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【分享】National Institute on Aging对老年健康的建议及资源链接
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发表时间:2010-01-01
更新时间:2010-01-01
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看到几本来自National Institute on Aging的小册子,觉得不错,在网上找到更多资源,想到父母来美探亲的还比较多,贴这里与大家分享,希望能够方便JMs需要时查找啊!

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Healthy Eating After 50

“I have trouble chewing.” “Food just doesn’t taste the same anymore.” “I can’t get out to go shopping.” “It’s too much trouble to cook for one person.” “I’m just not that hungry.”

Sound familiar? These are a few common reasons some older people don’t eat healthy meals. But, making healthy food choices is a smart thing to do—no matter how old you are!

Here are some tips to get you started:
● Eat many different colors and types of vegetables and fruits.
● Make sure at least half of your grains are whole grains.
● Eat only small amounts of solid fats, oils, and foods high in sugars. Limit saturated fat (found mostly in foods that come from animals) or trans fats (found in foods like some margarines, shortening, cookies, and crackers).

★ Two Plans for Healthy Eating

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans from the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) suggest two eating plans. Eating a variety of foods from each food group in either plan will help you get the nutrients you need.

One plan is called the USDA Food Guide (also known as MyPyramid). It suggests that people 50 or older choose healthy foods every day from the following:

● Fruits—1-1/2 to 2-1/2 cups
What is the same as 1/2 cup of cut-up fruit? One medium whole fruit or ¼ cup of dried fruit

● Vegetables—2 to 3-1/2 cups
What is the same as a cup of cut-up vegetables? Two cups of uncooked leafy vegetable
Grains—5 to 10 ounces
What is the same as an ounce of grains? One roll, a small muffin, a slice of bread, 1 cup of flaked, ready-to-eat cereal, or ½ cup of cooked rice, pasta, or cereal

● Meat/beans—5 to 7 ounces
What is the same as an ounce of meat, fish, or poultry? One egg, ¼ cup of cooked beans or tofu, ½ ounce of nuts or seeds, or 1 tablespoon of peanut butter

● Milk—3 cups of fat-free or low-fat milk
What is the same as 1 cup of milk? One cup of yogurt or 1-1/2 to 2 ounces of cheese. One cup of cottage cheese is the same as ½ cup of milk.

Your doctor may have suggested that you follow a certain diet because you have a health problem like heart disease or diabetes. Or, you might have been told to avoid eating certain foods because they can change how well your medicines work. Talk to your doctor or a registered dietitian about foods you can eat instead.

Here’s a tip: Stay away from “empty calories.” These are foods and drinks with a lot of calories but not many nutrients—for example, chips, cookies, sodas, and alcohol.

The second eating plan is called the DASH Eating Plan. DASH stands for Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension. Following this plan will help you lower your blood pressure. See the resources at the end of this Age Page for more information on DASH.

★ How Much Should I Eat?

How much you should eat depends on how active you are. If you eat more calories than your body uses, you gain weight.

What are calories? Calories are a way to count how much energy is in food. You use the energy you get from food to do the things you need to do each day.

Just counting calories is not enough for making healthy choices. For example, a medium banana, 1 cup of flaked cereal, 2-1/2 cups of cooked spinach, 1 tablespoon of peanut butter, or 1 cup of 1% milk--all have roughly the same number of calories. But, the foods are different in many ways. Some have more of the nutrients you might need than others do. Milk gives you more calcium than a banana, and peanut butter gives you more protein than cereal. And a banana is likely to make you feel fuller than a tablespoon of peanut butter.

Here’s a tip: In the USDA Food Guide, eating the smallest amount suggested for each food group gives you about 1,600 calories. The largest amount has 2,800 calories.

How many calories do people over age 50 need each day?
A woman:
● who is not physically active needs about 1,600 calories
● who is somewhat active needs about 1,800 calories
● who has an active lifestyle needs about 2,000-2,200 calories

A man:
● who is not physically active needs about 2,000 calories
● who is somewhat active needs about 2,200-2,400 calories
● who has an active lifestyle needs about 2,400-2,800 calories

Here’s a tip: Get at least 30 minutes of moderate physical activity on most, if not all days of the week.

★ How Much Is on My Plate?

How does the food on your plate compare to how much you should be eating? For example, one very large chicken breast could be more from the meat/beans group than you are supposed to eat in a whole day. Here are some general ways you can check:
● 3 ounces of meat, poultry, or fish = deck of cards
● ½ cup of fruit, rice, pasta, or ice cream = ½ baseball
● 1 cup of salad greens = baseball
● 1-1/2 ounces of cheese = 4 stacked dice
● 1 teaspoon of butter or margarine = 1 dice (or die)
● 2 tablespoons of peanut butter = ping pong ball
● 1 cup of flaked cereal or a baked potato = fist

Read the Label
At first, reading labels on many packaged foods may take some time. The facts there can help you make better food choices. Labels have a Nutrition Facts panel. It tells how much protein, carbohydrates, fats, sodium, key vitamins and minerals, and calories are in a serving. The panel also shows how many servings are in the package—be careful because sometimes what you think is one serving is really more.

Each can, bottle, or package label also has an ingredients list. Items are listed from largest amount to smallest.

★ Having Problems with Food?

Does your favorite chicken dish taste different? As you grow older, your sense of taste and sense of smell may change. Foods may seem to have lost flavor. Also, medicines can change how food tastes. They can also make you feel less hungry. Talk to your doctor about whether there is a different medicine you could use. Try extra spices or herbs on your foods to add flavor.

As you get older, you might not be able to eat all the foods you used to eat. For example, some people become lactose intolerant. They have symptoms like stomach pain, gas, or diarrhea after eating or drinking something with milk in it, like ice cream. Most can eat small amounts of such food or can try yogurt, buttermilk, or hard cheese. Lactose-free foods are available now also. Your doctor can test to see if you are lactose intolerant.

Is it harder to chew? Maybe your dentures need to fit better, or your gums are sore. If so, a dentist can help you. Until then, you might want to eat softer foods that are easier to chew.

★ Do I Need to Drink Water?

With age, you may lose some of your sense of thirst. Drink plenty of liquids like water, juice, milk, and soup. Don’t wait until you feel thirsty. Try to drink several large glasses of water each day. Your urine should be pale yellow. If it is a bright or dark yellow, you need to drink more liquids.

Be sure to talk with your doctor if you have trouble controlling your urine. Don’t stop drinking liquids. There are better ways to help bladder control problems.

★ What about Fiber?

Fiber is found in foods from plants—fruits, vegetables, beans, nuts, seeds, and whole grains. Eating more fiber might prevent stomach or intestine problems, like constipation. It might also help lower cholesterol, as well as blood sugar.

It is better to get fiber from food than dietary supplements. Start adding more fiber slowly. That will help avoid unwanted gas. Here are some tips for adding fiber:
● Eat cooked dry beans, peas, and lentils often.
● Leave skins on your fruit and vegetables if possible.
● Choose whole fruit over fruit juice.
● Eat whole-grain breads and cereals.

Drink plenty of liquids to help fiber move through your intestines.

★ Should I Cut Back on Salt?

The usual way people get sodium is by eating salt. The body needs sodium, but too much can make blood pressure go up in some people. Most fresh food contains some sodium. Salt is added to many canned and prepared foods.

People tend to eat more salt than they need. If you are over age 50, about 2/3 of a teaspoon of table salt--1500 milligrams (mg) of sodium--is all you need each day. That includes all the sodium in your food and drink, not just the salt you add when cooking or eating. If your doctor tells you to use less salt, ask about a salt substitute. Some contain sodium. Also, don’t add salt during cooking or at the table, and avoid salty snacks and processed foods. Look for the word sodium, not salt, on the Nutrition Facts panel. Choose foods labeled “low-sodium.” Often, the amount of sodium in the same kind of food can vary greatly between brands.

Here’s a tip: Spices, herbs, and lemon juice can add flavor to your food, so you won’t miss the salt.

★ What about Fat?

Fat in your diet comes from two places--the fat already found in food and the fat added when you cook. Fat gives you energy and helps your body use certain vitamins, but it is high in calories. To lower the fat in your diet:
● Choose cuts of meat, fish, or poultry (with the skin removed) with less fat.
● Trim off any extra fat before cooking.
● Use low-fat dairy products and salad dressings.
● Use non-stick pots and pans, and cook without added fat.
● Choose an unsaturated or monosaturated vegetable oil (check the label) or a nonfat cooking spray.
● Instead of frying, broil, roast, bake, stir-fry, steam, microwave, or boil foods.

★ Keeping Food Safe

Older people must take extra care to keep their food safe to eat. As you get older, you are less able to fight off infections, and some foods could make you very sick. Be sure to fully cook eggs, pork, fish, shellfish, poultry, and hot dogs. Talk to your doctor or a registered dietitian, a nutrition specialist, about foods to avoid. These might include raw sprouts, some deli meats, and foods that are not pasteurized (heated to destroy disease-causing organisms), like some milk products and juices in the refrigerated section of the grocery.

The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recalled many products containing peanuts. Go to www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/peanutbutterrecall/index.cfm for more details.

Before cooking, handle raw food with care. Keep it apart from foods that are already cooked or won’t be cooked, like salad, fruit, or bread. Be careful with tools--your knife, plate, or cutting board, for example. Don’t cut raw meat with the same knife you will use to make a salad. Rinse raw fruits and vegetables before eating. Use hot soapy water to wash your hands, tools, and work surfaces as you cook.

As you get older, you can’t depend on sniffing or tasting food to tell if it has gone bad. Try putting dates on foods in your refrigerator. Check the “use by” date on foods. If in doubt, toss it out.

Here’s a tip: Make sure food gets into the refrigerator no more than 2 hours after it is cooked—whether you made it yourself or brought it home from a restaurant.

★ Can I Afford to Eat Right?

If your budget is limited, it might take some thought and planning to be able to pay for the foods you should eat. Here are some suggestions. First, buy only the foods you need. A shopping list will help with that. Before shopping, plan your meals, and check your supply of staples like flour and cereal. Make sure you have some canned or frozen foods in case you do not feel like cooking or cannot go out. Powdered, canned, or ultra-pasteurized milk in a shelf carton can be stored easily.

Think about how much of a food you will use. A large size may be cheaper per unit, but it is only a bargain if you use all of it. Try to share large packages of food with a friend. Frozen vegetables in bags save money because you can use small amounts and keep the rest frozen. If a package of meat or fresh produce is too large, ask a store employee to repackage it in a smaller size.

Here are other ways to keep your food costs down:
● Plain (generic) labels or store brands often cost less than name brands.
● Plan your meals around food that is on sale.
● Prepare more of the foods you enjoy, and quickly refrigerate the leftovers to eat in a day or two.
● Divide leftovers into small servings, label and date, and freeze to use within a few months.

Food stamps from the Federal Government help people with low incomes buy groceries. You may be able to enjoy free or low-cost meals for older people at a community center, church, or school. This is a chance to eat good food and to be with other people. Home-delivered meals are available for people who are homebound. To learn more about these programs contact the Eldercare Locator listed under For More Information to find your local Area Agency on Aging.

★ For More Information
Here are some helpful resources.

To learn about the DASH diet:

National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
Box 30105
Bethesda, MD 20824-0105
301-592-8573
240-629-3255 (TTY)
www.nhlbi.nih.gov

To learn more about nutrition, meal programs, or help with shopping:

Eldercare Locator
800-677-1116 (toll-free)
www.eldercare.gov

Federal Government nutrition websites:
www.nutrition.gov -- learn more about healthy eating, food shopping, assistance programs, and nutrition-related health subjects
www.healthierus.gov – learn how to follow a healthier lifestyle
www.mypyramid.gov– USDA MyPyramid Food Guide
www.foodsafety.gov – learn more about how to cook and eat safely

National Library of Medicine
MedlinePlus
www.medlineplus.gov

USDA Food and Nutrition Information Center
10301 Baltimore Avenue, Rm. 304
Beltsville, MD 20705-2351
301-504-5719
www.nal.usda.gov/fnic

For more information on health and aging, contact:

National Institute on Aging Information Center
P.O. Box 8057
Gaithersburg, MD 20898-8057
800-222-2225 (toll-free)
800-222-4225 (TTY/toll-free)
www.nia.nih.gov
www.nia.nih.gov/Espanol

To sign up for regular email alerts about new publications and other information about the NIA, go to www.nia.nih.gov/HealthInformation.

Visit NIHSeniorHealth (www.nihseniorhealth.gov), a senior-friendly website from the National Institute on Aging and the National Library of Medicine. This website has health information for older adults. Special features make it simple to use. For example, you can click on a button to have the text read out loud or to make the type larger.

National Institute on Aging
National Institutes of Health
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
June 2008

Page last updated Aug 06, 2009

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Exercise and Physical Activity: Getting Fit For Life

“After walking on a treadmill at the local community center, I knew I'd be happier outside. So, I got a step counter and started walking in my neighborhood. Since then, I've seen yellow tulips bloom in spring and red dogwood leaves drop in fall. I always come home with more energy and happy to go on with the rest of the day.” Marian (age 77)

“Both my wife and I have heart problems. About 2 years ago, we joined our local health club, where we do both endurance and strength training exercises. On the off days, we walk near our house. It’s been life-saving for us.” Bob (age 78)

These older adults are living proof that exercise and physical activity are good for you, no matter how old you are. In fact, staying active can help you:
● Keep and improve your strength so you can stay independent.
● Have more energy to do the things you want to do.
● Improve your balance.
● Prevent or delay some diseases like heart disease, diabetes, breast and colon cancer, and osteoporosis.
● Perk up your mood and reduce depression.

You don’t need to buy special clothes or belong to a gym to become more active. Physical activity can and should be part of your everyday life. Find things you like to do. Go for brisk walks. Ride a bike. Dance. Work around the house. Garden. Climb stairs. Swim. Rake leaves. Try different kinds of activities that keep you moving. Look for new ways to build physical activity into your daily routine.

★ Four Ways to Be Active

To get all of the benefits of physical activity, try all four types of exercise – 1) endurance, 2) strength, 3) balance, and 4) flexibility.

1. Try to build up to at least 30 minutes of activity that makes you breathe hard on most or all days of the week. Every day is best. That’s called an endurance activity because it builds your energy or “staying power.” You don’t have to be active for 30 minutes all at once. Ten minutes at a time is fine.

How hard do you need to push yourself? If you can talk without any trouble at all, you are not working hard enough. If you can’t talk at all, it’s too hard.

2. Keep using your muscles. Strength exercises build muscles. When you have strong muscles, you can get up from a chair by yourself, you can lift your grandchildren, and you can walk through the park.
Keeping your muscles in shape helps prevent falls that cause problems like broken hips. You are less likely to fall when your leg and hip muscles are strong.

3. Do things to help your balance. Try standing on one foot, then the other. If you can, don’t hold on to anything for support. Get up from a chair without using your hands or arms. Every now and then walk heel-to-toe. As you walk, put the heel of one foot just in front of the toes of your other foot. Your heel and toes should touch or almost touch.

4. Stretch. Stretching can help you be more flexible. Moving more freely will make it easier for you to reach down to tie your shoes or look over your shoulder when you back the car out of your driveway. Stretch when your muscles are warmed up. Don’t stretch so far that it hurts.

★ Who Should Exercise?

Almost anyone, at any age, can do some type of physical activity. You can still exercise even if you have a health condition like heart disease or diabetes. In fact, physical activity may help. For most older adults, brisk walking, riding a bike, swimming, weight lifting, and gardening are safe, especially if you build up slowly. But, check with your doctor if you are over 50 and you aren’t used to energetic activity. Other reasons to check with your doctor before you exercise include:
● any new symptom you haven’t discussed with your doctor
● dizziness or shortness of breath
● chest pain or pressure, or the feeling that your heart is skipping, racing, or fluttering
● blood clots
● an infection or fever with muscle aches
● unplanned weight loss
● foot or ankle sores that won’t heal
● joint swelling
● a bleeding or detached retina, eye surgery, or laser treatment
● a hernia
● recent hip or back surgery

★ Safety Tips

Here are some things you can do to make sure you are exercising safely:
● Start slowly, especially if you haven’t been active for a long time. Little by little build up your activities and how hard you work at them.
● Don’t hold your breath during strength exercises. That could cause changes in your blood pressure. It may seem strange at first, but you should breathe out as you lift something, and breathe in as you relax.
● Use safety equipment. For example, wear a helmet for bike riding or the right shoes for walking or jogging.
● Unless your doctor has asked you to limit fluids, be sure to drink plenty when you are doing activities. Many older adults don’t feel thirsty even if their body needs fluids.
● Always bend forward from the hips, not the waist. If you keep your back straight, you’re probably bending the right way. If your back “humps,” that’s probably wrong.
● Warm up your muscles before you stretch. Try walking and light arm pumping first.

Exercise should not hurt or make you feel really tired. You might feel some soreness, a little discomfort, or a bit weary, but you should not feel pain. In fact, in many ways, being active will probably make you feel better.

★ How to Find Out More

Local fitness centers or hospitals might be able to help you find a physical activity program that works for you. You also can check with nearby religious groups, senior and civic centers, parks, recreation associations, YMCAs, YWCAs, or even shopping malls for exercise, wellness, or walking programs.

Looking for more information on how to exercise safely? Exercise and Physical Activity: Your Everyday Guide from the National Institute on Aging has strength, balance, and stretching exercises you can do at home. You can order the free Guide from the National Institute on Aging Information Center.

Many groups have information about physical activity and exercise for older adults. The following list of resources will help you get started:

American College of Sports Medicine
P.O. Box 1440
Indianapolis, IN 46206-1440
1-317-637-9200
www.acsm.org

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
1600 Clifton Road
Atlanta, GA 30333
1-800-232-4636
www.cdc.gov

MedlinePlus
“Exercise for Seniors”
"Exercise and Physical Fitness"
www.medlineplus.gov

President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports
Room 738-H
200 Independence Avenue, SW
Washington, DC 20201-0004
1-202-690-9000
www.fitness.gov

For more information on health and aging, contact:

National Institute on Aging
Information Center
P.O. Box 8057
Gaithersburg, MD 20898-8057
1-800-222-2225 (toll-free)
1-800-222-4225 (TTY/toll-free)
www.nia.nih.gov
www.nia.nih.gov/Espanol
To sign up for regular email alerts, go to www.nia.nih.gov/HealthInformation.

Visit NIHSeniorHealth (www.nihseniorhealth.gov), a senior-friendly website from the National Institute on Aging and the National Library of Medicine. This website has health information for older adults, including information about exercise and physical activity. Special features make it simple to use. For example, you can click on a button to have the text read out loud or to make the type larger.

National Institute on Aging
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
Public Health Service
National Institutes of Health

October 2006

Reprinted June 2009

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Dietary Supplements

Bill’s retired and lives alone. Often he’s just not hungry or is too tired to fix a whole meal. Does he need a multivitamin, or should he take one of those dietary supplements he sees in ads everywhere? Bill wonders if they work—will one help keep his joints healthy or another give him more energy? And, are they safe?

★ What Is a Dietary Supplement?

Dietary supplements are substances you might use to add nutrients to your diet or to lower your risk of health problems, like osteoporosis or arthritis. Dietary supplements come in the form of pills, capsules, powders, gel tabs, extracts, or liquids. They might contain vitamins, minerals, fiber, amino acids, herbs or other plants, or enzymes. Sometimes, the ingredients in dietary supplements are added to foods, including drinks. A doctor’s prescription is not needed to buy dietary supplements.

★ Should I Take a Dietary Supplement?

Do you need one? Maybe you do, but usually not. Ask yourself why you think you might want to take a dietary supplement. Are you concerned about getting enough nutrients? Is a friend, a neighbor, or someone on a commercial suggesting you take one? Some ads for dietary supplements in magazines or on TV seem to promise that these supplements will make you feel better, keep you from getting sick, or even help you live longer. Sometimes, there is little, if any, good scientific research supporting these claims. Some dietary supplements will give you nutrients that might be missing from your daily diet. But eating healthy foods is the best way to get the nutrients you need. Others may cost a lot or might not benefit you the way you would like. Some supplements can change how medicines you may already be taking will work. You should talk to your doctor or a registered dietitian for advice.

★ What If I’m Over 50?

People over 50 need more of some vitamins and minerals than younger adults do. Your doctor or a dietitian can tell you whether you need to change your diet or take vitamins or minerals to get enough of these:
● Vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 helps keep your red blood cells and nerves healthy. As people grow older, some have trouble absorbing vitamin B12 naturally found in food. Instead, they can choose foods, like fortified cereals, that have this vitamin added or use a B12 supplement.
● Calcium. Calcium works with vitamin D to keep bones strong at all ages. Bone loss can lead to fractures in both older women and men. Calcium is found in milk and milk products (fat-free or low-fat is best), canned fish with soft bones, dark-green leafy vegetables like spinach, and foods with calcium added.
● Vitamin D. Some people’s bodies make enough vitamin D if they are in the sun for 10 to 15 minutes at least twice a week. But, if you are older, you may not be able to get enough vitamin D that way. Try adding vitamin D-fortified milk and milk products, vitamin D-fortified cereals, and fatty fish to your diet, and/or use a vitamin D supplement.
● Vitamin B6. This vitamin is needed to form red blood cells. It is found in potatoes, bananas, chicken breasts, and fortified cereals.

■ Different Vitamin and Mineral Recommendations for People Over 50

The National Academy of Sciences recommends how much of each vitamin and mineral men and women of different ages need. Sometimes, the Academy also tells us how much of a vitamin or mineral is too much.
● Vitamin B12—2.4 mcg (micrograms) each day (if you are taking medicine for acid reflux, you might need a different form, which your health care provider can give you)
● Calcium—1200 mg (milligrams), but not more than 2500 mg a day
● Vitamin D—400 IU (International Units) for people age 51 to 70 and 600 IU for those over 70, but not more than 2000 IU each day
● Vitamin B6—1.7 mg for men and 1.5 mg for women each day

When thinking about whether you need more of a vitamin or mineral, think about how much of each nutrient you get from food and drinks, as well as from any supplements you take. Check with a doctor or dietitian to learn whether you need to supplement your diet.

★ What Are Antioxidants?

You might hear about antioxidants in the news. These are natural substances found in food that might help protect you from some diseases. Here are some common sources of antioxidants that you should be sure to include in your diet:
● beta-carotene—fruits and vegetables that are either dark green or dark orange
● selenium—seafood, liver, meat, and grains
● vitamin C—citrus fruits, peppers, tomatoes, and berries
● vitamin E—wheat germ, nuts, sesame seeds, and canola, olive, and peanut oils

Right now, research results suggest that large doses of supplements with antioxidants will not prevent chronic diseases such as heart disease or diabetes. In fact, some studies have shown that taking large doses of some antioxidants could be harmful. Again, it is best to check with your doctor before taking a dietary supplement.

★ What About Herbal Supplements?

Herbal supplements are dietary supplements that come from plants. A few that you may have heard of are gingko biloba, ginseng, echinacea, and black cohosh. Researchers are looking at using herbal supplements to prevent or treat some health problems. It’s too soon to know if herbal supplements are both safe and useful. But, studies of some have not shown benefits.

★ Are Dietary Supplements Safe?

Scientists are still working to answer this question. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) checks prescription medicines, such as antibiotics or blood pressure medicines, to make sure they are safe and do what they promise. The same is true for over-the-counter drugs like pain and cold medicines.

But the FDA does not consider dietary supplements to be medicines. The FDA does not watch over dietary supplements in the same way it does prescription medicines. The Federal Government does not regularly test what is in dietary supplements. So, just because you see a dietary supplement on a store shelf does not mean it is safe or that it even does what the label says it will or contains what the label says it contains.

If the FDA receives reports of possible problems with a supplement, it will issue warnings about products that are clearly unsafe. The FDA may also take these supplements off the market. The Federal Trade Commission looks into reports of ads that might misrepresent what dietary supplements do.

A few private groups, such as the U.S. Pharmacopeia (USP), NSF International, ConsumerLab.com, and the Natural Products Association (NPA), have their own “seals of approval” for dietary supplements. To get such a seal, products must be made by following good manufacturing procedures, must contain what is listed on the label, and must not have harmful levels of things that don’t belong there, like lead.

★ What’s Best for Me?

If you are thinking about using dietary supplements:
● Learn. Find out as much as you can about any dietary supplement you might take. Talk to your doctor, your pharmacist, or a registered dietitian. A supplement that seemed to help your neighbor might not work for you. If you are reading fact sheets or checking websites, be aware of the source of the information. Could the writer or group profit from the sale of a particular supplement? For more information from the National Institute on Aging about choosing reliable health information websites, see For More Information.
● Remember. Just because something is said to be “natural” doesn’t also mean it is either safe or good for you. It could have side effects. It might make a medicine your doctor prescribed for you either weaker or stronger.
● Tell your doctor. He or she needs to know if you decide to go ahead and use a dietary supplement. Do not diagnose or treat your health condition without first checking with your doctor.
● Buy wisely. Choose brands that your doctor, dietitian, or pharmacist says are trustworthy. Don’t buy dietary supplements with ingredients you don’t need. Don’t assume that more of something that might be good for you is even better for you.
● Check the science. Make sure any claim made about a dietary supplement is based on scientific proof. The company making the dietary supplement should be able to send you information on the safety and/or effectiveness of the ingredients in a product, which you can then discuss with your doctor. Remember that if something sounds too good to be true, it probably is.

★ What Can I Do to Stay Healthy?

Here’s what one active older person does:

When she turned 60, Pearl decided she wanted to stay healthy and active as long as possible. She was careful about what she ate. She became more physically active. Now she takes a long, brisk walk 3 or 4 times a week. In bad weather, she joins the mall walkers at the local shopping mall. When it’s nice outside, Pearl works in her garden. When she was younger, Pearl stopped smoking and started using a seatbelt. She’s even learning how to use a computer to find healthy recipes. Last month, she danced at her granddaughter’s wedding. Pearl is 84 years old.

Try following Pearl’s example—stick to a healthy diet, be physically active, keep your mind active, don’t smoke, see your doctor regularly, and, in most cases, only use dietary supplements suggested by your doctor or pharmacist.

★ For More Information
Here are some helpful resources:

Department of Agriculture
Food and Nutrition Information Center
National Agricultural Library
10301 Baltimore Avenue, Room 105
Beltsville, MD 20705-2351
301-504-5414
www.nal.usda.gov/fnic

Federal Trade Commission
600 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20580
877-382-4357 (toll-free)
202-326-2222
www.ftc.gov/bcp/menus/consumer/health/drugs.shtm

Food and Drug Administration
Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition
5100 Paint Branch Parkway HFS-555
College Park, MD 20740-3835
888-723-3366 (toll-free)
www.cfsan.fda.gov

National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine
NCCAM Clearinghouse
Box 7923
Gaithersburg, MD 20898
888-644-6226 (toll-free)
866-464-3615 (TTY/toll-free)
www.nccam.nih.gov

National Library of Medicine
MedlinePlus
www.medlineplus.gov

Office of Dietary Supplements
6100 Executive Boulevard
Room 3B01, MSC 7517
Bethesda, MD 20892-7517
301-435-2920
www.ods.od.nih.gov

The Federal Government has several other websites with information on nutrition, including:

www.nutrition.gov—learn more about healthy eating, food shopping, assistance programs, and nutrition-related health subjects.

www.mypyramid.gov—information about the Dietary Guidelines for Americans

For information on exercise, nutrition, and health quackery, contact:

National Institute on Aging
Information Center
P.O. Box 8057
Gaithersburg, MD 20898-8057
800-222-2225 (toll-free)
800-222-4225 (TTY/toll-free)
www.nia.nih.gov
www.nia.nih.gov/Espanol

To sign up for regular email alerts about new publications and other information from the NIA, go to www.nia.nih.gov/HealthInformation.

Visit NIHSeniorHealth (www.nihseniorhealth.gov), a senior-friendly website from the National Institute on Aging and the National Library of Medicine. This website has health information for older adults. Special features make it simple to use. For example, you can click on a button to have the text read out loud or to make the type larger.

National Institute on Aging
National Institutes of Health
Department of Health and Human Services

April 2008
Page last updated Aug 06, 2009

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There’s No Place Like Home—For Growing Old

“The stairs are getting so hard to climb.”
“Since my wife died, I just open a can of soup for dinner.”
“I’ve lived here 40 years. No other place will seem like home.”

These are common concerns for older people. And, you may share an often-heard wish—“I want to stay in my own home!” The good news is that with the right help you might be able to do just that.

★ What do I do first?

Think about the kinds of help you might want in the near future. Planning ahead is hard because you never know how your needs might change. Maybe you live alone, so there is no one to help you. Maybe you don’t need help right now, but you live with a husband or wife who does. Whatever your situation, start by looking at any illnesses like diabetes, heart disease, or emphysema that you have. Then talk to your doctor about how these health problems could make it hard for you to get around or take care of yourself in the future. Help getting dressed in the morning, fixing a meal, or remembering to take medicine may be all you need to stay at home.

As you read on, you will learn about the kinds of help that you might want to look for where you live. You will read about people and places to go to for more information about the resources near you—from people in your community to the Federal Government. If you are worried about how much this help will cost, you will see that we have tried to give you suggestions for free or low cost help, as well as some that cost more. There are also ways to find out if there are any benefits that apply to you. Last, there is a list of groups to contact for more detailed answers to your questions. Share this information with others in your family, and use it as a stepping stone to begin talking about your needs—now and in the future.

■ How can I help my older relatives stay in their home?

Some people start having trouble doing everyday activities like shopping, cooking, and taking care of their home or themselves as they grow older. Is that happening to any of your relatives—your parents or an aunt or uncle, for example? If so, talk to them about getting help. Offer to get information for them. Think about what you and others in the family can do to help. Talk to your friends whose relatives may be facing the same kinds of problems. Ask about the solutions they found. Then sit down and tell your relatives what you have learned. Together you can decide what to do.

★ What kinds of help can I get?

You can get almost any type of help you want in your home—often for a cost. The following list includes some common things people need. You can get more information on many of these services from your local Area Agency on Aging, local and State offices on aging or social services, tribal organization, or nearby senior centers.

● Personal care. Is bathing, washing your hair, or dressing getting harder to do? Maybe a relative or friend could help you. Or, you could hire someone trained to help you for a short time each day.

● Homemaking. Do you need help with chores like housecleaning, yard work, grocery shopping, or laundry? Some grocery stores and drug stores will take your order over the phone and bring the items to your home. There are cleaning services you can hire, or maybe someone you know has a housekeeper to suggest. Some housekeepers will help with laundry. Some drycleaners will pick up and deliver your clothes.

● Meals. Tired of cooking every day or of eating alone? Maybe you could share cooking with a friend a few times a week or have a potluck dinner with a group of friends. Sometimes meals are served at a nearby senior center, church, or synagogue. Eating out may give you a chance to visit with others. Is it hard for you to get out? Ask someone you know to bring you a healthy meal a few times a week. Also, programs like Meals on Wheels bring hot meals into your home.

● Money management. Are you paying bills late or not at all because it’s tiring or hard to keep track of them? Are doctors’ bills and health insurance claim forms confusing? Ask a trusted relative to lend a hand. If that’s not possible, volunteers, financial counselors, or geriatric care managers can help. Just make sure you get the name from a trustworthy source, like your local Area Agency on Aging. Would you like to lighten the load of paying bills yourself? Talk with someone at your bank. You might also be able to have regular bills, like utilities and rent or mortgage, paid directly from your checking account.

● Health care. Do you forget to take your medicine? There are devices available to remind you when it is time to take it. Have you just gotten out of the hospital and still need nursing care at home for a short time? Medicare might pay for a home health aide to come to your home.

● Products to make life easier. Is it getting harder to turn a door knob, get out of a chair, or put on your socks? There are things available to make these activities and many of the other things you do during the day easier. The Department of Education provides a website, www.abledata.com. If you can’t get to or use a computer, they will answer your questions at 800-227-0216. This website has information on more than 30,000 assistive technology products designed to make it easier for people with physical limitations to do things for themselves.

● Getting around—at home and in town. Are you having trouble walking? Think about getting an electric chair or scooter. These are sometimes covered by Medicare. Do you need someone to go with you to the doctor or shopping? Volunteer escort services may be available. Don’t drive a car any longer? Free or lower-priced public transportation and taxis may be offered in your area. Maybe a relative, friend, or neighbor would take you along when they go on errands or do yours for you.

● Activities and friends. Are you bored staying at home? Try visiting your local senior center. They offer a variety of activities. You might see some old friends there and meet new people too. Is it hard for you to leave your home? Maybe you would enjoy visits from someone on a regular basis. Volunteers are sometimes available to stop by or call once a week. They can just keep you company, or you can talk about any problems you are having.

● Safety. Are you worried about crime in your neighborhood, physical abuse, or losing money as a result of a scam? Talk to your local Area Agency on Aging. Do you live alone and are afraid of becoming sick with no one around to help? You might want to get an emergency alert system. You just push a special button that you wear, and emergency medical personnel are called. A monthly fee is charged.

● Care away from home. Do you need care but live with someone who can’t stay with you during the day? For example, maybe they work. Adult day care outside the home is sometimes available for older people who need help getting around or caring for themselves. The day care center can even pick you up and bring you home. If your caretaker needs to get away overnight, there are places that will provide more extended temporary respite care.

● Housing. Does your home need a few changes to make it easier and safer to live in? Think about things like a ramp at the front door, grab bars in the tub or shower, nonskid floors, more comfortable handles on doors or faucets, and better insulation. Sound expensive? You might be able to get help paying for these changes. Check with your local or State Area Agencies on Aging, State housing finance agency, welfare department, community development groups, or the Federal Government (see For More Information ).

★ Where do I start?

Here are some resources where you can look for this help:

● People you know. For many older people, family, friends, and neighbors are the biggest source of help. Talk with those close to you about the best way to get what you need. If you are physically able, think about trading services with a friend or neighbor. One could do the grocery shopping, and the other could cook dinner, for example.

● Community and local government resources. Learn about the types of services and care found in your community. Health care providers and social workers may have suggestions. The local Area Agency on Aging, local and State offices on aging or social services, and your tribal organization have lists of services. Look in the phone book under “Government.” If you belong to a religious group, check with its local offices. The group might have a senior services program.

● Geriatric care managers. Specially-trained people known as geriatric care managers can help make your daily life easier. They will work with you to form a long-term care plan and find the right services. They charge for this help, and it probably won’t be covered by any insurance plan. Geriatric care managers can be very helpful when family members live far apart. They will check in with you from time to time to make sure your needs haven’t changed.

● Federal Government sources. There are many resources from the Federal Government where you can start looking for information on help. Some are on the Internet and only available with a computer. Federal Government websites are reliable. If you don’t have a computer, you might be able to find one at your local library or senior center. Or ask your local Area Agency on Aging. Perhaps a grandchild, niece, or nephew could search for you. Wherever possible, we have also given a phone number. The Eldercare Locator has information on many different services for older people. They can give you the number of your local Area Agency on Aging. To use this service call 800-677-1116, or go to www.eldercare.gov on the Internet.

You can get suggestions to fit your own needs from the Medicare website at www.medicare.gov. Just click on “Long-Term Care” and then “Long-Term Care Planning Tool.” Type in information about yourself (age, sex, and whether or not you are married), as well as your health problems and other needs. Very quickly it will give the type of help you should look for and general advice on how to find it and how to pay for it. You do not have to put in any personal information—not even your name or Social Security number.

The National Library of Medicine’s website, www.medlineplus.gov, has a section “Home care services.” This contains links to information that might be of help.

The National Institute on Aging (NIA) has its Resource Directory for Older People. It has the names, addresses, phone numbers, and website addresses for more than 260 government agencies, professional associations, and public and private groups that have information or help for older people. You can use it online at www.nia.nih.gov/HealthInformation or call 800-222-2225 for help finding the resource you need.

Once you have chosen some service providers, you might be able to get more information about them from www.medicare.gov. The Home Health Compare section there can tell you more about some of the providers in your State. You can also check on how well these services help people. No computer? Just call 800-MEDICARE (800-633-4227) for the same information.

★ How much will this cost?

Some types of help could cost a lot. Thinking about how you are going to pay for the help you need is an important part of planning. Some things you want may cost a lot. Others may be free. Some things may be covered by Medicare, private “Medigap” policies or other private health insurance, Medicaid, or long-term care insurance. Some may not. Check with your insurance provider(s). There is a chance that paying for just a few services out of pocket could cost less in the long run than moving into an independent living, assisted living, or long-term care facility. And you will have your wish of still living in your own home.

Once you have thought about which services you need, you can find out about Federal, State, and local government benefits at www.govbenefits.gov. If you can’t get to a computer, call 800-FED-INFO (800-333-4636) for the same kind of help.

Another website to search for benefits is www.benefitscheckup.org from the National Council on Aging. By typing in general information about yourself, you can see a list of possible benefits you might qualify for. You don’t have to give your name, address, or Social Security number in order to use this service.

Are you eligible for veteran’s benefits from the Department of Veterans Affairs? The VA sometimes provides medical care in your home. In some areas they also offer homemaker/home health aide services, adult day health care, and hospice. You can learn more by going to www.va.gov, calling the toll-free VA Health Care Benefits number, 877-222-8387, or contacting the VA medical center nearest you.

★ What if I need more help?

At some point, support from family, friends, or local programs may not be enough. If you need help on a full-time basis, you might want to think about having someone live in your home. Or, you could have someone from a service come in for as many hours and days as you want for a fee. You might also decide to move to a senior living facility that provides many or all of the services you need. But, in the meantime, you will have enjoyed your home and neighbors for longer than you once thought. A little help from family, friends, and local services will have made that possible.

For More Information
Other resources include:

GENERAL GOVERNMENT:
Administration on Aging
Washington, DC 20201
202-619-0724
www.aoa.gov

Department of Veterans Affairs
Veterans Benefits Administration
Veterans Health Administration
810 Vermont Ave., NW
Washington, DC 20420
VA benefits:
800-827-1000 (toll-free)
800-829-4833 (TDD/toll-free)
To speak with a health care benefits counselor:
877-222-8387 (toll-free)
www.va.gov

Eldercare Locator
800-677-1116 (toll-free)
www.eldercare.gov

Federal and State Government Benefit Information
800-FED-INFO
(800-333-4636/toll-free)
www.govbenefits.gov

FirstGov for Seniors
www.seniors.gov

HOUSING INFORMATION:
Department of Housing and Urban Development
451 Seventh Street SW
Washington, DC 20410
202-708-1112
202-708-1455 (TTY)
www.hud.gov

Low-Income Home Energy Assistance Program (LIHEAP)
National Energy Assistance Referral Hotline (NEAR)
866-674-6327 (toll-free)
www.liheap.ncat.org

National Resource Center on Supportive Housing and Home Modification
3715 McClintock Avenue
Los Angeles, CA 90089-0191
213-740-1364
www.homemods.org

Rebuilding Together
1536 Sixteenth Street NW
Washington, DC 20036-1042
800-473-4229 (toll-free)
www.rebuildingtogether.org

SERVICE PROVIDERS:
American Association of Homes and Services for the Aging
2519 Connecticut Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20008-1520
202-783-2242
www.aahsa.org

National Adult Day Services Association
2519 Connecticut Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20008
800-558-5301 (toll-free)
www.nadsa.org

National Association of Professional Geriatric Care Managers
1604 North Country Club Road
Tucson, AZ 85716
520-881-8008
www.caremanager.org

For more information about health and aging, contact:

National Institute on Aging
Information Center
P.O. Box 8057
Gaithersburg, MD 20898-8057
800-222-2225 (toll-free)
800-222-4225 (TTY/toll-free)
www.nia.nih.gov

To order publications (in English or Spanish) or sign up for regular email alerts, go to: www.nia.nih.gov/HealthInformation

Visit NIHSeniorHealth.gov (www.nihseniorhealth.gov), a senior-friendly website from the National Institute on Aging and the National Library of Medicine. This website has health information for older adults. There are also special features that make it simple to use. For example, you can click on a button to have the text read out loud or to make the type larger.

PRINTED MAY 2005
REPRINTED JUNE 2007

Page last updated Sep 29, 2009

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AGING资源下载链接:

★ Exercise & Physical Activity: Your Everyday Guide from the National Institute on Aging
http://www.nia.nih.gov/NR/rdonlyres/E2A819E3-8BAA-46AA-89E8-321B527D8A2B/0/Exercise_and_Physical_ActivityYour_Everyday_Guide_from_The_NIA.pdf

★ Exercise and Physical Activity: Getting Fit For Life
http://www.nia.nih.gov/NR/rdonlyres/91DBE1D1-2136-4C6E-8A01-C747E94DD605/13006/ExercisepartsAP62209.pdf

★ Healthy Eating After 50
http://www.nia.nih.gov/NR/rdonlyres/4B267E65-7F01-472B-8FCE-24E3DB72FF28/10015/HealthyEatingPartAP62608.pdf

★ Dietary Supplements
http://www.nia.nih.gov/NR/rdonlyres/6581089F-F9FB-4677-9341-68C304DB52A8/9765/Diet_parts_AP_FINAL.pdf

★ Can We Prevent Aging?
Tips from the National Institute on Aging
http://www.nia.nih.gov/NR/rdonlyres/E50A04DC-BDA8-4CF3-AE7E-82C2B5F94C90/9905/TipSheet_CanWePreventAging08JUN30.pdf

★ Participating in Activities You Enjoy—More Than Just Fun and Games
Tips from the National Institute on Aging
http://www.nia.nih.gov/NR/rdonlyres/63735317-0100-48DE-AABD-BA4F5344F633/13249/NIATipSheet_PARTICIPATING_09SEPT4FINAL.pdf

★ Healthy Aging: Lessons from the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging
http://www.nia.nih.gov/NR/rdonlyres/F1B25F15-BB89-4A73-842A-5E7A2A2F69C2/0/BLSA_FNL_110708FinalPDF.pdf

★ There’s No Place Like Home—For Growing Old
http://www.nia.nih.gov/NR/rdonlyres/04A3B7AB-9F40-43D4-9A7C-700145731122/10412/Theres_No_Place_Like_HomeFor_Growing_Old.pdf

★ Shots for Safety
http://www.nia.nih.gov/NR/rdonlyres/9690FF74-E100-43CB-9D7C-6D19D258DCAA/12372/Shots_for_Safety1008.pdf

★ Talking With Your Doctor: A Guide for Older People
http://www.nia.nih.gov/NR/rdonlyres/90DF996C-DF5F-4245-B7CA-B2E1B993D8C7/0/TWYD_Final.pdf

★ What's Your Aging IQ?
http://www.nia.nih.gov/NR/rdonlyres/4B3FF055-7B47-47BE-B9CE-DE19B94120B5/0/Whats_Your_Aging_IQ.pdf

★ Aging Hearts and Arteries: A Scientific Quest
http://www.nia.nih.gov/NR/rdonlyres/0BBF820F-27D0-48EA-9820-736B7E9F08BB/0/HAFinal_0601.pdf

★ Beware of Health Scams
http://www.nia.nih.gov/NR/rdonlyres/1D447B1B-8B49-4FF0-B25C-1B629C958A03/0/HealthScamspartsAP112408.pdf

★ Understanding Risk: What Do Those Headlines Really Mean?
http://www.nia.nih.gov/NR/rdonlyres/43F218DA-2188-40BC-90CE-7B740E8FA701/10421/Understanding_RiskWhat_Do_Those_Headlines_Really_M.pdf

★ Can Alzheimer's Disease be Prevented?
http://www.nia.nih.gov/NR/rdonlyres/63B5A29C-F943-4DB7-91B4-0296772973F3/0/PreventAlzBkletBLU_042909.pdf

★ Older Adults and Alcohol: You Can Get Help
http://www.nia.nih.gov/NR/rdonlyres/28DDEE88-38FB-4ED7-BD6C-4738381E1659/0/NIAalcoholFINAL11409.pdf

★ NIA Publications Catalog
http://www.nia.nih.gov/NR/rdonlyres/5579A45E-613D-42E4-8C20-07CE5F1A6E57/0/2009PubCat_FINAL.pdf
The National Institute on Aging has a wealth of information available. Most of these materials are FREE. The publications listed are available to order via this website and are grouped into the following areas:
•General Aging Information
•Easy-to-Read Booklets
•AgePages
•Information About Alzheimer's Disease
•Caregiving Resources
•Information for Professionals
•Information in Spanish

A handy order form can be used to send in orders by fax or mail.

★ Resource Directory for Older People: Health and Aging Organizations
This online, searchable database lists more than 300 national organizations that provide help to older people. Use the drop-down menu to search subject areas for information on how to contact these organizations. Click the View All Organizations button to see and/or print the entire list.
http://www.nia.nih.gov/HealthInformation/ResourceDirectory.htm

The entire list of All Organizations:
http://www.nia.nih.gov/nia.nih.gov/templates/common/printdisplay.aspx

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