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怀孕及分娩常用术语与解析
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发表时间:2008-06-17
更新时间:2008-07-15
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怀孕和生宝宝时对于OB讲的一些名词,如dilation, effacement之类,即便找到对应的
中文,仍是身在云里雾中、不解其义。这几天研究了一番,现在将结果向JMs汇报一下,
希望也能帮大家解决一些疑团啊。

Abruptio Placenta (Placental Abruption,premature separation of planceta) 胎
盘早剥: The placenta has started to separate from the uterine wall before
the baby is born.

ACOG 美国妇产科医师学会: The American College of Obstetricians and
Gynecologists is a private, voluntary, nonprofit organization of women's
healthcare professionals. The ACOG currently has over 37,000 physician
members. For more information, visit their website at http://www.acog.com/.

Active Labor: The period of time when your cervix dilates between four
and eight centimeters. Contractions usually come between three and five
minutes apart, dilating the cervix approximately one centimeter (one"finger")
per hour.

Alpha-Fetoprotein 甲胎蛋白: A test that assesses the risk (does not
diagnose) of neural tube defects and Down Syndrome. Usually given between
the 15-20 weeks; preferred at 16 weeks.

*Amniocentesis 羊膜穿刺: This procedure entails drawing a small quantity
of amniotic fluid from the sac surrounding the fetus. The particles of the
baby's sloughed-off skin cells floating in the water are then tested for
fetal abnormalities.

*Amniotic Fluid 羊水: This protective liquid, consisting mostly of fetal
urine and water, fills the sac surrounding the fetus.

Amniotic Sac(bag of waters) 胎膜囊: The sac that holds the protective
liquid called amniotic fluid that surrounds the fetus.

*Anemia 贫血: An iron deficiency common in pregnancy.

Anesthesiologist 麻醉师: A doctor who administers drugs like an epidural.

Anterior 前部: Baby faces the correct way (face down) when emerging from
the uterus.

Apgar Score 阿氏评分 : This is a measurement of a newborn\'s response to birth
and life outside the womb. Ratings are based on Appearance (color); Pulse (
heartbeat); Grimace (reflex); Activity (muscle tone) and Respiration (
breathing). The score is taken at 1 and 5 minutes (sometimes also at 10
minutes) after birth, the high score being 10 and the low score being 1.
This scale was named for its creator, Virginia Apgar (1909-1974).

Areola 乳晕 : The dark area encircling the nipple. (When breastfeeding, you
will need to make sure the baby latches onto the areola, not just the nipple.)


Arias-Stell reaction 阿-斯反应:简称"A-S反应"。宫外孕时子宫内膜上皮细胞及核
呈肥大改变。

AROM 人工破水: Acronym stands for artificial rupture of membranes. It means that a
doctor or midwife breaks the woman's water to begin labor.

Basal Body Temperature (BBT)基础体 : Your base body temperature - that is,
before movement, caloric consumption or anything else is factored in.

Betamethasone 倍他米松: A common drug used to help develop the baby\'s lungs
when it appears the woman will deliver prematurely. Given by injection into
the mother\'s muscle.

Bilirubin 胆红素: The waste product that results from the breakdown of
hemoglobin molecules from worn out red blood cells. It is normally excreted
from the body as the main component of bile. See Jaundice.

Birthing Ball : A large rubber ball, about 25 inches in circumference, used
during labor. The woman can sit on the ball and rock or bounce lightly, or
she can lie on top of the ball and rock.

Birthing Center: A medical facility used as an alternative to a homebirth
or a hospital birth. Usually simulates the homebirth experience, but has
medical resources.

Bloody Show 见红: Blood-tinged mucous from the vagina. May mean you are
losing the mucous plug that has sealed off the cervix up to this point.

Bradley Method 布雷德利法: Also known as "Husband-coached Childbirth",
instructors teach natural breathing, encourage husband support,
breastfeeding, etc. For more information, see the Bradley Method site.

Braxton-Hicks Contractions 早期宫缩(医学名称叫布雷顿希克斯宫缩): These
"practice" contractions occur at various times during pregnancy, but can
increase in intensity during your last month. They happen at random and are
typically not painful. They do not dilate the cervix as "real" contractions
do.

*Breech Presentation 臀先露 : Where the fetus is positioned head up to be
born buttocks first or with one or both feet first. Breech positioning is
relatively uncommon, occurring in fewer than five percent of all births.

Brethine (Terbutaline) 硫酸特布他林: Drug used in pregnancy to slow or stop
labor because even though it is an asthma medication, it relaxes smooth
muscles, and the uterus is a smooth muscle.

Catheter 导管: A small, flexible tube. Catheters are commonly used in
epidurals and when a woman cannot urinate (a catheter is placed up the
urethra and into the bladder)--commonly referred to as "being cathed".

Cephalopelvic Disproportion (CPD) 头盆不称: The term given when the size,
presentation, and position of the baby's head in relationship to the mom's
pelvis prevents dilation of the cervix and/or decent of the baby's head.
The baby is too large to safely pass through the mother's pelvis.

Cervidil 地诺前列酮制剂: A medication used to ripen the cervix before
induction (or to induce labor by itself).

*Cervix 宫颈: The entrance to the uterus.

*Cesarean(C.S) 剖宫产: An incision through the abdominal and uterine walls
for extraction of the fetus; it may be vertical or more commonly, horizontal.
Also called abdominal delivery; commonly called C-Section. (-section, -
birth, -delivery)

Chorionic Villus Sampling (CVS)绒毛标本采取: This procedure tests for
genetic fetal defects by analyzing a piece of chorion, which is the outer
tissues of the sac surrounding the embryo. CVS can be done earlier than
amniocentesis, typically between 9 and 11 weeks of pregnancy.

**Colostrum 初乳: Baby's first food, this is a thin white fluid discharged
from the breasts at the beginning of milk production, and usually noticeable
during the last few weeks of pregnancy (though may appear in tiny amounts
as early as 16 weeks). Colostrum is rich in antibodies.

Complete Breech 完全臀位: The baby's buttocks are presenting at the cervix,
but the legs are folded "indian style",making vaginal delivery difficult or
impossible.

Conception 妊娠,受孕: When the sperm penetrates the egg, a new life has
been created.

*Contraction 宫缩: The regular tightening of the uterus, working to dilate
and efface the cervix and to push the baby down the birth canal.

Cord Prolapse 脐带脱垂: Describes a condition where the umbilical cord slips
down below the baby and into the vaginal canal during birth and is directly
blocking the baby from being born without compressing the cord (which would
cut off baby's oxygen and blood supply).

Crowned/Crowning 着冠: Describes when the baby's head is pushing though the
fully dilated cervix and ready to pass into the birth canal.

Demerol 度冷丁: A narcotic pain reliever commonly used in labor and delivery.

**Dilation 子宫口扩张度,一般用0-10指来表示: The amount the cervix has
opened in preparation for childbirth, dilation is measured in centimeters or,
less accurately, in "fingers." "Fully dilated" means you're at 10
centimeters and are ready to push.

Doppler 多普勒仪: A device which employs ultrasound to listen to the fetal
heart. Sometimes referred to as a Doptone.

Doula 助产士: The Greek definition is "trusted servant" or "woman's servant".
Also known as a monitrice, the term refers to a woman who helps a couple
through childbirth.

Early labor: This is usually when you've had regular contractions for two
hours or more, as frequent as every five minutes to every twenty minutes.
Your cervix dilates up to three or four centimeters during this stage.

Eclampsia 子痫: Pregnancy-induced hypertension, a dangerous condition that
may occur during pregnancy. Symptoms may include elevated maternal blood
pressure, swelling of ankles and hands, sudden weight gain and protein in
the urine. More information here. See also pre-eclampsia.

*Ectopic (Tubal) Pregnancy 异位妊娠: A pregnancy that occurs outside of the
uterus. The large majority of ectopic (tubal) pregnancies occur in the
fallopian tube, but some can occur in the abdominal cavity as well.

Edema 水肿,浮肿: Swelling of soft tissues as a result of excess water
retention.

**Effacement 子宫颈薄化度或成熟度,用百分比来表示: This refers to the
thinning of the cervix in preparation for birth, and is expressed in
percentages. You'll be 100% effaced when you begin pushing.

elderly primipara 高龄初产妇 :妊娠年龄大于或等于35岁者

Electronic Fetal Monitor (EFM): This electronic instrument is used to
record the heartbeat of the fetus and contractions of the mother's uterus.

Embryo 胚胎: From conception to the eighth week of pregnancy, the baby
growing inside you is called an embryo.

Endometrium 子宫内膜: The blood-rich mucus membrane lining the uterus (which
is usually shed as your period). The embryo implants into this lining, and
takes early nourishment from it.

**Engaged 入盆: When the baby's presenting part (usually the head) has
settled into the pelvic cavity, usually in the last month of pregnancy. You
are likely to notice that the baby's position has visibly changed and may
also feel increased pressure on your bladder.

engagement 胎头降入盆腔(医学上称衔接),lightening或dropping 为同一词义

**Epidural 硬膜外麻醉: A common method of administering anesthesia during
labor. A small amount of anesthesia is inserted through a narrow catheter
threaded thorough a needle inserted into the dura space near the spinal cord.

Episiotomy 会阴切开术: An incision made during childbirth to the perineum,
the muscle between the vagina and rectum, to widen the vaginal opening for
delivery.

External Version 外旋转: Performed late in pregnancy, this is where a doctor
manually attempts to move a breech baby into the typical head-down position
for birth.

*Face Presentation 面先露: A relatively uncommon labor presentation, when
the baby is head down but has its neck extended, as if looking down the
birth canal, rather than with its chin tucked. (Also similar: brow
presentation)

Failure to Progress 功能障碍性分娩: Also called dysfunctional labor.
Diagnosis given to a woman who does labor does not follow a "normal" pattern
and is severely prolonged.

Fallopian Tubes 输卵管: Two narrow "tubes" leading from either side of the
uterus to the ovaries.

False Labor 假临产 : This is where you experience regular and/or painful
contractions that do not dilate or thin the cervix. It may be impossible for
you to differentiate from "real" labor.

Fentanyl 芬太尼: A narcotic drug generally used sparingly. Many hospitals do
not offer this type of narcotic for labor pain.

Fetal Distress 胎儿窘迫: Condition when the baby is not getting enough
oxygen or is experiencing some other complication. Immediate delivery may be
required.

Fetal Scalp Electrode 胎儿头皮电极: Instrument used to monitor the baby's
heartbeat while still in the uterus. This device is placed just under the
skin of the baby's scalp. See Internal Monitoring.

Fetus 胎儿: The baby in utero, after 8 weeks of pregnancy until delivery.
(Before then, it's considered an embryo.) The word fetus means "young one."
(Derivative: fetal)

*Fontanelle 囟门: One of two 'soft spots' between the unfused sections of
the baby's skull. These spots may allow the baby's head to compress slightly
during passage through the birth canal.

*Footling Breech 足式臀位: The baby is "upside-down" and one or both of the
baby's feet are presenting at the cervix before the buttocks.

Forceps 产钳: A tong-like instrument which may be placed around the baby's
head to help guide it out of the birth canal during delivery.

Frank Breech 伸腿臀: The baby's buttocks are presenting at the cervix and
the baby\'s legs are extended straight up to the baby's head.

Gestation 怀孕期,妊娠期: The length of pregnancy is called "Gestation."

*Gestational Diabetes 妊娠期糖尿病: A form of diabetes that appears during
pregnancy (gestation). Most pregnant women are tested for this condition. It
may or may not remain after the baby is born.

Group B Strep 乙型链球菌: An infection that affects 10-25% of all pregnant
women and can cause serious health problems in a newborn. Many doctors
screen pregnant women now because the infection can be passed to the newborn
during delivery, more commonly under certain conditions (mother has fever
or infection is present, amniotic bag has been ruptured for more than 18
hours or baby is premature). The bacteria that causes Strep B is commonly
found in the vagina and intestinal tract.

Hemorrhage 出血: Bleeding or flow of blood either internally or externally.

Hemorrhoid 痔疮: Enlarged veins in the anus or rectum, generally caused by
constipation or straining to have a bowel movement. Very common in pregnancy
or after childbirth.

High-Risk Pregnancy 高危妊娠: A pregnancy where there are complications or
special circumstances that may require specific medical attention or bed
rest.

*Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin (HCG)绒毛膜促性腺激素: The hormone
pregnancy tests look for, secreted by the placenta. This hormone prolongs
the life span of the corpus luteum as well as stimulates production of
progesterone, thereby creating the ideal environment for the embryo.

*Hydramnious 羊水过多: The medical term for a condition which involves
having too much amniotic fluid.

Hyperemesis 妊娠剧吐: Extremely severe nausea ("morning sickness"),
resulting in weight loss of five percent or more, ketosis, and electrolyte
imbalance. It can lead to hospitalization if dehydration occurs.

Hypospadias 尿道下裂: A congenital defect of the penis where the urethra is
not at the tip of the penis, but rather in the shaft. Corrected surgically.

Incompetent Cervix 子宫颈闭锁不全: A cervix that does not function properly
during pregnancy and is likely to dilate prematurely and cause a miscarriage.

Incontinence 失禁: Inability to control excretions. During pregnancy,
urinary incontinence can occur as the baby becomes heavy on the bladder.

*Induced Labor 催产素引产: When labor is started or accelerated through
intervention, such as by using an IV drip of the hormone oxytocin (Pitocin),
placing prostaglandin gel on the cervix, or by rupturing the membranes.

Internal Monitoring 内监护: During labor, internal monitoring may be needed and is
usually in the form of an electrode placed under the baby's scalp. See
Fetal Scalp Electrode.

Intramuscular Narcotics 肌肉注射止痛法: Pain relievers that are administered by injection
into the muscle.

Intrathecal 鞘内的: This procedure involves administering medicine into the
fluid around the spinal cord.

Intubate 插管: Meaning "to put a tube in", refers to procedure where a tube
is placed down the person's throat to assist breathing or for other medical
reasons.

IUGR 宫内(胎儿)生长迟缓,宫内发育迟缓: Intrauterine growth retardation: The growth of the fetus is abnormally slow. After the birth, the baby appears smaller than the
dates say he or she should be.

Jaundice (neonatal) 新生儿黄疸: A somewhat common condition in newborn
babies, marked by a yellowing of the skin and caused by the immature liver\'s
inability to process excess red blood cells. Treatment for mild cases will
include allowing your baby to spend time in sunlight, though in more severe
cases, the baby will be admitted to the hospital and placed under lights
which synthesize the sun's rays (minus harmful UV radiation).

Kegel Exercises 凯格尔运动或骨盆底肌肉运动(pelvic floor muscle exercises): These exercises are done in order to strengthen the pelvic
floor during delivery (to help you push more efficiently) and to assist
your body in recovering from childbirth. They are most simply done by
contracting and holding the muscles used to stop the flow of urine.

Labia 阴唇: The inner and outer "lips" of the vulva (vagina) - the external
female genitalia. The outer labia (labia majora) usually have pubic hair and
the smaller inner lips (labia minora) are mostly hidden inside.

*Labor 阵痛: Regular contractions of the uterus that result in dilation and
effacement of the cervix.

*Lamaze 呼吸减产痛——拉玛泽生产呼吸法: A childbirth preparation method where relaxation, breathing techniques and informed decisions are paramount. For more information, see the Lamaze homepage.

Leopold Maneuver 利奥波德手法: A set of four movements used to ascertain the
baby's position within the uterus. This is done by your healthcare provider
placing his or her hands on your belly, and to used determine the baby's
presentation (head up or down) and lie (facing right, left, back or front).

*Leukorrhea 白带: Whitish mucousy vaginal discharge, common during
pregnancy. Talk to your healthcare provider if there is a lot of discharge,
you notice a strong or offensive odor, or if accompanied by labial.vaginal
itching or swelling.

*Lightening 胎儿下降感 : When the baby \"drops\" in preparation for delivery.
See also Engagement.

LMP 末次月经: Acronym stands for last menstrual period.

*Lochia 恶露: A period-like discharge from the vagina that occurs after
delivery. The discharge will probably be exceptionally heavy at first and
may last five to six weeks.

Magnesium Sulfate 硫酸镁: One of the stronger drugs given through IV to stop
or slow labor.

Malpresentation 先露异常: Baby is not \"presenting\" (positioned in the pelvis)
in the anterior (normal) position. There are different types of
malpresentation (see breech presentation, face presentation, and posterior).

*Meconium 胎粪: Baby\'s first bowel movement, this is the greenish substance
that builds up in the bowels of a growing fetus and is normally discharged
shortly after birth.

Midwife 助产士,接生婆: A DEM (Direct Entry Midwife) assists homebirths
while a CPM (Certified Professional Midwife) assists births that take place
in the hospital or birthing center. Both health care providers offer
prenatal care and strive to reduce c-section rates, traumatic deliveries and
un-needed medical intervention.

Mittelschmerz 经间痛: Some women feel an abdominal pain or twinge -
mittelschmerz, literally meaning \"middle pain\" - upon ovulation.
Molding 塑形: Because the newborn\'s skull bones are not yet fused (to assist
the birthing process), baby\'s heads can look \"coned\" or squished. This
molding will not be permanent.

Mucous Plug 子宫口的粘液栓塞,平时用来防止细菌,分娩前会流出,造成分泌物增多:
Pinkish mucous discharge - which blocks the cervix during pregnancy - that
you may see when the cervix starts to open. Also called the \'show\' or
\'bloody show\', it is generally considered a sign that labor will soon begin.

*Neonatal 新生儿的: Referring to the newborn period (the first four weeks of
life).

Neonatalogist 新生儿学家: A specialist who cares for newborns.

NICU 新生儿重症监护治疗病房: Acronym standing for Neonatal Intensive Care
Unit.

Non-stress Test 非应激试验(人为引起子宫收缩查胎儿心搏数、了解胎儿健康情况): A
noninvasive test in which fetal movements are monitored and recorded, along
with changes in fetal heart rate.

Nubain纳布啡注射剂: Synthetic narcotic pain reliever commonly used in labor
and delivery.

*Obstetrician 产科医师: A doctor who specializes in pregnancy, labor and
delivery.

*Oligohydramnious 羊水过少: The medical term for a condition which involves
having too little amniotic fluid.

Oxytocin 催产素: The hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that stimulates
contractions and the milk-eject reflex (let-down). Pitocin is the synthetic
form of this hormone.

Pelvic Floor 骨盆底: Describes the area of the vulva, perineum, and anus. The
pelvic floor muscles are the muscles a woman tries to loosen while giving
birth.

Perineum 会阴: The muscle and tissue between the vagina and the rectum.

Phenergan 异丙嗪: A drug used as a sedative and also to control nausea and
vomiting.

pregnancy-induced hypertension(PIH) 妊娠诱发的高血压: Pregnancy Induced
Hypertension. See Eclampsia and Pre-eclampsia.

*Pitocin 催产素: Synthetic oxytocin (a hormone that stimulates contractions,
among other things) given through intravenous drip (IV) to stimulate labor.

Placenta Previa 前置胎盘: This condition is usually discovered in late
pregnancy when the placenta partially or completely covers the cervix.. (The
placenta lies very low in the uterus, so that the opening of the uterus is
partially or completely covered.)

*Placenta 胎盘: This is the tissue which connects the mother and fetus that
transports nourishment and takes away waste.

Posterior 后部,臀部: Describing the baby\'s face-up position during delivery
. Normal presentation is anterior (face down). Posterior deliveries
generally cause back labor (back pain).

Postpartum 产后: The period of time after a baby\'s birth.

postterm pregnancy, prolonged pregnancy 过期妊娠 : Pregnancy lasting more
than 42 weeks.

precocious pregnancy  幼女妊娠,妊娠年龄小于或等于12岁者。

Pre-eclampsia 先兆子痫: The precursor to eclampsia, this a condition
involving high blood pressure, swelling due to fluid retention, and abnormal
kidney function. More information here.

presentation 胎儿先露 有头部先露(cephalic vertex of presentation),
臀部先露(breech of presentation), 肩部先露也称横位( shoulder of
presentation)

Preterm 早产: Babies born earlier than 37 weeks.

*PROM 胎膜早破: Acronym stands for premature rupture of membranes and means a woman\'s water has broken early.

Prostaglandin Cream or Gel 前列腺素胶: Medication used to ripen the cervix before
induction.

Pubic Symphysis 耻骨联合: The joint between the pubic bones at the front of the
pelvis.

PUBS 经皮脐血抽样,经皮脐带血标本: Percutaneous umbilical blood sampling:
Similar to amniocentesis. A needle is inserted into the mother\'s abdominal
wall and through the uterus, but is also inserted into the umbilical cord at
the base of the placenta. Blood is drawn for diagnostic purposes.

Pudendal Block 阴部神经阻滞: A term used to describe a procedure that gives
regional pain relief in the perineum area during birth. Also used when
repairing an episiotomy.

Rh Factor / Rh Disease Rh因子;凝集因子: Occurs in Rh positive infants whose
mothers have Rh Negative blood (lacking the Rh factor)and the father has Rh
positive blood. If some of the baby\'s Rh positive blood cells get into the
mother\'s blood stream, her body produces antibodies that will try to fight
them off. If this happens during pregnancy or childbirth, the mother\'s cells
try to destroy the baby\'s red blood cells.

*Ruptured Membranes 膜破裂: Usually referred to as \"breaking of the water
bag\", this is when the fluid-filled sac that surrounds the baby breaks or
tears. You may notice a gush of water or a slow leak, and may not even be
certain that what you\'re experiencing isn\'t simple incontinence. If you
suspect your water has broken, you must inform your health care provider
immediately. You should also prepare to have your baby, as the risk of
infection increases if the baby is not delivered within 24 hours of the
rupture.

Shoulder Dystocia 肩难产: The baby\'s shoulder gets caught on the mother\'s
pubic bone during delivery.

Silver Nitrate 硝酸银: Generally administered in both eyes within the first
hour of life, this medication is used to prevent serious problems in the
newborn\'s eyes in the event that the mother has gonorrhea (a VSD that is
common and can be present without symptoms). Tetracycline and erythromycin
can be substituted.

Speculum 窥器,张开器: A metal or plastic instrument used to open the vagina
slightly wider so that the cervix can be seen more easily.

Stadol 酒石酸布托啡诺制剂: A narcotic pain reliever commonly used during
labor and delivery.

Station: This is the measure of how far the baby has traveled down the birth
canal. \"Zero station\" means he hasn\'t yet descended, while \"fully engaged\"
means he is ready to be born.

Stress Test 应力试验: This test records the fetal heart rate in response to
induced mild contractions of the uterus. See also Non-stress test.

Teratogens 致畸原: Agents such as drugs, chemicals and infections that can
cause birth defects when a mother is exposed to them during pregnancy.

Term 足月妊娠: Referring to a 40 week pregnancy (\"full term\", \"preterm\" and
\"post term\").

Timing contractions: Contractions are usually measured from the beginning
of one until the beginning of the next. Time your contractions with a
stopwatch or the second hand on a clock. Take note also of the duration of
each individual contraction.

Toxemia 妊娠中毒症: Pregnancy-induced hypertension, a dangerous condition
that may occur during pregnancy. Symptoms may include elevated maternal
blood pressure, swelling of ankles and hands, sudden weight gain and protein
in the urine. See Eclampsia and PIH.

Toxoplasmosis 弓形体病: This disease is caused by an organism found in raw
and rare meat, garden soil and cat feces. It is typically not harmful to
adults, but can cause injury to the fetus and placenta.

Transition: This is the phase after active labor when the cervix finishes
dilating to 10 centimeters. Contractions are the strongest and closest
together during this phase (which is also the shortest phase).

Transverse 横的,横位的: Describes the side-lying (where the baby\'s body length
is horizontal in the uterus) position of the baby before birth. Unless moved,
the baby will have to be delivered by c-section.

*Ultrasound 超声: This test uses sound waves to view and examine the fetus
or view the internal organs. It can also be used to measure bone size
(usually femur length and skull diameter) to aid in gauging the gestational
age of the fetus.

*Umbilical Cord 脐带: The cord that carries blood, oxygen and nutrients to
the baby from the placenta during pregnancy.

*Uterus 子宫: The uterus is your baby\'s home during gestation. Also referred
to as the womb, the uterus is hollow with a thick, muscular wall, and is
considered the strongest muscle in the human body.

Vacuum Extractor 真空吸引器: An instrument that attaches to the baby\'s head
and helps guide it out of the birth canal during delivery.

Vagina 阴道: The internal female genitalia where sperm are deposited. Also
called the vaginal canal during birth.

VBAC: Acronym stands for vaginal birth after cesarean.

Vernix: A greasy white substance coats and protects the baby\'s skin in
utero. Some babies happen to be born with lots of vernix still on the skin.
It is harmless, no longer necessary, and will be washed or wiped off.

Vulva 外阴: The vulva is the external female genitalia, and includes the
labia, clitoris, and vaginal opening.

Waterbirth 水中分娩: A birth that takes place in a sterile birthing tub or
pool.

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