbrush屋型牙刷

Function功用
It is designed to simultaneously clean the outer, inner and chewing surfaces of teeth. 能同时间清洁牙齿的外侧面、内侧面和咀嚼面。

Toothbrush head design刷头设计
Three brush heads are combined together in the Superbrush. When the brush is placed on the chewing surface, all the three surfaces of the tooth are cleaned simultaneously. It shortens the brushing time. 三个刷头合而为一。把刷头放在咀嚼面上便能同时刷到牙齿的内侧面和外侧面,使刷牙所需时间缩短。

Is Superbrush suitable for you? 屋型牙刷适合你吗?
●User should have well aligned teeth. 使用者的牙齿必须排列整齐
●It is suitable for parents and health care workers who have to brush the teeth for the children or disabled, or for those whose manual dexterity is inadequate. 这类牙刷比较适合家长或护理人员在帮助幼儿、智障人士或手部活动不灵活者清洁牙齿时使用。

The choice of toothbrush is a matter of personal preference. If you are interested in using the Superbrush, you can try it. 其实牙刷的选择纯为个人喜好,如你有兴趣,也可尝试使用屋型牙刷。

4. Single-tuft toothbrush单头牙刷

What is a Single-tuft toothbrush? 什麽是单头牙刷?
It is a toothbrush with a very small head which can be used to clean wisdom teeth and crooked teeth effectively. There are various shapes of the brush head. The cleansing effectiveness of different shapes of the brush head is the same. 是刷头细小的牙刷,能有效清洁智慧齿和排列不整齐的牙齿 ,有多种刷头形状以供选择,不同形状的刷头,其清洁功效都一样。

Function and method of use功用和使用方法
It is used to clean the areas which are unreachable by conventional toothbrush such as清洁普通牙刷难刷到的地方,例如:
●Wisdom teeth上下颌骨四端的智慧齿
Method of use使用方法:
Hold the brush in a pen grip, and place the bristles at the gum margin of the wisdom tooth and brush gently to clean every tooth surface. 把刷头尽量放入整排牙齿的最後面,紧贴智慧齿的牙龈边缘,轻轻地移动,清洁每个牙面。
●Crooked teeth排列不整齐的牙齿
Method of use使用方法:
Hold the brush in a pen grip, and place the bristles over the tooth area where conventional toothbrush cannot reach and brush gently. 把刷头放於普通牙刷刷毛难以刷到的位置,轻轻地移动。

5. Interdental brush牙缝刷

Function and method of use功用和使用方法
●Cleaning the adjacent tooth surfaces with a wide interdental space. 清洁较宽牙缝的牙齿邻面
●In case of gingival recession due to Periodontal Disease, the gap between the roots of the neighbouring teeth is wide. Under this situation, an interdental brush may be used instead of dental floss. 如患有牙周病而引致牙龈萎缩,牙根与牙龈之间会形成较宽的罅隙,这情况下可选择使用牙缝刷代替牙线
●Insert the interdental brush into the gap between the roots of the teeth, brush forward and backward to clean the adjacent tooth surfaces. 使用牙缝刷时,只需把它摄入牙缝中,前後移动,清洁牙齿邻面。
●Cleaning tooth surfaces underneath fixed orthodontic appliances. 清洁戴上固定矫齿器的牙面
●It is rather difficult to clean the teeth with fixed orthodontic appliances in place. Therefore, people wearing fixed orthodontic appliances should pay special attention to their oral hygiene in order to reduce the chance of Dental Caries development. The teeth and the appliance should be cleaned in the morning and before bed at night everyday as well as after each meal. 戴上固定矫齿器後,牙齿会较难清洁。除了每天早上起床及晚上睡前清洁矫齿器外,更要在进餐後刷牙和清洁矫齿器。
●Suggested cleansing method清洁方法的建议:
--Firstly, brush the area between the orthodontic appliance and gingivae (gums). Then, brush the area between the appliance and the crown of the teeth. 首先,要用牙刷清洁矫齿器与牙龈之间的地方,再刷矫齿器与牙冠边缘的地方。
--Finally, insert an interdental brush into the area between the teeth and the appliance to clean. 然後再用牙缝刷把刷头部分置於牙齿与矫齿器之间的罅隙清洁
●Flossing is difficult for people wearing fixed orthodontic appliances. Hence, superfloss can be used to facilitate the removal of dental plaque on the adjacent tooth surfaces. 矫齿器在口腔内会令牙线的使用变得较为困难,因此可使用特效牙线清除牙齿邻面的牙菌膜。

Designs of interdental brush牙缝刷的设计
●Toothbrush head design刷头设计
Different sizes of brush head suit different widths of the interdental spaces. 不同大小的刷头适用於不同宽度的牙缝。
●Handle design刷柄设计
Long handle is suitable for home use, short handle (travel pack) is convenient to be carried around. 长柄适合在家中使用,短柄(旅行装)则方便携带。
●Replacement pack补充装
When the brush head is worn out, it can be replaced. It is economical. 刷头用久了,只需更换刷头,经济方便。

Which kind is suitable for you? 哪款牙缝刷适合你?
All kinds of interdental brush have the same cleansing effect. You can choose whatever you like. For example, a travel pack will be used when traveling and a replacement pack will be more economical. 其实所有款式的牙缝刷清洁功效都一样。你可以随个人喜好选择,例如出外时可选择旅行装,想经济一些的可选择补充装。

C. How to choose a toothbrush? 如何选择牙刷
●It is essential that the toothbrush can move freely in your mouth to clean every tooth surface and the bristles are soft so that it does not injure the gums. 选择普通牙刷时,要注意的是它必须能在你的口腔内灵活地转动,刷到每一个牙面。它的刷毛必须要柔软,才不会令牙龈受损。
●The size of the toothbrush head should be appropriate to the size of the oral cavity. In general, the size of a brush head which is the same as the diameter of a one-dollar coin will be suitable for adults. 刷头大小应根据口腔大小选择。 一般来说,刷头像香港一元硬币直径般大均适合成人使用。
●The bristle pattern and handle design should be determined by personal preference and habit. 刷毛的排列及刷柄的设计可随个人喜好及习惯选择。
●Both manual and powered toothbrushes clean the teeth effectively as long as they are used correctly. 如能正确地使用,普通牙刷和电动牙刷都能有效清洁牙齿。
●If you choose to use an interdental brush or a powered toothbrush, you should consult your dentist first. 如果你选择用电动牙刷,请先谘询牙科医生,了解如何改变刷牙技巧作配合。

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Oral Care Products─Toothpaste口腔护理用品─牙膏

A. Function of toothpaste牙膏的功用

Toothpastes can help remove dental plaque. Their various functions depend on the active ingredients they contain. 牙膏的功用是帮助清洁牙齿,其功效要视乎它所含的主要成分而定。

B. Types of toothpaste牙膏的种类

There are many different types of toothpaste available in the market. The followings are the common types of toothpaste: Fluoride toothpaste, desensitizing toothpaste, anti-calculus toothpaste, anti-plaque toothpaste, and whitening toothpaste. Their various functions depend on the active ingredients they contain. 市面上可买到的牙膏种类很多,大致上有以下几种:含氟化物牙膏、防敏感牙膏、防牙石牙膏、防牙菌膜牙膏和美白牙膏。它们的作用亦各有不同,要视乎牙膏内的主要成分而定。

Fluoride toothpaste含氟化物牙膏
They contain Sodium Fluoride(NaF), Stannous Fluoride(SnF2), or Monofluorophosphate(MFP2). The fluoride content is about 1,000 parts per million (ppm). They are all effective in preventing dental caries. Children toothpaste contains 500ppm fluoride and is usually fruit flavoured, which is suitable for children. 牙膏内含有Sodium Fluoride (NaF), Monofluorophosphate (MFP2) 或 Stannous Fluoride (SnF2)都属含氟化物牙膏,氟化物含量大约1,000 ppm (百万份之一千),能有效地防止蛀牙。儿童氟化物牙膏的含氟量是500 ppm,带有味道如果味、糖味,适合儿童使用。

Desensitizing toothpaste防敏感牙膏
The active ingredients help seal off the microtubules inside the exposed dentine (such as exposed root surface due to toothbrush abrasion) to reduce tooth sensitivity. Active ingredients such as Potassium Nitrate are used by different product manufacturers. There are many different types of desensitizing toothpastes marketed by different brand names. Their various functions depend on different active ingredients they contain. Therefore, you are advised to consult the dentist and undergo a thorough check-up to explore the cause of tooth sensitivity before using desensitizing toothpaste. You should consult the dentist if the symptoms of tooth sensitivity persist after using desensitizing toothpaste. Desensitizing toothpaste is not suitable for children. 这类牙膏能有助封闭牙齿外露了的象牙质(例如刷蚀的牙根)内的微细管道,减低牙齿敏感的程度。不同牌子内含化学成分,例如Potassium Nitrate等,但由于防敏感牙膏的种类繁多,不同牌子和化学成分有不同的功效,使用前应先征询牙科医生的意见,并详细检查牙齿,确定牙齿敏感的原因。而使用防敏感牙膏后如牙齿敏感的症状持续,应请教牙科医生。儿童不适宜使用防敏感牙膏。

Anti-calculus toothpaste防牙石牙膏
The manufacturer claims that the calcification of dental plaque could be retarded by this kind of toothpaste, thus it reduces the rate of calculus formation. The active ingredient is Pyrophosphate or Zinc Citrate. 这类牙膏声称能阻碍牙菌膜钙化,从而减低牙石形成的速度,主要成分有Pyrophosphate或Zinc Citrate。

Anti-plaque toothpaste防牙菌膜牙膏
This kind of toothpaste inhibits plaque accumulation, reduces the toxic effects of the bacterial toxin on the periodontal tissues, thereby reduces the chances of getting periodontal disease. In the market, different anti-plaque toothpastes contain different active ingredients. For example, Triclosan or Zinc Citrate. 这类牙膏可抑制牙菌膜积聚,削弱细菌所产生的毒素对牙周组织的刺激,减少引致牙周病的机会。市面上的防牙菌膜牙膏含有不同的防牙菌膜主要成分,例如Triclosan, Zinc Citrate。

Whitening toothpaste美白牙膏
This kind of toothpaste contains relatively coarse abrasives which function by abrading the stains on the tooth surface, giving a whitening effect. However, long term use will result in roughened tooth surfaces, which makes stains deposit more readily. 这类牙膏含比较粗糙的微粒,作用是磨去牙齿表面的牙渍,从而得到漂白牙齿的效果。不过长期使用这些牙膏会令牙齿表面粗糙,最终令牙渍更容易沉积在牙齿上。

C. Points to note when using toothpaste使用牙膏的注意事项
●Fluoride is effective in the prevention of dental caries. Since we are all susceptible to dental caries, we all need fluoride toothpaste. 必须选择含有氟化物(fluoride)的牙膏来刷牙,因为氟化物能有效帮助防止蛀牙。
●Children should use children toothpaste which contains a lower concentration of fluoride. This can prevent them from ingesting fluoride accidentally. 儿童必须选用儿童氟化物牙膏,因含氟量比较低,可避免他们误吞过量氟化物。
●Desensitizing toothpaste should only be used when there is tooth sensitivity. It is not recommended for long-term use. Hence, we should consult our dentists before using it. 在牙齿敏感时才需要使用防敏感牙膏,并且只可用一段短时期。因此,使用前应先徵询牙科医生的意见。
●Unless it is under the dentist's supervision, we should not use whitening toothpaste. Long-term use of whitening toothpaste will roughen the tooth surfaces, and stains will deposit on tooth surfaces more readily. 要得到牙科医生的建议和监察下才可使用美白牙膏。长期使用美白牙膏会令牙齿表面变得粗糙,让牙渍更容易沉积在牙齿表面。

D. Amount of toothpaste使用牙膏分量
A pea-sized blob of toothpaste is adequate. 每次刷牙时使用一粒青豆般分量的含氟化物牙膏便足够。

E. Functions of fluoride氟化物的功用
●When minerals are lost from the surfaces of the tooth, and a cavity is not formed yet, an appropriate amount of fluoride can promote the remineralization (redeposit the lost minerals) of the tooth and repair early dental caries. 当牙齿表面的矿物质流失,牙洞还没有形成,适量的氟化物能加速补充流失了的矿物质,令初期蛀牙得以修复。
●Fluoride strengthens teeth, and increases their resistance to acid attacks. 巩固牙齿,加强牙齿抵抗酸素侵害的能力。
●Fluoride inhibits the growth of dental plaque and reduces its acid-producing capability. 抑制牙菌膜的滋长,削弱细菌产生酸素的能力。

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Oral Care Products─Dental Floss口腔护理用品─牙线

Dental floss is composed of many nylon filaments which are bounded together to form a thread. 牙线是由多条细小的尼龙纤维结合而成的。

A. Function and method of use牙线的功用和使用方法

Dental floss is used to remove dental plaque from the adjacent surfaces of the teeth. Please refer to “Oral Care Tips” for using method. 使用牙线能清除牙齿邻面的牙菌膜,牙线的使用方法请叁考「护齿秘诀」。

B. Types of dental floss牙线的种类

Floss coating以涂上不同物质区别
●Waxed floss is coated with wax which makes it easier for the floss to slide into the adjacent tooth surface. 涂上蜡的牙线比较润滑,易滑进牙缝。
●Mint flavoured floss gives a feeling of freshness. 含薄荷味牙线让使用者感觉清新。
●Fluoride coated floss is intended to prevent dental caries from occurring on the adjacent tooth surfaces, but its effectiveness has not yet been proven. 含氟化物牙线的作用是预防牙齿邻面蛀坏。不过,功效如何则还未得到证实。

Shape of floss以线身形状区别
●Flattened floss is designed to increase the contact surface with the tooth. 扁平牙线的作用是增加牙线与牙齿的接触面
●Ultra floss is spongy and soft. 弹性牙线质地像海绵,比较柔软。
●Round floss is relatively thinner. 圆形牙线比较细
●Superfloss特效牙线
●Superfloss contains segments of stiff-end threader, spongy floss and regular floss. Stiff-end threader can make it easier for us to slide the Superfloss through the gap between the teeth and fixed orthodontic appliances, or to floss underneath the bridge. Spongy floss cleans around the appliances and between wide spaces. Regular floss removes plaque from the adjacent tooth surfaces. 特效牙线分为较硬部分、纤维部分和普通牙线部分。较硬部分能让特效牙线较易穿入牙齿与固定矫齿器之间的位置,或穿入牙挢底部。纤维部分用於清洁戴上矫齿器的牙齿、牙缝较宽阔的地方或牙挢底部。普通牙线部分用於清除牙齿邻面的牙菌膜。
Please refer to sections “Cleaning of fixed orthodontic appliance” and “Cleaning of fixed bridge” for method of using Superfloss. 使用特效牙线方法请叁考清洁固定矫齿器和清洁固定假牙部分。

Floss holder / Dental floss stick牙线叉
Floss holder/dental floss stick is a supplementary tool for flossing. It is suitable for parents or caregivers in helping children or individuals with special needs to clean the adjacent surfaces of their teeth. There are many different types of floss holder/dental floss sticks in the market. Parents are advised to choose the appropriate type according to their durability, shape, and handle length. 牙线叉是一种辅助使用牙线的功具,适合家长或护理人员帮孩子或有特殊需要人士清洁牙齿邻面时使用。市面上售卖的牙线叉各有不同,家长宜根据牙线叉的耐用性、形状和手柄的长短,购买合适的牙线叉。
●Floss holder and dental floss sticks come in either a “knife” shape or a “Y” shape. They are similarly effective in cleaning teeth. A new thread of dental floss can be reattached to the floss holder every time after use. When cleaning the back teeth using a “knife” shaped dental floss stick, one will need to stretch his lips to facilitate the access of the floss stick. Handles of floss holder/dental floss sticks differ in length. Those with shorter handles are more difficult to use. Therefore, parents and caregivers should choose the one with a longer handle to floss for their children. 牙线叉的形状有刀形及Y形,两种牙线叉在清洁牙齿的效能上并无分别。耐用型牙线叉在每次使用後须重新套上牙线。使用刀形的牙线叉在清洁後排牙齿时,就须拉开咀唇。牙线叉的手柄长短不一,但短手柄的牙线叉使用时比较困难,故家长或护理人员宜选择较长手柄的牙线叉。
●To effectively clean adjacent surfaces of teeth, the floss on the floss holder/dental floss stick must be taut. Therefore, we need to pay attention to the tautness of the floss when buying disposable dental floss sticks. 牙线叉上的牙线要拉得紧,这样才能有效地清洁牙齿邻面,所以若购买即弃型牙线叉,必须注意牙线的松紧。

C. Which dental floss is suitable for you? 那种牙线适合你?

You can choose a kind of dental floss or dental floss stick that is suitable for you according to your personal need or preference. Those who are wearing fixed orthodontic appliance or fixed bridge can use Superfloss. If used correctly, any kind of dental floss will effectively remove dental plaque. The use of dental floss will not widen the gaps between your teeth. There is no need to worry about it. 你可按个人需要或喜好去选择牙线或牙线叉 ,配戴固定假牙或固定矫齿器人士可选用特效牙线。其实只要用得其法,任何种类的牙线都能有效清除牙菌膜。使用牙线是不会令牙齿变疏的,可放心使用。

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Oral Care Products─Mouthwash口腔护理用品─漱口水

A. Types of mouthwash漱口水的类别

Depending on the active ingredients they contain, different types of mouthwash can be used to prevent dental caries, periodontal disease or reduce tooth sensitivity. 漱口水的作用要视乎其所含成分而定,包括预防蛀牙、牙周病或减低牙齿敏感的程度。

Fluoride mouthwash含氟化物漱口水
Most of the fluoride mouthwash on the market contains 0.05% Sodium Fluoride (NaF), which provides extra fluoride to the people who need it. Using it once daily will give additional protection against dental caries. 大多数含氟化物漱口水含有0.05% Sodium Fluoride (NaF),能为有需要的人士提供额外的氟化物。每天使用一次能为牙齿提供额外的保护,有效地防止蛀牙。

Anti-plaque mouthwash防牙菌膜漱口水
It inhibits plaque accumulation, thus reducing the chance of gingivitis (inflammation of the gums). The active ingredients include Triclosan, Thymol, Cetylpyridinium Chloride (CPC), etc. However, none of them have been proven to be very effective in preventing periodontal disease. 这种漱口水有助防止牙菌膜积聚,从而减低牙龈发炎的机会。其主要成分包括Triclosan, Thymol, Cetylpyridinium Chloride(CPC)等。但是,它们对预防牙周病的功效还未得到证实。

Plaque-control mouthwash抑制牙菌膜漱口水
Chlorhexidine Gluconate has been proven to have an antimicrobial effect, hence the prevention of periodontal disease. However, long term use of Chlorhexidine will stain the teeth and alter the taste sensation. Chlorhexidine Gluconate 被证实能有效抑制牙菌膜滋长,防止牙周病。但如果长期使用,会令牙渍容易沉积於牙齿表面及影响味觉。

Desensitizing mouthwash防敏感漱口水
This kind of mouthwash contains active ingredients such as Potassium Nitrate which seals the dentinal tubules at the sensitive site, thus reduces tooth sensitivity. However, desensitizing mouthwash is not intended for long term use. You should always consult your dentist whether you need the desensitizing mouthwash and follow his instruction on how to use it. 这种漱口水的主要化学成分如Potassium Nitrate能封闭象牙质的微细管道,令牙齿敏感程度减低。但是,防敏感漱口水是不应长期使用的。选购防敏感漱口水前,应先徵询牙科医生的意见,看看是否有此需要,如果有需要,便须遵照牙科医生的指示使用。

B. Which type is suitable for you? 哪类漱口水适合你?
●Most people don't need to use mouthwash. Before you choose to use mouthwash, please seek your dentist's advice. 一般人是不需要用漱口水的。因此,如你选用漱口水,应先徵询牙科医生的意见。
●For most people, as long as they thoroughly brush their teeth in the morning and before bed with fluoride toothpaste everyday, there is no need to use fluoride and anti-plaque mouthwash. 对一般人而言,如果每天起床及睡前用含氟化物牙膏彻底清洁牙齿,就无需使用含氟化物或防牙菌膜漱口水。
●For people who are prone to dental caries, having severe dental caries, wearing orthodontic appliances or undergoing radiotherapy, they need to use fluoride mouthwash according to the dentist's instructions in order to obtain additional protection against dental caries. 有特殊需要的人士,例如:容易患蛀牙或患有严重蛀牙的人士、配戴矫齿器或接受过放射治疗的人士,才需要在牙科医生指导下使用含氟化物漱口水,以加强对牙齿的保护,防止蛀牙。
●Plaque-control mouthwash is an alternative to toothbrushing, but it must be used under the dentist's instruction and only under special circumstances, e.g. after oral surgery, when toothbrushing is impossible. 具抑制牙菌膜功效的漱口水可以代替刷牙,但必须在牙科医生指导下使用。这类漱口水只在一些特别情况下才需要使用,如刚接受口腔手术後不能刷牙。
●Desensitizing mouthwash is only suitable for people with tooth sensitivity. It is advisable to consult your dentist before you choose to use it and follow his instructions in using desensitizing mouthwash. 防敏感漱口水只适合有牙齿敏感的人士使用。如果想选用防敏感漱口水,最好先请教牙科医生及遵照他的指示使用。

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Oral Care Products─Tooth whitening agents口腔护理用品─牙齿漂白剂

A. Function功用

It is used to lighten the tooth stains or tooth colours. 淡化牙齿的色素或色斑。

B. Active ingredients主要成分
Oxidizing agents such as Hydrogen Peroxide or Carbamide Peroxide. 有氧化功效的化学物质例如过氧化氢(俗称双氧水)、氧化碳醯二胺 (Carbamide Peroxide)。

C. Is it suitable for you? 是否适合你?
●The effectiveness of teeth whitening agents depends on the type and severity of the stain or the tooth colour. Thus, you should consult your dentist before purchasing these whitening agents. 牙齿漂白剂能否淡化牙齿的色素或色斑,需视乎色素或色斑的性质及类别而定。因此,欲购买及使用牙齿漂白剂时,应先徵询牙科医生的意见。
●Tooth whitening agents contain highly concentrated peroxide which, if used carelessly, will lead to gingival inflammation, swelling and bleeding. If swallowed accidentally, it may cause serious injury to the body. Therefore, tooth whitening agents must be used under the dentist's supervision, and the instructions should be followed to ensure safety. 由於牙齿漂白剂含有高浓度的过氧化氢等物质,不小心使用会导致牙龈发炎、红肿及出血。如果错误服用的话,更会对身体构成严重伤害。故此,牙齿漂白剂必须在牙科医生指导下使用,使用时更须遵照指示以确保安全。

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Oral Care Products─Denture Cleaning Tablets口腔护理用品─假牙片

Denture cleaning tablets contain Alkaline Peroxide. Bubbles will be formed when the tablets dissolve in water, and these bubbles can help removing food debris and plaque that are adhered on the denture. However, it is scientifically proven that these bubbles are far less effective in cleaning dentures than brushing the dentures with detergent before bed. Therefore, it is essential to brush your denture daily with detergent. Although denture cleaning tablets are harmless to your body or denture, it should only be used as a supplementary cleaning agent to the denture. 假牙片含有硷性过氧化物类(Alkaline Peroxide)。当假牙片溶於水就会产生气泡,这些气泡有助清洁假牙托上的食物残渣及牙菌膜,但实验证明这些气泡的清洁功效远远不及用洗洁精洗刷假牙托,固此每晚用洗洁精洗刷假牙托是必需的。虽然假牙片不会对身体或假牙托有损害,但亦只可用作洗刷假牙托的一种辅助清洁用品。

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