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小宝见PED归来说说Ear Infection
作者:home99
发表时间:2009-10-27
更新时间:2009-10-27
浏览:9677次
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::: 栏目 :::
写给准妈妈1
宝宝护理与成长3
写给准妈妈3
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英语学习
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休闲娱乐
理财话题
为人父母2
写给准妈妈2
实用资料
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为人父母1
其它
医药健康话题
写给新妈妈
宝宝护理与成长1
异国他乡

还是先说说详细情形啊,希望对不是新妈妈的JMs也有一些参考啊!

这个月小宝真是过得很不容易啊,先是因为高烧不退、呼吸困难去见PED,结果被诊断得了Croup。接下来咳嗽难受了一阵,周五(10/16)妈妈去接她,发现她有些“面目全非”,仔细一看,是鼻子及鼻子与嘴巴连接的地方摔破了,DAYCARE的老师说她当天有些跌跌撞撞地,在室内玩的时候也总摔倒,结果摔伤了面部,当时用ICE处理了一下,妈妈想到她当时可能哭得很厉害就心痛不已。妈妈恨恨地以为是小宝鞋子的错,周末就将那双鞋子藏起来了,因为最近几天小宝不肯穿新鞋子,却非要穿这双小一号的Tennis Shoes。

周日起来妈妈就发觉她的左眼肿得厉害,快睁不开了,可见了妈妈,还努力地要SMILE,妈妈当时以为她摔跤时可能伤到了眼睛,到了晚上似乎有所缓解,可是到了第二天起来,眼睛仍然肿着(今天整理照片时才发现,小宝右眼在摔伤一周左右时有些肿)。小宝对于小鼻子及面部受伤不是很在意,只是照镜子时才发现自己与平常不同,于是用小手去抓刚结的痂,妈妈阻止也没用,真担心以后会留下疤痕,在这么显眼的部位可怎么办啊。这样反复几次,快一周时才见有些好转,可是周三晚上妈妈留在楼下帮大宝做家庭作业,以为小宝和爸爸上楼了,可她却拿了tools在楼梯上玩,之后妈妈听到她的哭声去看她,才发现她上楼似乎有些困难,后来在楼上妈妈抱着时她要下来,但刚要象平常一样调皮时可能小腿疼了,又哭着要妈妈抱起。

爸爸妈妈检查半天,也没发现她有什么明显受伤的地方,以为她可能只是扭了脚或什么的。第二天早晨起来见她除了上下楼似乎有点问题,走路好象没什么问题,所以还是送她去了DAYCARE,妈妈有些放心不下,于是和她的老师说了情况,希望老师特别留意一下。这样妈妈担心了一天,到了下午见没电话,还以为她好了,可是大概3点的时候爸爸来电话,说接到Daycare电话要去接小宝,已经约了去看PED,但因为约得急,只约到一个比较远些的health center,所以接大宝就有些问题了。于是妈妈只得临时改变计划负责去接大宝。

回来的路上接到爸爸的电话,因为在高速上,所以只是简单问了一下,知道骨头没伤着算是松了口气,爸爸却轻轻带过说了句要去给小宝抓药,说是ear infection,妈妈还以为听错了。等爸爸回家之后仔细问了一下,才知今天刚去时先是常规方法检查腿脚,然后问小宝“Do you like stickers?”小宝一听又跑又跳地跟着去了,于是他们认为小宝腿没问题。后来检查耳朵时意外地发现小宝耳朵内外都红的,很惊讶小宝居然没有发烧。巧的是,虽说不在同一个clinic,来检查小宝的竟是上次那个PED,一见面就对小宝说“I know you!”一个月内居然两次去看PED(Checkup之外),而且最后都要吃药。

给开的药是Amoxicillin,即阿莫西林,羟氨苄青霉素,PED嘱咐说给宝宝每次喝1.5 teaspoon(7.5ml,与药瓶一起的是一个有量度的长柄小勺,看上面的刻度,一勺是5ml,共有10ml),每天两次,要连续给10天(即便没症状之后),否则可能会重犯。第一次是爸爸喂的,妈妈都没看见就下去了;第二天早上起来妈妈再喂时,她尝了一小口,因为是cherry味的,就怎么也不肯吃了。所以这几天都是放在牛奶里让她喝的。

下面是在网上查到的关于此药的详细中文说明
“羟氨苄青霉素
阿莫西林(羟氨苄青霉素、阿摩西林、酚塔西林) (Amoxycillin, Amoxil, Clamoxil)

羟氨苄青霉素是一个杀菌性广谱抗生素。

【作用与用途】
本品为广谱半合成青霉素,在氨苄西林的苯环上加1个对位羟基,使其在胃酸中更加稳定,口服吸收更安全。抗菌谱与氨苄西林基本相同,但细菌对本品和氨苄西林有完全的交叉耐菌性。本品(阿莫西林)口服吸收良好,服用同量药物,阿莫西林的血药浓度比氨苄西林血药浓度高约1倍。临床上主要用于敏感菌所致的呼吸道感染(如支气管炎、肺炎)、伤寒、泌尿道感染、皮肤软组织感染及胆道感染等。对引起小儿呼吸道、泌尿道感染的病原菌有高度抗菌活性,疗效比青霉素强。

【剂量与用法】
口服,成人0.3g~0.6g/次,3~4次/日。儿童,每日50mg~100mg/kg,分3~4次服。
淋菌性尿道炎和宫颈炎:氨苄青霉素(阿莫西林)4.0g一次口服也可用针剂静滴;

【副作用及注意事项】
①主要有胃肠道反应、皮疹、转氨酶升高等,但一般较轻。
②用药前需做青霉素的过敏试验,凡对青霉素过敏者,禁用。”

第二天妈妈送小宝去DAYCARE时,她的老师说她前一天不肯玩,总是哭鼻子,到了外面也只是坐在旁边,与平常大不同,所以担心她伤着了,跟DAYCARE的manager一说就打电话给家长了。没想到小宝到了医院居然好起来了。妈妈在网上查找ear infection的有关资料,发现ear infection居然是小儿见PED最常见的原因之一,难怪每次checkup都要对宝宝的耳朵左照右照的呢!即便宝宝有时抵触得不行。

宝宝有ear infection时因为不舒服会有一些反常表现,如睡眠不好,白天夜里哭闹等,那几天小宝是比较粘人,夜里也总醒来,面部摔伤后那几天小宝鼻子似乎也有些不通。如果不是这次因为腿部受伤去见PED,否则小宝还不知要多受多少罪,想到这里妈妈就很为自己的大意而自责。本来以为是小宝了,带宝宝的经验已经有了,所以不再象以前那样宝宝有个头疼脑热地就紧张得不行了,结果将小宝的病情一次又一次给耽误了。小宝出现的几次问题,从玫瑰疹,到Croup及这次的ear infection,都是以前大宝不曾有的,多多少少都是在宝宝易生的感冒发烧之列,容易被忽视,所以详细写出来,希望不是新妈妈的JMs引以为鉴啊!

妈妈不由得想起前一个周五老师说的话,那时妈妈不加思索就认为是鞋子的错,说不定那时小宝已经受得ear infection的困扰了,是否可以排除鞋子是罪魁祸首,小宝那天总是摔跤其实是ear infection所致?以后有机会时一定要问问PED弄个明白啊。

下面就将我看到的一些中英文资料整理后贴出来供JMs参考啊,英文资料相对比较多,也很系统,不少资料将ear infection和otitis media(中耳炎)放一起,现在想想小宝得的很可能就是急性中耳炎了。宝宝在天气转冷时特别容易生病,有些不及时适当地应对,小病可能会转成大病,JMs千万不要象我这样粗心大意啊!

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耳部感染

【怎么才知道宝宝是不是有耳部感染? 】

要想辨别你的宝宝是不是有耳部感染(也叫急性中耳炎)或者其他疾病,最简单的方法就是观察宝宝的情绪变化。如果宝宝变得爱闹或哭得比平时厉害,那么你就需要注意是不是他有什么问题了。如果宝宝发烧,不管烧得高不高,也是一个明显的信号。另外要注意,宝宝得感冒或鼻窦炎后,也容易出现耳部感染。你可能还会发现宝宝有以下症状:

● 你的宝宝会拉、揪或拽自己的耳朵,这可能表示他耳朵疼。不过,宝宝有时候就是喜欢拽耳朵,不管什么原因,或者根本没有原因,所以如果你的宝宝其他方面看上去都很好,那么他可能就没有耳部感染。

●宝宝拉肚子。导致耳朵感染的病毒也可能影响到肠胃,使宝宝腹泻。

●宝宝食欲降低。耳部感染可能造成肠胃不舒服,还可能使宝宝吞咽和咀嚼东西时感到疼痛。所以你要是发现宝宝吸了几口奶后,就把脑袋从你的乳房或奶瓶上撇开,也可能是因为耳部有炎症。

●从宝宝耳朵里流出黄色或白色的液体。大部分宝宝不会出现这种症状,但如果出现了就说明确实有感染。这也说明宝宝中耳的鼓膜上已经出现小洞。不过,不用担心,一旦感染治好了,这个小洞也能自己长好。

●宝宝耳朵里发出难闻的气味。

【耳部感染是怎么造成的? 】

当液体进入宝宝的中耳鼓室区域并滋生细菌时就会造成耳部感染。正常情况下,耳朵进了液体后,会很快随着宝宝打哈欠或咽东西从咽鼓管(连接中耳和鼻咽后部的管道)里排出去。但如果咽鼓管堵住了,液体就会留在中耳里。宝宝得感冒、鼻窦炎或过敏时咽鼓管常常被堵住。细菌很容易在黑暗、温暖、潮湿的环境里滋生,所以充满了液体的耳朵就成了细菌最好的温床。随着感染加剧,宝宝鼓室和鼓膜周围肿胀得更厉害,就会开始疼了。当你宝宝的身体开始对抗感染时,就会发烧。

小宝宝的咽鼓管比较短(大约1.27厘米),而且是水平的,因此耳朵容易发炎。等宝宝长到成年后,咽鼓管会长3倍,达到3.8厘米,而且会更垂直,这样液体就容易流出去了。耳朵感染是儿童期最容易发生的疾病之一。虽然没有统计数据说明究竟有多少宝宝发生耳部感染,但据美国儿科学会估计,大多数儿童在3岁以前至少都会得一次耳朵感染。

【什么时候需要看医生? 】

你一发现宝宝有耳部感染的迹象,就应该马上去看医生。医生会用一种叫做耳镜的仪器检查宝宝的耳朵内部。如果鼓膜发红、鼓起,甚至流水,就说明很可能已经发生感染了。医生还会用一种叫做鼓气耳镜的设备往宝宝的耳朵里喷一小股空气,看宝宝的鼓膜是不是会相应地动一动。如果宝宝的鼓膜不动,就是另外一个信号,说明中耳里面有液体,而且可能有感染。

【医生会怎样治疗宝宝的耳部感染呢?】

虽然近期的研究表明,很多耳朵感染不经治疗,最终也会痊愈,但如果小宝宝得了耳部感染,医生一般都会给开抗生素。宝宝中心的一位专家认为“对于婴儿期的耳部感染,最好还是谨慎对待,借助适当的药物治疗。”此外,医生还可能建议你给宝宝用儿童对乙酰氨基酚(也叫扑热息痛)或布洛芬来缓解感染造成的疼痛。

你要确保宝宝吃完医生处方的抗生素剂量,而且几周后,还要带宝宝去做耳朵复查,这样医生就能检测药物是否有效。如果你觉得宝宝的情况更糟了,或者使用抗生素几天后也没有明显好转,就应该马上再去看医生了。医生可能会换用其他抗生素,或者再给宝宝做次检查。

【怎样预防宝宝耳部再感染呢? 】

上托儿所或与其他小朋友一起玩的宝宝耳朵更可能感染,因为他们能接触到更多的病菌。当然,也不是说你必须让宝宝一直待在家里。因为即便你费尽心思让宝宝足不出户,对宝宝来说并不好玩,也不现实,而且宝宝仍然会得这样那样的病。不过,你应该经常洗手,你自己和宝宝的手都要常洗,并参考以下预防措施:

●及时给宝宝接种疫苗。疫苗能预防某些可能导致耳朵感染的疾病。比如,Hib疫苗(B型流感嗜血杆菌疫苗)对减少宝宝的耳部感染有非常显著的作用;新型肺炎球菌疫苗也有助于预防耳部感染。如果你的宝宝反复发生耳部感染,尤其是得流感后,你最好考虑每年给宝宝注射一次流感疫苗,但要先咨询医生。只有6个月以上的宝宝才能注射流感疫苗。

●养成洗手的习惯.教你的宝宝经常,彻底地洗手,是预防耳部感染的最好方法

●坚持母乳喂养至少6个月。美国疾病控制与预防中心(CDC)和食品药品管理局(FDA)最近进行了一项研究,并发表在《儿科学》杂志上,该研究显示在头6个月里接受母乳喂养的宝宝发生耳部感染的可能性较小。事实上,配方奶喂养的宝宝发生耳部感染的几率要比母乳喂养的宝宝高70%。专家认为,妈妈会通过母乳把某种具有免疫功能的抗体传递给宝宝。不过,宝宝长到6个月后,母乳里这些抗体似乎就会减少。

●远离二手烟环境
处于二手烟环境中,容易增加宝宝的耳道感染易感率。香烟烟雾中含有许多小颗粒状物质,这些颗粒会阻塞咽鼓管,增加反复感染的风险。

●不含奶嘴睡觉
宝宝睡觉时含着奶瓶吸奶,会增加耳道的感染率。持续的吞咽动作使咽鼓管一直处于开放状态,而仰卧很容易将奶水误入咽鼓管内,贮留在中耳管腔内,引发感染。睡前安抚式地给宝宝吸吮奶嘴,也会增加中耳感染率。
最好的办法就是抱着宝宝吃奶,不让宝宝含着奶嘴入睡。

●最好不要平趟着给宝宝喂奶。宝宝平趟着吃奶时,奶水会淤积在喉咙后面,从而刺激耳咽管。所以喂奶时要把宝宝的头稍稍竖起。

【宝宝反复发生耳部感染,用中耳通气管有用吗? 】

患有多次耳部感染的宝宝可能需要使用中耳通气管。对很多宝宝来说,这实际上是只发生了一次耳部感染,但使用抗生素治疗数月后仍不见好转。中耳通气管治疗方法,也称为鼓膜造孔置管术。

这种手术通常在全身麻醉的状态下进行,由一个耳鼻喉科医生在宝宝的鼓膜上切开一个小口,并在切口处插入一根几毫米长的管子。这个小管的作用是作为通道孔,使耳朵中的液体流出,空气流入,这样细菌就不会滋生。专家认为,这有助于咽鼓管更好地发挥作用。

宝宝的儿科医生可能会建议通过这项手术解决宝宝耳部反复感染的问题,因为如果宝宝的耳朵里总是有液体(或中耳渗出物),不仅耳朵容易反复感染,而且还会导致听力丧失。而听力有问题的宝宝可能会出现语言发育迟缓。

不过,对这项手术仍然存在争议,医生们对是否有必要做手术还没有统一的意见。研究表明反复发生耳朵感染的宝宝学习能力可能差一点。但美国北卡罗来纳大学弗兰克波特格雷厄姆儿童发展中心的资深科学家乔安妮•E•罗伯茨认为,到2~5岁之间,慢性耳部感染与学习能力低的关系就不存在了。患有慢性耳部感染的儿童最终会与早期没有出现耳部问题的同龄孩子齐头并进。

你该怎么办?请咨询医生,根据你和你的宝宝的情况权衡利弊。遗憾的是,对于中耳通气管的问题目前并没有确定的答案可供你参考。

【耳部感染会很严重吗? 】

可能会很严重。严重的感染或没有及时治疗可能导致你宝宝的鼓膜破裂。鼓膜破裂的情况并不常发生,而且通常能很快痊愈,但一定要带你的宝宝去做复查,这样才能确保感染完全治愈,鼓膜恢复良好。反复发生的耳部感染有时会导致听力丧失,并留下疤痕。在极少数情况下,如果发生耳部感染不进行治疗可能导致耳朵后边的颅骨感染(乳突炎),或者脑膜炎。

【父母应该怎么做?】

孩子发生耳朵感染时,父母要第一时间带孩子带医院检查,并清楚的告诉医生孩子的症状,比如是否有哭闹、发烧、使劲拽耳朵状况,以及发生的程度。医生在为孩子检查耳朵后,如果没发现耳朵内有红肿、积水,或鼓膜僵硬等情况,通常会建议你采用等待和观望的方法,在未来48~72小时,耳朵感染的疼痛和其他症状会自行好转。如果孩子的疼痛和发烧一直持续,精神很不好(比如不喜欢玩),就要再带他回医院检查。

孩子出现耳朵感染,大多数情况下,观察和等待的观点是正确的。但是如果孩子出现严重的症状,比如肺炎、脑膜炎时,他就需要抗生素治疗。

只有特殊情况下,孩子才需要用抗生素治疗耳朵感染。

* 年龄:抗生素的使用和孩子的年龄有很大关系,6个月以内的婴儿需要抗生素,因为他们的耳朵感染很容易导致严重的细菌感染,比如血液感染。大多数2岁以内的孩子也需要抗生素,因为他们出现重病的风险要大于抗生素可能引起细菌抗药性和副作用的风险。

* 病情发展:当孩子的病情加重,以超出预期的耳朵感染症状时,可能需要使用抗生素。因此,认真观察孩子的病情变化,是家长应该协助医生做的。

* 某些症状:耳朵感染经常出现在感冒之后,感冒导致的咽鼓管肿胀,可能会使一些液体聚积在孩子耳内,而这些液体正式细菌生殖繁衍的最佳场所。随着肿胀消失,耳朵感染也会自愈。但如果孩子的感染症状没有消失,并出现发烧症状,医生就会建议他吃一些抗生素。还有一些孩子,一只耳朵感染痊愈后,不到30天另一只耳朵又出现感染,这时,医生可能会建议他打点滴,用持续低量的抗生素制止感染的再次发生。对那些耳内有脓水的孩子,医生会建议他使用外用抗生素。

* 严格选择抗生素:为了避免孩子产生抗药性,医生会建议先从较低档的药物开始,比如阿莫西林,它的功效能达到80%。如果仍不能制止耳朵感染,再使用昂贵高档的抗生素,这也是医生们对付耳朵感染的第二道防线。

【耳道感染治疗提醒】

●药物
常用的治疗方法还是抗生素治疗,阿莫西林是首选的一线治疗耳道感染的抗生素药物。然而,引起耳道感染的细菌常是耐药性的,所以常规使用的药物并不能充分发挥作用。因此细菌引起的耳道感染,只能通过静脉输注抗生素才能得到控制。

●并非所有抗生素都有效
在育儿经验交流中,你会了解到其他宝宝的用药情况,而对其他宝宝有效的抗生素可能对你的宝宝并没有显著的效果。

大多数耳道感染会自然痊愈,美国儿童学会建议医生对于2岁以下宝宝发生的轻至中度耳道感染,无需积极采取抗生素治疗。宝宝通常会给妈妈一些暗示:48小时内宝宝感觉好多了,不发热了,胃口好了,睡眠安稳了。

●配合医生治疗
当医生采取观察、等待的治疗方法时,会预先给宝宝开一些安全防范处方,并告诉你如果宝宝在2天内没有好转时,再服用这些安全防范处方。

【孩子需要做耳管移植手术吗?】

耳朵的感染症状消失后,仍会有一些液体流在中耳处,医生通常称之为“积液”,有些孩子中耳积液会持续一周左右,这段时间内,积液可能会使孩子的听力下降。传统的方法,医生会建议孩子做鼓膜手术(清除积液)和耳管移植。因为他们觉得暂时的听力损伤会拖延孩子言语能力发展。但在200年,美国匹兹堡大学的专家们研究发现:那些没有做个手术的孩子和做过手术的孩子相比,听觉和语言能力一样好。所以,很多医生对传统的做法产生质疑。来自美国的儿童耳鼻喉权威认为,最好的解决方法是耐心等待,让孩子每1~2个月到医院检查,是否积液已经自主流出。

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DOES YOUR CHILD HAVE AN EAR INFECTION? HOW TO TELL.

Your child has a bothersome cold for a week. Her nasal discharge turns a little green and her cough starts to keep you all up at night. Then one night she is up every hour extremely fussy with a fever. You take her into the doctor in the morning almost certain she has another ear infection.

Ear infections are one of the most worrisome illnesses for both parents and children to go through, especially if they frequently recur. They also are the most common reason for antibiotic prescriptions. Here's a guide to help you understand why ear infections occur, how to best treat them, and most importantly, how you can prevent them from happening too often.

【EIGHT MAIN SYMPTOMS OF AN EAR INFECTION】

Your child may have 2 or more of these symptoms:
● Cold symptoms – keep in mind that ear infections are almost always preceded by a cold. Often a clear runny nose will turn yellow or green before an ear infection sets in.
● Fussiness during the day or night
● Complaining of ear pain or hearing loss
● Night-waking more frequently
● Unwillingness to lie flat
● Fever – usually low grade (101º - 102º); may not have a fever.
● Sudden increase in fussiness during a cold
● Ear drainage – if you see blood or pus draining out of the ear, then it is probably an infection with a ruptured eardrum. DON'T WORRY! These almost always heal just fine, and once the eardrum ruptures the pain subsides.

【YOUR CHILD IS UNLIKELY TO HAVE AN EAR INFECTION IF:】

1. No cold symptoms – if your child has some of the above symptoms but does not have a cold, an ear infection is less likely, unless your child has had an ear infection in the past without a cold.

2. Pulling at the ears or batting the ears in infants less than 1 year of age. Infants less than one are unable to precisely localize their ear pain. This means that they cannot tell that the pain is coming from the ear or from structures near the ear. Infants can pull on or bat at their ears for two other common reasons:
● Teething – Baby thinks the pain from sore gums is coming from the ears
● Because they like playing with their ears – Infants are fascinated with these strange appendages that are sticking out of the side of their head. They love to explore them, play with them, and especially to stick their finger into that strange hole in the middle.

3. No complaints of ear pain in a child who is old enough to tell you, usually by age two or three.

Pulls At Ears.
Infants often pull on their ears simply to play with them. Ear pulling in the absence of the above signs is unlikely to signal an ear infection.

【HOW CAN I TELL IF IT'S AN EAR INFECTION OR JUST TEETHING?】

Are you tired of taking your fussy baby into the doctor just to check her ears, only to be told its probably just teething? TO help you decide, with teething:
● Pain usually starts at four months of age and will come and go until the two-year molars are in.
● Tugging or digging at the ears with no cold symptoms or fever
● Fussiness or night waking with no cold symptoms or fever
● May have low fever less than 101
● Teething does not cause a runny nose, only drool.

【HOW DO EAR INFECTIONS OCCUR】

Anatomy lesson
The ear is divided into three parts: the outer ear canal, the middle ear space where infections occur, and the inner ear where the nerves and balance center are. A thin, membranous eardrum divides the outer and middle ear. The middle ear space is also connected to the back of the nose via the Eustachian tube.

Immature Eustachian tube
In infants and young children this tube is much shorter and is angled. It is therefore much easier for bacteria to migrate from the nose and throat up into the middle ear space. As the child grows this tube becomes more vertical, so germs have to travel "up hill" to reach the middle ear. This is one-reason children "outgrow" ear infections.

Colds
When your child has a cold, the nasal passages get swollen and mucus collects in the back of the nose. This environment is a breeding ground for the bacteria that normally live in the nose and throat to begin to overgrow. Mucus is also secreted within the middle ear space just as it is in the sinuses.

Bacterial invasion
Germs migrate up through the Eustachian tube and into the middle ear space where they multiply within the mucus that is stuck there. Pus begins to form and soon the middle ear space is filled with bacteria, pus and thick mucus.

Ear pain
This pus causes the eardrum to bulge causing pain. It is this red, bulging pus-colored eardrum that the doctor can see by looking into the ear canal.

Diminished hearing
The discharge that collects in the middle presses on the eardrum preventing it from vibrating normally. This is what the doctor means by "fluid in the middle ear." Also the fluid plugs the eustachian tube and dampens the sound like the sensation in your ears during air travel.

【ARE EAR INFECTIONS CONTAGIOUS?】

No, the bacteria inside the ear causing the infection are not contagious. The cold virus that can lead to an ear infection is contagious. Oftentimes, if the ear infection occurs a week after the cold begins, the child is no longer contagious.

【HOW ARE EAR INFECTIONS TREATED?】

1. Ear pain – click here for help on how to treat the pain. Getting through the night:
● Acetaminophen or ibuprofen are effective pain relievers for ear pain. You can safely use both medications together if one alone is not enough. Click on each medication for dosage.
● Warm compress – apply a warm washcloth to the ear.
● Warm olive oil, vegetable oil, or garlic oil – put several drops of one of these into the ear. MAKE SURE THE OIL ISN’T TOO HOT.
● Anesthetic eardrops – if the above remedies aren’t enough, these are available by prescription and can numb the eardrum to minimize the pain for an hour or two.
● WARNING – if you see any liquid or pus draining out of the ear, DO NOT PUT ANY OF THE ABOVE DROPS INTO THE EAR. See below under ear drainage.

2. Antibiotics – a seven-day course is the current recommendation, unless your doctor feels a longer course is indicated. The whole issue of antibiotics can be confusing to parents. Here are some general guidelines to help you:
● Amoxicillin – "the pink stuff" – this is the standard first-line treatment used by most doctors, and rightly so. It works well most of the time, is inexpensive, tastes pretty good, and is easy on the stomach and intestines.
● Azithromycin, Augmentin (amoxicillin/clavulinate mix), double dose amoxicillin, cefuroxime – this are all common second and third line choices.
● A new combination of Augmentin plus extra amoxicillin called Augmentin ES has been shown to be very effective in treating resistant ear infections. Your doctor may prescribe both.
● Finish the prescribed course – even if you child is feeling better after two or three days, it is best to complete at least seven days of treatment to help ensure the infection doesn't come back.

3. Ruptured eardrum – if this occurs, your doctor will probably also prescribe an eardrop that is a mix of antibiotic and hydrocortisone. This helps the ear canal heal.

Avoid antibiotic resistance - But doctor, amoxicillin doesn't work for my child, and it's so hard to give it to her three times a day! Can I please have the once a day for only five days stuff? Be careful about doing this. Always taking a stronger, more convenient antibiotic can make the bacteria that dwell in your child more resistant to the stronger antibiotics, and can make future infections more difficult to treat. Even if amoxicillin hasn't worked once or twice in the past, chances are that this new infection is a different bacteria that is sensitive to amoxicillin, especially if more than two months have passed since the last antibiotic. The good news is amoxicillin now comes in a twice-a-day form, and treatment is usually only seven days, not ten.

When to use a stronger antibiotic – it is usually best to start out with the simple amoxicillin. Here are some reasons to go with something stronger:
● If the fever and fussiness are not improving after 48 – 72 hours of an antibiotic, your child may need a stronger one.
● If amoxicillin has not worked two or three times in the past, then it's ok to start with a stronger antibiotic for future infections.
● If your child has taken amoxicillin in the past six weeks, and then develops another ear infection, chances are that this infection is resistant and needs a stronger antibiotic.
● If your child is allergic to amoxicillin
● If the infection is still present after one course of amoxicillin
● Important note – the antibiotics only take care of the bacteria causing the ear infection. They don't treat the virus that is causing the underlying cold symptoms. So don't expect the runny nose and cough to improve for 3 to 14 days.

【ARE ANTIBIOTICS ABSOLUTELY NECESSARY TO TREAT EAR INFECTIONS?】

No, they are not absolutely necessary, but they are very helpful for several reasons:
● Antibiotics will help your child feel better faster by eliminating the bacteria, which in turn reduces the fever and ear pain more quickly. Children generally feel better after one or two days of antibiotics.
● Allowing an ear infection to heal on its own usually subjects a child to four to seven days of fever and ear pain.
● Antibiotics help prevent the very rare, but possible, complications of an ear infection spreading into the brain or bone surrounding the ear.
● New research is suggesting that 80% of uncomplicated ear infections will resolve within 4 to 7 days without antibiotics. Parents who choose not to use antibiotics can treat the pain and fever with Auralgan anesthetic ear drops and ibuprofen or acetominophen.

【MINIMIZING THE SIDE EFFECTS OF ANTIBIOTICS】

Side effects can include:
● Diarrhea
● Fungal diaper rash
● Oral thrush
● Vomiting
● Rash
CLICK ON SIDE EFFECTS OF ANTIBIOTICS FOR AN IMPORTANT DISCUSSION ON HOW TO MINIMIZE THE SIDE EFFECTS OF ANTIBIOTICS
http://www.askdrsears.com/html/8/T080600.asp

【HOW EAR INFECTIONS RESOLVE】

There are two components of ear infections that need to resolve:
● Infection – the antibiotics usually take care of the bacteria, which in turn resolves the fever and pain with a few days.
● Middle ear fluid – it takes much longer for this to resolve, anywhere from a few days up to 3 months! The fluid slowly drains out through the Eustachian tube down into the nose. Taking repeated courses of antibiotics does not speed up this process, since the fluid is usually no longer infected with bacteria. Chronic nasal congestion or allergies can block the Eustachian tube and therefore prevent the ears from draining. Your child's hearing may be muffled until the fluid drains out. This is not permanent. See below on preventing ear infections for tips on how to improve ear drainage.

Remember, since the runny nose and cough are usually caused by a cold virus and not bacteria, it may be 3 – 14 days before these symptoms resolve.

【FOLLOW UP WITH THE DOCTOR】

Most doctors will have you follow up anywhere from one to four weeks after an ear infection. There are several reasons for this:
● To make sure the infection is clearing up
● To make sure the middle ear fluid is draining out. If the fluid stays around continuously for more than three months, your doctor needs to know.
● To help determine if the next ear infection is a new one or a continuation of an old infection. This helps determine which antibiotic to use.Your doctor may perform a tympanogram – a rubber probe that painlessly fits into your baby's ear canal and measures how the eardrum vibrates. This helps determine if there is any fluid left.

IMPORTANT NOTE: Try to avoid over-treating with unnecessary repeated courses of antibiotics. At your follow-up visit with your doctor, there may still be fluid in the middle ear. If the ear is not red or bulging, and your child is acting fine, you may not need another course of antibiotics. Doctors will vary in how aggressive they like to treat ear fluid. You may be able to spare your child from an unnecessary course of antibiotics.

【CHRONIC EAR FLUID】

As stated above, sometimes it can take several months for the fluid to drain out of the middle ear space. During this period the hearing can be muffled. This isn't dangerous and does not cause permanent hearing loss. Thankfully, the fluid often drains out within two or three weeks. There are several situations, however, when you do need to worry about this fluid in the ear:
● Eustachian tube dysfunction – this is a condition where the Eustachian tube can't do its job correctly and the middle ear doesn't drain. Causes include chronic sinus infections, nasal allergies and frequent colds.
● Fluid that stays in the ear for more than three to four months can become thick and gooey, a term called "glue ear". This type of fluid often needs to be drained surgically by an ear specialist.
● If this long period of muffled hearing occurs during the first two years of life when language development is crucial, it can cause speech delay. This is usually only temporary, however, but the longer it goes on, the longer the speech and hearing can be delayed.
● If your child has several ear infections over a three to four month period, and the fluid never really has time to drain in between infections, this can cause a prolonged period of muffled hearing.Again, don't worry if it takes one or two months for the fluid to drain out of your child's ear. This is common. We would like to stress, however, the importance of proper follow-up with your doctor to make sure it eventually resolves.

【NINE STEPS TO PREVENTING EAR INFECTIONS】

If your child has had several ear infections already, or you simple wish to lower her risk of getting them in the first place, here are some ways to prevent or at least lessen the frequency and severity of ear infections:

1. Breastfeeding. There is no doubt whatsoever in the medical literature that prolonged breastfeeding lowers your child's chances of getting ear infections.

2. Daycare setting. Continuous exposure to other children increases the risk that your child will catch more colds, and consequently more ear infections. Crowded daycare settings are a set up for germ sharing. If possible, switch your child to a small, home daycare setting. This will lower the risk.

3. Control allergies. If you think allergies are contributing to your child's runny nose and, consequently, ear infections,click on allergies to find out more about how to minimize your child's allergies.

4. Feed baby upright. Lying down while bottle-feeding can cause the milk to irritate the Eustachian tube which can contribute to ear infections.

5. Keep the nose clear. When a runny nose and cold start, do your best to keep the nose clear by using steam, saline nose drops, and suctioning. See colds for more info on this.

6. Cigarette smoke. There is strong evidence that smoking irritates baby's nasal passage, which leads to Eustachian tube dysfunction.

7. Echinacea - this is an herb which can safely and effectively boost the immune system. Click here for more information.

8. Chiropractic care - I firmly believe that chiropractic adjustments to the skull and neck can improve middle ear drainage and decrease ear infections.

9. Eat more raw fruits and vegetables - these can greatly boost your child's immune system and help fight off infections. If you have a picky eater, click here to read how Juice Plus can provide this nutrition for your child.

【MEDICAL PREVENTION FOR CHRONIC OR FREQUENT EAR INFECTIONS】

If your child is having frequent ear infections, more aggressive prevention may be indicated. There are different opinions as to the definition of chronic ear infections. How many is too many?
● More aggressive doctors may choose to begin medical prevention if you child has more than three ear infections in six months, or more than four in one year.
● Less aggressive doctors may allow your child to have more infections before recommending medical prevention. We lean more in this direction.
● Other factors such as hearing loss and speech delay may warrant more aggressive treatment.

There are three forms of medical prevention:
1. Prophylactic antibiotics. This consists of a once-a-day dose of amoxicillin or similar antibiotic. There are two ways to do this:
● Daily treatment for several months continuously, such as through the winter season.
● Start the daily treatment at the first sign of any cold symptoms, and then continue the antibiotic for 7 – 10 days.

● Advantage to taking prophylactic antibiotics is that you avoid full dose courses of possibly stronger antibiotics.
● Disadvantage is that your child gets and antibiotic possibly more often and this could contribute to antibiotic resistance.
● OUR PREFERENCE is to start the daily amoxicillin at the first sign of cold symptoms.

2. Immunization. There is a new vaccine called Prevnar that came out in 2000. Four doses are given during the first two years of life. For children 15 months and older, one dose is enough. This vaccine helps prevent infections from a bacterium called pneumococcus. This bug causes pneumonia, blood infections, meningitis and ear infections. The main purpose of this vaccine is to prevent the more serious infections. It also can prevent ear infections in two ways:
● Decreased number of ear infections – this effect is minimal. Studies have shown that this shot only decreases ear infections by 10 – 20%.
● Decreased ear infections from resistant pneumococcus – this is considered a much more valuable benefit from the shot. The vaccine has been shown to significantly decrease the number of ear infections caused by pneumococcus that are resistant to standard antibiotics.

3. Ear tubes. These are tiny tubes that an ENT specialist inserts into the eardrum under general anesthesia. They usually stay in place for 6 months to over a year. There are several purposes achieved by tubes:
● To drain chronic ear fluid that may turn into "glue ear".
● To provide an outlet for middle ear fluid to drain out as it begins to collect during a cold. This may help prevent a full ear infection from occurring.
● To preserve hearing and timely speech development by avoiding long months of muffled hearing caused by middle ear fluid.
● To help prevent the rare complication of chronic hearing loss caused by recurrent ear infections.

【THE EAR TUBE CONTROVERSY】

While ear tubes do have their place in treating recurrent ear infections, there does exist some controversy over their use. The advantages are listed above. Some common concerns about tubes are:
● Some doctors may be too quick to recommend ear tubes before exhausting all other preventative measures or before allowing enough time to allow the ears to clear up without surgery.
● As with any surgery, there are risks (though minimal) to general anesthesia.
● The tubes often leave a little scar covering approximately one sixth of the eardrum. This scar is often permanent. There does not seem to be any long-term consequence of this scarring, but we're not completely sure. Please note that recurrent ear infections with or without eardrum rupture can also lead to scarring.

Please note that ear tubes don't always prevent ear infections. Some children will still get as many infections even with the tubes in, but the fluid drains out right away.

OVERALL EAR TUBES DO HAVE A PROPER PLACE IN TREATING RECURRENT EAR INFECTIONS WHEN USED APPROPRIATELY.
● Many children benefit from ear tubes. Parents declare their child is a new person. The ear infections are gone. The hearing is improved. No more sleepless nights with a crying child. No more endless courses of antibiotics.
● General indication for tubes are chronic ear fluid for more than four to six months; or more than three ear infections in six months or more than five in one year. You and your doctor should decide together when it is the right time for ear tubes for your child.

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【Ear Infections and Your Child】

Next to the common cold, an ear infection is the most common childhood illness. In fact, most children have at least one ear infection by the time they are 3 years old. Most of the time, ear infections clear up without causing any lasting problems.

In order to understand how ear infections occur, it’s helpful to know how our ears work. The ear has three parts — the outer ear, middle ear and inner ear. A small tube (eustachian tube) connects the middle ear to the back of the nose. When a child has a cold, nose or throat infection, or allergy, the eustachian tube can become blocked, causing a buildup of fluid in the middle ear. If bacteria or a virus infects this fluid, it can cause swelling and pain in the ear. This type of ear infection is called acute otitis media.

Often after the symptoms of acute otitis media clear up, fluid remains in the ear. Acute otitis media then develops into another kind of ear problem called otitis media with effusion (middle ear fluid). This condition is harder to detect than acute otitis media because except for the fluid and usually some mild hearing loss, there are often no other noticeable symptoms. This fluid may last several months and, in most cases, disappears on its own. Hearing then returns to normal.

Your child may have many symptoms during an ear infection. Talk with your pediatrician about the best way to treat your child’s symptoms.
● Pain. The most common symptom of an ear infection is pain. Older children can tell you that their ears hurt. Younger children may only seem irritable and cry. You may notice this more during feedings because sucking and swallowing may cause painful pressure changes in the middle ear.
● Loss of appetite. Your child may have less of an appetite because of the ear pain.
● Trouble sleeping. Your child may have trouble sleeping because of the ear pain.
● Fever. Your child may have a temperature ranging from 100°F (normal) to 104°F.
● Ear drainage. You might notice yellow or white fluid, possibly blood-tinged, draining from your child’s ear. The fluid may have a foul odor and will look different from normal earwax (which is orange-yellow or reddish-brown). Pain and pressure often decrease after this drainage begins, but this doesn’t always mean that the infection is going away. If this happens it’s not an emergency, but your child will need to see your pediatrician.
● Trouble hearing. During and after an ear infection, your child may have trouble hearing for several weeks. This occurs because the fluid behind the eardrum gets in the way of sound transmission. This is usually temporary and clears up after the fluid from the middle ear drains away.

【Ear Infections — Complications or Problems】

Although it’s very rare, complications from ear infections can develop, including the following:
● An infection of the inner ear that causes dizziness and imbalance (labyrinthitis)
● An infection of the skull behind the ear (mastoiditis)
● Scarring or thickening of the eardrum
● Loss of feeling or movement in the face (facial paralysis)
● Permanent hearing loss

It’s normal for children to have several ear infections when they are young — even as many as two separate infections within a few months. Most ear infections that develop in children are minor. Recurring ear infections may be a nuisance, but they usually clear up without any lasting problems. With proper care and treatment, ear infections can usually be managed successfully. But, if your child has one ear infection after another for several months, you may want to talk about other treatment options with your pediatrician.

Because your child can have trouble hearing without other symptoms of an ear infection, watch for the following changes in behavior (especially during or after a cold):
● Talking more loudly or softly than usual
● Saying “huh?” or “what?” more than usual
● Not responding to sounds
● Having more trouble understanding language in noisy rooms
● Listening with the TV or radio turned up louder than usual
If you think your child may have difficulty hearing, call your pediatrician. Being able to hear and listen to others talk helps a child learn speech and language. This is especially important during the first few years of life.

【Ear Infections - Cause】
Middle ear infections are caused by bacteria and viruses.

During a cold, sinus or throat infection, or an allergy attack, the eustachian tubes, which connect the middle ears to the throat, can become blocked. This stops fluid from draining from the middle ear. This fluid is a perfect breeding ground for bacteria or viruses to grow into an ear infection.
● Bacterial infections . Bacteria cause most ear infections. The most common types are Streptococcus pneumoniae (also called pneumococcus), Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis.
● Viral infections . Viruses can also lead to ear infections. The respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and flu (influenza) virus are the most frequent types found. These viruses account for the rise in ear infections from January to May each year.1

Causes of fluid buildup
When swelling from an upper respiratory infection or allergy blocks the eustachian tube, air can't reach the middle ear. This creates a vacuum and suction, which pulls fluid and germs from the nose and throat into the middle ear. The swollen tube prevents this fluid from draining. An ear infection begins when bacteria or viruses in the trapped fluid grow into an infection.

Inflammation and fluid buildup can occur without infection and cause a feeling of stuffiness in the ears. This is known as otitis media with effusion.

【Ear Infections - What Increases Your Risk】

Some factors that increase the risk for middle ear infection (acute otitis media) are out of your control. These include:
● Age. Children ages 3 years and younger are most likely to get ear infections. Also, young children get more colds and upper respiratory infections. Most children have at least one ear infection before they are 7 years old.
● Birth defects or other medical conditions. Babies with cleft palate or Down syndrome are prone to ear infections.
● Weakened immune system. Children with severely impaired immune systems have more ear infections than healthy children.
● Family history. Children are more likely to have repeat middle ear infections if a parent or sibling had repeat ear infections.
● Allergies. Allergies may be a risk factor for ear infections. Allergies cause long-term stuffiness in the nose that can affect how the eustachian tube works. Blocking this tube, which connects the back of the nose and throat with the middle ear, can cause fluid to build up in the middle ear.

Other factors that increase the risk for ear infection include:
● Repeat colds and upper respiratory infections. Most ear infections develop from colds or other upper respiratory infections.
● Exposure to cigarette smoke. Babies who are around cigarette smoke are more likely to have ear infections than babies who are not. Also, ear infections seem to last longer in babies who are near cigarette smoke.
● Bottle-feeding. Babies who are bottle-fed are more likely to develop ear infections within the first year of life than are babies who are breast-fed. Also, bottle-fed babies may be more likely to get ear infections if they drink their bottles lying down rather than being held in an upright position.
● Child care centers. Children who are around many other children, such as in child care centers, are more likely to have repeat ear infections than children who are not exposed to many other children.
● Pacifier use. A young child who uses a pacifier is more likely to get ear infections.

Factors that increase the risk for repeated ear infections also include:
● Ear infections at an early age. Babies who have their first ear infection before 6 months of age are more likely to have other ear infections.
● Persistent fluid in the ear. Fluid behind the eardrum that lasts longer than 2 to 10 weeks after an ear infection increases the risk for repeated infection.
● Prior infections. Children who had an ear infection within the previous 3 months are more likely to have another ear infection, especially if the infection was treated with antibiotics.

【Symptoms of an ear infection】
Ear infection symptoms usually involve discomfort inside the ear or ear canal or on the skin of the ear. Someone with an ear infection may also have a fever or feel dizzy.
Symptoms of an ear infection include:
● Ear pain.
● Swelling, heat, or tenderness around or behind the ear.
● Redness of the ear, ear canal, or skin around or behind the ear.
● Itching and a feeling of fullness in the ear.
● Drainage from the ear that does not look like earwax. The drainage may have bad smell.
● Fever.
● Severe dizziness (vertigo).
● New hearing loss.

【Ear Infections - Prevention】
You may be able to prevent your child from getting middle ear infections by:
● Not smoking. Ear infections are more common in children who are around cigarette smoke in the home. Even fumes from tobacco smoke on your hair and clothes can affect the child.
● Breast-feeding your baby. There is some evidence that breast-feeding helps reduce the risk of ear infections, especially if ear infections run in your family. If you bottle-feed your baby, don't let your baby drink a bottle while he or she is lying down.
● Washing your hands often. Hand-washing stops infection from spreading by killing germs.
● Having your child immunized. Current immunizations don't specifically prevent ear infections. But they can prevent illnesses, such as Haemophilus influenzae (Hib) and flu (influenza) that may lead to ear infections. Have your child immunized at the ages suggested by national guidelines. For more information, see the topic Immunizations.
● Having your child immunized with the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) may help reduce the risk of ear infection.
● Taking your child to a smaller child care center. Fewer children means less contact with bacteria and viruses. Children in child care settings can easily spread germs to each other. Try to limit the use of any group child care.
● Not giving your baby a pacifier. Try to wean your child from his or her pacifier before about 6 months of age. Babies who use pacifiers after 12 months of age are more likely to develop ear infections.

【Ear Infections - Home Treatment】
Rest and care at home is often all children with ear infections need. Up to 8 out of 10 ear infections get better without treatment.2 If your child is mildly ill and home treatment takes care of the earache, you may choose not to seek treatment for the ear infection.

At home, try:
● Using pain relievers. Pain relievers such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (such as Advil, Motrin, and Aleve) and acetaminophen (such as Tylenol) will help your child feel better. Giving your child something for pain before bedtime is especially important. Do not give aspirin to anyone younger than 20 because it is linked to Reye syndrome, a serious illness that needs emergency care.
● Applying heat to the ear, which may help with pain. Use a warm washcloth or a heating pad. Do not allow children to go to bed with a heating pad. They could get burned. Use a heating pad only if your child is old enough to tell you if it's getting too hot.
● Encouraging rest. Resting will help the body fight the infection. Arrange for quiet play activities.
● Using eardrops. Doctors often suggest eardrops for earache pain. Don't use eardrops without a doctor's advice, especially if your child has tubes in his or her ears. For more information, see the safest way to insert eardrops.

Decongestants, antihistamines, expectorants, and other over-the-counter cold remedies usually do not work for treating or preventing ear infections. Antihistamines that cause sleepiness may thicken fluids, which can make your child feel worse. Check with the doctor before giving these medicines to your child. Experts say not to give decongestants to children younger than age 2.

If your child with an ear infection must take an airplane trip, talk with your doctor about how to help your child cope with ear pain during the trip.

If your child isn't better after a few days of home treatment, call your doctor.

If your child has a ruptured eardrum or has ear tubes in place, keep water from getting in the ear when your child takes a bath or a shower or goes swimming. The ear could get infected if any germs in the water get into the ear. If your doctor says it’s okay, your child may use earplugs. Or your doctor may have other advice for you. He or she can tell you when the hole in the eardrum has healed and when it’s okay to go back to regular water activities.

【Ear Infections — Pain and Treatment】

Sometimes an ear infection isn’t to blame for your child’s ear pain. There are other reasons, such as the following, that cause your child’s ears to hurt.
● An infection of the skin of the ear canal, often called “swimmer’s ear”
● Blocked or plugged eustachian tubes from colds or allergies
● A sore throat
● Teething or sore gums

Because pain is often the first and most uncomfortable symptom of ear infection, it’s important to help comfort your child by giving her pain medicine. Acetaminophen or ibuprofen are over-the-counter pain medicines that may help decrease much of the pain. Be sure to use the right dosage for your child’s age and size. Don’t give aspirin to your child. It has been associated with Reye syndrome, a disease that affects the liver and brain. There are also ear drops that may relieve ear pain for a short time. Ask your pediatrician whether these drops should be used. There is no need to use over-the-counter cold medicines (decongestants and antihistamines), because they don’t help clear up ear infections.

Not all ear infections require antibiotics. Some children who don’t have a high fever and aren’t severely ill may be observed without antibiotics. In most cases, pain and fever will improve in the first one to two days.

If your child is younger than 2 years, has drainage from the ear, has a fever higher than 102.5°F, seems to be in a lot of pain, is unable to sleep, isn’t eating, or is acting ill, it’s important to call your pediatrician. If your child is older than 2 years and your child’s symptoms are mild, you may wait a couple of days to see if she improves.

Your child’s ear pain and fever should go away within two to three days of their onset. If your child’s condition doesn’t improve within 2 days, call your pediatrician. Your pediatrician may wish to see your child and may prescribe an antibiotic, if one wasn’t given initially. If an antibiotic was already started, your child may need a different antibiotic. Be sure to follow your pediatrician’s instructions closely.

If an antibiotic was prescribed, make sure your child finishes the entire prescription. If you stop the medicine too soon, some of the bacteria that caused the ear infection may still be present and cause an infection to start all over again.

As the infection starts to clear up, your child might feel a “popping” in the ears. This is a normal sign of healing. Children with ear infections don’t need to stay home if they are feeling well, as long as a child care provider or someone at school can give them their medicine properly, if needed. If your child needs to travel in an airplane, or wants to swim, contact your pediatrician for specific instructions.

【Ear Infections - Medications】
Antibiotics can treat ear infections. But most children with ear infections get better without them. If the care you give at home relieves pain, and a child's symptoms are getting better after a few days, you may not need antibiotics.

In the United States, many doctors use antibiotics for middle ear infections in children younger than age 2. This is often because children this young are at higher risk for complications. For children ages 2 and older, many doctors wait for a few days to see if the ear infection will get better on its own. When doctors do prescribe antibiotics, they most often use amoxicillin (Amoxil) because it works well and costs less than other brands.

Experts suggest a hearing test if a child has had fluid behind his or her eardrum longer than 3 months. Normal hearing is critical during the first 2 years when your child is learning to talk. Your doctor may prescribe antibiotics to help clear the fluid. But that usually doesn't help. The doctor may also suggest placing tubes in the ears to drain fluid and improve hearing.

Other medicines that can treat symptoms of ear infection include:
● Acetaminophen (for example, Tylenol) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines (for example, Advil, Motrin, and Aleve), for pain and fever. Do not give aspirin to anyone younger than 20 because of its link to Reye syndrome, a serious illness that needs emergency care.
● Pain medicines such as codeine and some eardrops, which help with severe earache. But do not use eardrops if the eardrum is ruptured. For more information, see the safest way to insert eardrops.
● Sometimes corticosteroids, known as steroids, are given with antibiotics to get rid of fluid behind the eardrum (otitis media with effusion). Steroids are not a good choice for treating otitis media. Do not use steroids if a child has been around someone with chickenpox within the last 3 weeks.

Decongestants, antihistamines, expectorants, and other over-the-counter cold remedies usually do not work well for treating or preventing ear infections. Antihistamines that may make your child sleepy can thicken fluids and may actually make your child feel worse. Check with the doctor before giving these medicines to your child. Experts say not to give decongestants to children younger than 2.

Medication Choices
Antibiotics may help cure ear infections caused by bacteria.

What To Think About
Some doctors prefer to treat all ear infections with antibiotics. Some things to consider before your child takes antibiotics include:
● Risk for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The greatest problem with using antibiotics to treat ear infections is the possibility of creating bacteria that can't be killed by the usual antibiotics (antibiotic-resistant bacteria). Using antibiotics only when they're needed can slow down this process.
● Side effects of antibiotics. Mild side effects, such as diarrhea and rash, from taking antibiotics are common. Severe side effects are rare.
● Cost. Most antibiotics are expensive. You may want to weigh the cost against the fact that most ear infections clear up without treatment.

If your child still has symptoms (fever and earache) longer than 48 hours after starting an antibiotic, a different antibiotic may work better. Call your doctor if your child isn't feeling better after 2 days of antibiotic treatment.

【Ear Infections - When To Call a Doctor】

Call your doctor immediately if:
● Your child has a severe injury to the ear.
● Your child has sudden hearing loss, severe pain, or dizziness.
● Your child seems to be very sick with symptoms such as a high fever and stiff neck.
● You notice redness, swelling, or pain behind or around your child's ear, especially if your child does not move the muscles on that side of his or her face.

Call your doctor if:
● You can't quiet your child who has a severe earache with home treatment over several hours.
● Your baby pulls or rubs his or her ear and appears to be in pain (crying, screaming).
● Your child's ear pain increases even with treatment.
● Your child has a fever of 101F or higher with other signs of ear infection.
● You suspect that your child's eardrum has burst, or fluid that looks like pus or blood is draining from the ear.
● Your child has an object stuck in his or her ear.
● Your child with an ear infection continues to have symptoms (fever and pain) after 48 hours of treatment with an antibiotic.
● Your child with an ear tube develops an earache or has drainage from his or her ear.

Watchful Waiting
Watchful waiting is when you and your doctor watch symptoms to see if the health problem improves on its own. If it does, no treatment is necessary. If the symptoms don't get better or get worse, then it’s time to take the next treatment step.

If your child is age 6 months or older and has a mild earache, you might try watchful waiting. Most ear infections get better without antibiotics. But if your child's pain doesn't get better with nonprescription children's pain reliever (such as acetaminophen) or the symptoms continue after 48 hours, call a doctor.

Who To See
Health professionals who can diagnose and treat ear infections (acute otitis media) include:
● Pediatricians.
● Family medicine doctors.
● Nurse practitioners.
● Physician assistants.
● Internal medicine doctors.
● Otolaryngologists.
● Pediatric otolaryngologists.

Children who have ear infections often may need to see one of these specialists:
● Otolaryngologist
● Pediatric otolaryngologist
● Audiologist

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