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宝宝的第一年(Baby First Year)之四: 常见问题汇集之交流健康篇(网上资料)
作者:home99
发表时间:2008-07-23
更新时间:2008-07-23
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::: 栏目 :::
写给准妈妈1
宝宝护理与成长3
写给准妈妈3
为人父母3
英语学习
为人处世
休闲娱乐
理财话题
为人父母2
写给准妈妈2
实用资料
宝宝护理与成长2
为人父母1
其它
医药健康话题
写给新妈妈
宝宝护理与成长1
异国他乡

七、宝宝的交流能力

1.Bonding With Your Baby

Bonding is the intense attachment that develops between parents and their
baby. It makes parents want to shower their baby with love and affection and
to protect and nourish their little one. Bonding gets parents up in the
middle of the night to feed their hungry baby and makes them attentive to
the baby's wide range of cries.

Scientists are still learning a lot about bonding. They know that the strong
ties between parents and their child provide the baby's first model for
intimate relationships and foster a sense of security and positive self-
esteem. And parents' responsiveness to an infant's signals can affect the
child's social and cognitive development.

● Why Is Bonding Important?

Bonding is essential for a baby. Studies of newborn monkeys who were given
mannequin mothers at birth showed that, even when the mannequins were made
of soft material and provided formula to the baby monkeys, the babies were
better socialized when they had live mothers to interact with. The baby
monkeys with mannequin mothers were more likely to suffer from despair, as
well as failure to thrive. Scientists suspect that lack of bonding in human
babies can cause similar problems.

Most infants are ready to bond immediately. Parents, on the other hand, may
have a mixture of feelings about it. Some parents feel an intense attachment
within the first minutes or days after their baby's birth. For others —
especially if the baby is adopted or has been placed in intensive care — it
may take a bit longer.

But bonding is a process, not something that takes place within minutes and
not something that has to be limited to happening within a certain time
period after birth. For many parents, bonding is a byproduct of everyday
caregiving. You may not even know it's happening until you observe your baby's
first smile and suddenly realize that you're filled with love and joy.

● The Ways Babies Bond

When you're a new parent, it often takes a while to understand your newborn's
true capabilities and all the ways you can interact:

――Touch becomes an early language as babies respond to skin-to-skin
contact. It's soothing for both you and your baby while promoting your baby's
healthy growth and development.

――Eye-to-eye contact provides meaningful communication at close range.

――Babies can follow moving objects with their eyes.

――Your baby tries — early on — to imitate your facial expressions and
gestures.

――Babies prefer human voices and enjoy vocalizing in their first efforts
at communication. Babies often enjoy just listening to your conversations,
as well as your descriptions of their activities and environments.

● Making an Attachment

Bonding with your baby is probably one of the most pleasurable aspects of
infant care. You can begin by cradling your baby and gently stroking him or
her in different patterns. If you and your partner both hold and touch your
infant frequently, your little one will soon come to know the difference
between your touches. Each of you should also take the opportunity to be "
skin to skin" with your newborn by holding him or her against your own skin
when feeding or cradling.

Babies, especially premature babies and those with medical problems, may
respond to infant massage. Because babies aren't as strong as adults, you'll
need to massage your baby gently. Before trying out infant massage, be sure
to educate yourself on proper techniques by checking out the many books,
videos, and websites on the subject. You can also contact your local
hospital to find out if there are classes in infant massage in your area.

Bonding also often occurs naturally almost immediately for a breastfeeding
or bottle-feeding mother. Infants respond to the smell and touch of their
mothers, as well as the responsiveness of the parents to their needs. In an
uncomplicated birth, caregivers try to take advantage of the infant's alert
period immediately after birth and encourage feeding and holding of the baby.
However, this isn't always possible and, though ideal, immediate contact
isn't necessary for the future bonding of the child and parent.

Adoptive parents may be concerned about bonding with their baby. Although it
might happen sooner for some than others, adopted babies and their parents
have the opportunity to bond just as well as biological parents and their
children.

● Bonding With Daddy

Men these days spend more time with their infants than dads of past
generations did. Although dads frequently yearn for closer contact with
their babies, bonding frequently occurs on a different timetable, partially
because they don't have the early contact of breastfeeding that many moms
have.

But dads should realize, early on, that bonding with their child isn't a
matter of being another mom. In many cases, dads share special activities
with their infants. And both parents benefit greatly when they can support
and encourage one another.

Early bonding activities that both mom and dad can experience together
include:

――participating together in labor and delivery

――feeding (breast or bottle); sometimes dad forms a special bond with baby
when handling a middle-of-the-night feeding and diaper change

――reading or singing to baby

――sharing a bath with baby

――mirroring baby's movements

――mimicking baby's cooing and other vocalizations — the first efforts at
communication

――using a front baby carrier during routine activities

――letting baby feel the different textures of dad's face

● Building a Support System

Of course, it's easier to bond with your baby if the people around you are
supportive and help you develop confidence in your parenting abilities. That's
one reason experts recommend having your baby stay in your room at the
hospital. While taking care of a baby is overwhelming at first, you can
benefit from the emotional support provided by the staff and start becoming
more confident in your abilities as a parent. Although rooming-in often is
not possible for parents of premature babies or babies with special needs,
the support from the hospital staff can make bonding with the infant easier.

At first, caring for a newborn can take nearly all of your attention and
energy — especially for a breastfeeding mom. Bonding will be much easier if
you aren't exhausted by all of the other things going on at home, such as
housework, meals, and laundry. It's helpful if dads can give an extra boost
with these everyday chores, as well as offer plenty of general emotional
support.

And it's OK to ask family members and friends for help in the days — even
weeks — after you bring your baby home. But because having others around
during such a transitional period can be uncomfortable, overwhelming, or
stressful, you might want to ask people to drop off meals, walk the dog, or
watch any of the new baby's siblings outside the home.

● Factors That May Affect Bonding

Bonding may be delayed for various reasons. Parents-to-be may form a picture
of their baby having certain physical and emotional traits. When, at birth
or after an adoption, you meet your baby, reality might make you adjust your
mental picture. Because a baby's face is the primary tool of communication,
it plays a critical role in bonding and attachment.

Hormones can also significantly affect bonding. While nursing a baby in the
first hours of life can help with bonding, it also causes the outpouring of
many different hormones in mothers. Sometimes mothers have difficulty
bonding with their babies if their hormones are raging or they have
postpartum depression. Bonding can also be delayed if a mom's exhausted and
in pain following a prolonged, difficult delivery.

If your baby spends some time in intensive care, you may initially be put
off by the amount and complexity of equipment. But bonding with your baby is
still important. The hospital staff can help you hold and handle your baby
through openings in the isolette (a special nursery bassinet) and will
encourage you to spend time watching, touching, and talking with your baby.
Soon, your baby will recognize you and respond to your voice and touch.

Nurses will help you learn to bathe and feed your baby. If you're using
breast milk you've pumped, the staff, including a lactation consultant, can
help you make the transition to breastfeeding before your baby goes home.
Some intensive care units also offer rooming-in before you take your baby
home to ease the transition.

● Is There a Problem?
If you don't feel that you're bonding by the time you take your baby to the
first office visit with your child's doctor, discuss your concerns at that
appointment. It may be a sign of postpartum depression. Or bonding can be
delayed if your baby has had significant, unexpected health issues. It may
just be because you feel exhausted and overwhelmed by your child's arrival.

In any event, the sooner a problem is identified, the better. Health care
providers are accustomed to dealing with these issues and can help you be
better prepared to form a bond with your child.

Also, it often helps to share your feelings about bonding with other new
parents. Ask your childbirth educator about parenting classes for parents of
newborns.
Bonding is a complex, personal experience that takes time. There's no magic
formula and it can't be forced. A baby whose basic needs are being met won't
suffer if the bond isn't strong at first. As you become more comfortable
with your baby and your new routine becomes more predictable, both you and
your partner will likely feel more confident about all of the amazing
aspects of raising your little one.


2.新生儿

Do you remember your baby's very first cry? From the moment of birth, babies
begin to communicate.

At first, your newborn's cries may seem like a foreign language. But before
you know it, you'll learn your baby's "language" and be able to answer your
little one's needs.

● How Babies Communicate

Babies are born with the ability to cry, which is how they communicate for a
while. Your baby's cries generally tell you that something is wrong: an
empty belly, a wet bottom, cold feet, being tired, or a need to be held and
cuddled, etc.

Soon you'll be able to recognize which need your baby is expressing and
respond accordingly. In fact, sometimes what a baby needs can be identified
by the type of cry — for example, the "I'm hungry" cry may be short and low
-pitched, while "I'm upset" may sound choppy.

Your baby may also cry when overwhelmed by all of the sights and sounds of
the world, or for no apparent reason at all. Don't be too upset when your
baby cries and you aren't able to console him or her immediately: crying is
one way babies shut out stimuli when they're overloaded.

Crying is a baby's main method of communication, but they're also capable of
other, more subtle forms. Learning to recognize them is rewarding and can
strengthen your bond with your baby.

A newborn can differentiate between the sound of a human voice and other
sounds. Try to pay attention to how your little one responds to your voice,
which he or she already associates with care: food, warmth, touch.

If your baby is crying in the bassinet, see how quickly your approaching
voice quiets him or her. See how closely your baby listens when you talk in
loving tones. Your baby may not yet coordinate looking and listening, but
even when staring into the distance, he or she will be paying close
attention to your voice as you speak. Your baby may subtly adjust body
position or facial expression, or even move the arms and legs in time with
your speech.

Sometime during your newborn's first month, you may get a glimpse of a first
smile and perhaps hear that first laugh or giggle — welcome additions to
your baby's communication skills!

● What Should I Do?

As soon as you hold your baby after birth, you'll begin to communicate with
each other by exchanging your first glances, sounds, and touches. Babies
quickly learn about the world through their senses.

As the days after birth pass, your newborn will become accustomed to seeing
you and will begin to focus on your face. The senses of touch and hearing
are especially important, though. Your baby will be curious about noises,
but none more so than the spoken voice. Talk to your baby whenever you have
the chance. Even though your baby doesn't understand what you're saying,
your calm, reassuring voice conveys safety. With almost every touch your
newborn is learning about life, so provide lots of tender kisses, and your
little one will find the world a soothing place.

Communicating with newborns is a matter of meeting their needs. Always
respond to your newborn's cries — babies cannot be spoiled with too much
attention. Indeed, prompt responses to babies' cries lets them know that
they're important and worthy of attention.

There will probably be times when you have met all needs, yet your infant
continues to cry. Don't despair — your baby may be overstimulated, or have
gastric distress or too much energy and just need a good cry.

It's common for babies to have a fussy period at the same time every night,
generally between early evening and midnight. This can be upsetting, but the
good news is that it's short-lived — most babies outgrow it at around 3
months of age.

You can try to soothe your baby. Some are comforted by motion, such as
rocking or being walked back and forth across the room, while others respond
to sounds, like soft music or the hum of a vacuum cleaner. It may take some
time to find out what best comforts your baby during these stressful
periods.

● Should I Be Concerned?
Talk to your doctor if your baby seems to cry for an unusual length of time,
if the cries sound odd to you, or if the crying is associated with
decreased activity, poor feeding, or unusual breathing or movements. Your
doctor will be able to reassure you or look for a medical reason for your
baby's distress. Chances are there is nothing wrong, and knowing this can
help you relax and stay calm when your baby is upset.

Here are some other reasons for prolonged crying:

――The baby is ill. A baby who cries more when being held or rocked may be
sick. Call your doctor.

――The baby has an eye irritation. A scratched cornea or "foreign body" in
a baby's eye can cause redness and tearing. Call your doctor.

――The baby is in pain. An open diaper pin or other object could be hurting
the baby's skin. Take a close look everywhere, even each finger and toe (
sometimes hair can get wrapped around a baby's tiny digits and cause pain).

If you have any questions about your newborn's ability to see or hear, you
should bring them to your doctor's attention immediately. Even newborns can
be tested using sophisticated equipment, if necessary. The sooner a
potential problem is caught, the better it can be treated.

3.宝宝1-3个月

This is an exciting time for parents — babies this age make real progress
toward communicating. They'll recognize Mommy and Daddy, laugh, squeal, and
smile spontaneously.

Your baby's personality begins to become evident as he or she becomes a more
active and alert member of your family.

● How Babies Communicate

Crying continues to be a baby's primary means of communication for many
months. Aside from letting parents know that they need something, they might
cry when overwhelmed by all of the sights and sounds of the world.
Sometimes babies may cry for no apparent reason. Try not to get too upset if
your baby cries and you aren't able to console him or her.

Your baby will respond to the sound of your voice by becoming quiet, smiling,
or getting excited and moving his or her arms and legs. Babies this age
begin smiling regularly at mom and dad but probably won't smile and act
friendly with strangers, though they may warm up to them with coos and body
talk.

Babies now discover their ability to vocalize: Soon you'll have a cooing and
gurgling machine! Some babies begin to make some vowel sounds, like "ah-ah"
or "ooh-ooh," at about 2 months. Your baby will "talk" to you with a
variety of sounds; your baby will also smile at you and wait for your
response, and respond to your smiles with his or her own. Your baby's arms
and legs will move, and his or her hands will open up. Your baby may even
mimic your facial expressions.

● What Should I Do?

Your baby loves to hear your voice, so talk, babble, sing, and coo away
during these first few months. Respond enthusiastically to your baby's
sounds and smiles. Tell your baby what he or she is looking at or doing and
what you are doing. Name familiar objects as you touch them or bring them to
your baby.

Read to your baby — even at this tender age, it help in the development of
the growing brain. By listening to you, your baby will learn the importance
of speech before understanding it or repeating any words.

Take special advantage of your baby's own "talking" to have a "conversation.
" If you hear your baby make a sound, repeat it and wait for him or her to
make another. You are teaching your baby valuable lessons about tone, pacing,
and taking turns when talking to someone else. You are also sending the
message that your baby is important enough to listen to. Don't interrupt or
look away when your baby's "talking" — show you're interested and that your
little one can trust you.

Babies this age seem to respond best to the female voice — the one
historically associated with comfort and food. That's why most people will
raise the pitch of their voices and exaggerate their speech when talking to
babies. This is fine — studies have shown that "baby talk" doesn't delay
the development of speech — but feel free to mix in some regular adult
words and tone. It may seem early, but you're setting the stage for your
baby's first word.

Sometimes babies aren't in the mood to talk or vocalize — even babies need
their space and a break from all the stimulation in the world. Babies might
turn away, closes their eyes, or becomes fussy or irritable. If this happens,
let your little one be, or just try cuddling.

There might be times when you've met all of your baby's needs, yet he or she
continues to cry. Don't despair — your baby may be overly stimulated, have
gastric distress, or may have too much energy and need a good cry.

It's common for babies to have a fussy period at the same time every night,
generally between early evening and midnight. This can be upsetting, but the
good news is that it's short-lived; most babies outgrow it around 3 months.

Try to soothe your baby. Some babies are comforted by motion, such as
rocking or being walked back and forth across the room, while others respond
to sounds, like soft music or the hum of a vacuum cleaner. It may take some
time to find out what best comforts your baby during these stressful
periods.

● If You're Concerned

Talk to your doctor if your baby seems to cry for an unusual length of time
or if the cries sound odd to you. Your doctor will be able to reassure you
or look for a medical reason for your baby's distress. Chances are there is
nothing wrong, and knowing this can help you relax and stay calm when your
baby is upset.

Babies usually reach these communication milestones during this period:

――pay attention to new faces and surroundings

――respond to loud noises

――smile at the sound of a parent's voice

――smile at other people by 3 months

――coo consistently by 3 or 4 months

Keep in mind that babies communicate at different rates, just as they mature
physically at different rates. There is usually no cause for concern, but
talk to your doctor if your baby misses any of these milestones.

4.宝宝4-7个月

Your baby's range of sounds and facial expressions continues to grow, with
lots of babbling, squealing, smiling, and laughing — which may mean less
time for crying. Your baby is also imitating sounds, which are first
attempts at speaking.

● How Babies Communicate

Babies this age begin to experiment with the sounds they can make with their
mouth, using saliva as an important tool. Your baby will also make more
attempts to imitate sounds and spend more time babbling. Make no mistake,
these are your baby's early attempts at speaking and should be encouraged as
much as possible. If you listen closely, you'll hear your baby's voice
raise and drop as if asking a question or making a statement.

Your baby is just now beginning to understand the fundamentals of
communication through language. When younger, your baby understood your
meaning through the tone of your voice: Soothing tones were comforting,
agitated tones told him or her something was wrong. Now, your baby is
beginning to pick out the components of your speech and can hear and
understand the different sounds you make and the way words form sentences.

Realizing that his or her noises have an effect on you, your baby will enjoy
playing copycat games where you mimic what your little one says. Your baby
may also make the discovery that crying grabs your attention. This is mostly
a good thing, but your baby will also use it on occasion when bored or
frustrated. Babies may also try coughing to get parental attention. Rather
than punish a baby for this, give extra attention once the coughing or
fussing has stopped. This is the age when your baby is able to reflect your
emotional state, which is the beginning of true communication.

● What Should I Do?

Babies this age like being stimulated by games and vocal interactions. Your
baby will be thrilled when you copy his or her coos and gurgles. Imitate
your baby's vowel sounds, then follow up by saying some simple words that
contain the same vowel sound.
Have "conversations" and wait for a pause in your baby's babble to "answer."
The give-and-take of these early discussions will set the stage for those
first real words in the months to come. Ask your baby questions, and respond
enthusiastically to whatever answers you get.

Introduce your baby to simple words that apply to everyday life. Use adult
words — experts say that babies understand words long before they can
pronounce them, and good speech habits help shape a baby's speech patterns.

When you talk to your baby, slow your speech and emphasize single words —
for example, say: "Do you want a toy? This is your toy," as you show it to
him or her. Then wait for a response. Following your speech with moments of
silence will encourage your baby to vocalize and teach that conversation
involves taking turns.

Your baby will love being read to from books with large, brightly colored
pictures, and this will help form good speech habits while your little one
enjoys looking at the images.
Sometimes babies are not in the mood to vocalize and need a break from all
the stimulation around them. If your baby turns away, closes his or her eyes,
or becomes fussy, let your baby be.

● Should I Be Concerned?

Your baby will probably reach some communication milestones during this
period. By the end of the seventh month, babies usually:

――respond to their names

――respond to sounds by making their own

――start to babble or imitate sounds

Remember that there is a wide range of what's normal for babies. There is
usually no cause for concern, but talk to your doctor if your baby misses
any of these milestones.

5.宝宝8-12个月

During these months, your baby might say "mama" or "dada" for the first time,
and will communicate using body language, like nodding and shaking his or
her head. Your baby will pay even more attention to your words and will try
very hard to imitate you — so be careful what you say!

● How Babies Communicate

Babies this age test their verbal skills as they prepare for their big
speaking debut. They make more and more recognizable sounds, such as "ga," "
ba," and "da." They may even stumble onto a real word like "mama," and will
be thrilled at mom and dad's excitement.
Babies begin to express likes and dislikes with body language, nodding in
agreement or wrinkling their nose with displeasure. They'll also begin to
communicate what they want by pointing, crawling, and gesturing.

You'll know that your baby understands what you say when you ask: "Where's
Daddy?" and your little one looks his way, or you say: "Go find the blue
ball," and he or she crawls right to it. Your baby should respond well to
his or her own name, and should look up (and at least pause) when you firmly
say, "NO!"

By the end of the first year, your baby should be responding well to simple
requests from you ("Wave bye-bye") and should be making some valiant
babbling attempts at real conversation.

● What Should I Do?

Continue talking to your baby using names as well as repetitive word games,
like "This little piggy." Point to a ball and ask "What's that?" and pause
before you provide the answer. Soon your baby will be pointing and saying "
bah?" as though asking a question.
Labeling simple objects during the course of the day reinforces the message
that everything has its own name. From milk in the morning to a teddy bear
at night, your little one is learning what familiar objects are called and
storing this information away, just waiting for the day when he or she can
form the right words.

Make learning a whole-body experience: Touch your baby's toe when you say
the word "toe." Or point out your own ear and say, "Mommy's (or Daddy's) ear.
" Face your baby when you speak to let him or her see your facial
expression and lip movements.

Be musical and sing to your baby to encourage language learning. By
listening to the words, babies learn to recognize and repeat them. Throw in
hand gestures and vary the style and tempo of the music to keep your baby's
attention. Babies also respond to rhymes, which show how playful language
can be.

Read to your baby from large, colorful picture books, and encourage him or
her to turn the pages. Give your baby a chance to "read" and "answer" your
questions.

● If You're Concerned

Some children master motor skills earlier and easier than language skills.
Very active kids may decide to concentrate on language after they've
mastered walking. Both activities are not likely to happen at the same time.

If your baby seems to be a late talker, this isn't necessarily a cause for
concern, although kids should say at least one word by 12-15 months of age.
Your baby should also learn to use gestures such as waving and should point
to objects or pictures.

If your baby doesn't seem to be able to respond to the sound of his or her
name being called or doesn't look around at loud noises, talk to your doctor.


八、体检及疫苗接种

1.新生儿

By the time you hold your new baby in your arms for the first time, chances
are you have already chosen one of the most important people in his or her
early life - a doctor. You and your baby will probably visit the doctor more
often during the first year than at any other time.

You may have had a prenatal visit with your baby's doctor-to-be to discuss
some specifics, such as when he or she will see your newborn for the first
time, office hours and on-call hours, who fills in for your doctor when he
or she is out of the office, and how the office handles after-hours
emergencies. You may have also learned your child's doctor's views on
certain issues.

In this way, you've begun to forge a relationship with your baby's doctor
that should last through the bumps, bruises, and midnight fevers to come.

● What Will Happen Right After Birth?

Depending on your desires and the rules of the hospital or birth center
where your baby is delivered, his or her first exam will either take place
in the nursery or at your side:

――Weight, length, and head circumference will be measured.

――Temperature will be taken, and his or her breathing and heart rate will
be measured.

――The doctor or nurse will monitor the color of his or her skin and his or
her activity.

――Special eye drops will be given to ward off infection.

――A shot of vitamin K will be given to prevent the possibility of bleeding.


Your baby will be given his or her first bath, and the umbilical cord stump
will be cleaned. Most hospitals and birthing centers provide personal
instructions (and sometimes videos) to new parents that cover feeding,
bathing, and other important aspects of newborn care.

● When Will We See the Doctor?

The hospital or birth center where you deliver will notify your child's
doctor of your baby's birth. If you have had any medical problems during
pregnancy, if any medical problems for your baby are suspected, or if you
are having a c-section, a pediatrician or your baby's doctor will be alerted
about the impending birth in order to be standing by to take care of the
baby.

The doctor you have chosen for your newborn will probably give your baby a
full physical examination within 24 hours of birth. You and your child's
doctor will have the chance to talk about your new baby and the many aspects
of parenting. This is also a good opportunity to ask any questions you have
about your new baby's care. Find out when the doctor would like to see your
newborn again. Most healthy newborns are routinely examined at the doctor's
office when they are about one to two weeks old.

● What Happens at the First Office Visit?

During the first office visit, your child's doctor will assess your baby in
a variety of ways to see how he or she is doing. The first office visit will
differ from doctor to doctor, but you can probably expect:

――measurement of your baby's weight, length, and head circumference to
assess how he or she has been doing since birth

――observation of your newborn's vision, hearing, and reflexes

――a total physical examination to check for any abnormalities of the body
or organ function

――questions about how you are doing with the new baby and how your baby is
eating and sleeping

――advice on what you can expect in the coming month

――a discussion of your home environment and how it might affect your baby'
s health (for example, smoking in the house can negatively affect your baby'
s health in a number of ways)

Also, if the results of screening tests performed on your newborn after
birth are available, they may be discussed with you. Bring any questions or
concerns to your child's doctor at this time. Make sure to write down any
specific instructions he or she gives you regarding special baby care. Keep
a permanent medical record for your baby that includes information about
your baby's growth, immunizations, medications, and any problems or
illnesses.

● What Immunizations Will My Baby Receive?

A baby receives some natural immunity against many infectious diseases from
his or her mother. A mother's infection-preventing antibodies are passed to
her baby through the umbilical cord before the baby is born. This immunity
is only temporary, but your baby will develop his or her own immunity
against many infectious diseases. Breast-fed babies receive antibodies and
enzymes in breast milk that help protect them from some infections and even
some allergic conditions.

Some infants will receive their first artificial immunization, a hepatitis B
vaccine (HBV), at birth or shortly after. This immunization is given in
three doses. There are combination vaccines, however, that include HBV and
are given at the 2 month visit. In this case no immunizations would be given
until 2 months of age, but it's not too early to familiarize yourself with
the standard immunization schedule.

● When Should I Call the Doctor?
Since small problems can indicate big problems for newborns, don't hesitate
to call your child's doctor if you have concerns. There are some
difficulties that you should be aware of during this first month:

――Excessive drowsiness can be hard to spot in a newborn since most sleep
so much. But if you suspect your infant is sleepier than normal, call the
doctor. Sometimes this could mean there is an infection present in a baby's
system.

――Eye problems can be caused by blockage of one or both tear ducts.
Normally the ducts open on their own before too long, but sometimes they
remain clogged, which can cause mucus-like tearing of the eyes. The white
discharge can crust up on a baby's eyes and make it difficult for your baby
to open his or her eyes, and the blockage can lead to infection. If you
suspect a serious infection, such as conjunctivitis (pinkeye), call your
child's doctor immediately. If your baby has an infection, the doctor will
need to examine him or her and may prescribe special antibiotic drops.

――Fever in a newborn (rectal temperature above 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit or
38 degrees Celsius) should be reported to your child's doctor right away.

――Extreme floppiness or jitters in a baby could be a sign of underlying
problems. Report them to the doctor immediately.

――A runny nose can make it difficult for a baby to breathe, especially
when he or she is feeding. You can help ease your baby's discomfort by using
a rubber bulb aspirator to gently suction mucus from the nose. Be sure to
call your child's doctor - even a common cold can be dangerous for a newborn.


――While breast-fed newborns generally have loose, mustard-colored stools,
very loose and watery stools could indicate illness. The danger here for a
baby is dehydration, which can show up as a dry mouth and a noticeable
reduction in urine output (fewer than six wet diapers in 24 hours). Call
your child's doctor if your newborn's stools seem watery or loose or if they
often occur at other times besides after feeding.

2.宝宝1-3个月

During these early months, you may find yourself with many questions about
your baby's health. Most doctors have phone hours when you can call with
routine questions. Don't hesitate to call your child's doctor with your
concerns, no matter how small they may seem. Of course, if you suspect
illness, don't wait for phone hours - call your doctor immediately. As in
the newborn period, illness at this age requires immediate attention.

● When Will We See the Doctor?

You will most likely visit your child's doctor with your infant at least
once every two months until your baby is about six months old. Not all
doctors follow this routine, though, so be sure to ask your own child's
doctor for his or her well-baby checkup schedule.

Your infant is seen regularly to assess growth, feeding, and sleeping habits,
among other things. These regular checkups also provide opportunities for
your child's doctor to check up on any areas of concern that may have been
uncovered at your baby's previous checkup and for you to ask any questions
you have about your baby's health or behavior.

● What Will Happen at the Office Visit?

When you visit your child's doctor during these early months, he or she will
be checking your baby's progress and growth. Here are some of the more
common components of a checkup:

――Weight, length, and head circumference measurements that are plotted on
your baby's own growth chart

――A physical examination with special attention to any previous problems
uncovered

――Assessment of physical and emotional development (for example, your baby's
head control, vision, and social interaction)

――Questions about how you are doing with your baby

――Advice about feeding, vitamins, and other aspects of nutrition

――What to expect during the coming months, including a discussion of
babyproofing your home

――Your baby will receive immunizations during some visits (see below).
Bring to your child's doctor any questions or concerns you may have. Write
down any specific instructions he or she gives you regarding special baby
care. Update your infant's permanent medical record, tracking growth and
problems or illnesses.

● What Immunizations Will My Baby Receive?

At one to two months old, your baby will receive the second dose of the
hepatitis B vaccine (HBV) if the first dose was given just after birth. With
combination vaccines, however, the 2 month visit may be the first time that
your baby receives any immunizations..

At two months (and again at four months), he or she will be given several
vaccines:

――Diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine

――Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine

――Polio vaccine (IPV)

――Pneumococcal vaccine (PCV) - this is a newer vaccine now given in a
series of four shots over the first 15 months of life.

――Possibly hepatitis B vaccine (HBV)

Some of these safeguards against serious childhood illnesses can cause
reactions (usually mild), such as fever or irritability. Be sure to discuss
side effects with your doctor and get guidelines for when to call the office.

● When Should I Call the Doctor?

There are some common medical problems at this age that may need a doctor's
attention. They include:

――Diarrhea and vomiting, which could be caused by an infection of the
digestive tract and can put your infant at risk for dehydration.

――Ear infections, which can affect infants this young. A baby with an ear
infection may become irritable. Fever may or may not be present.

――Rashes, which are common in infants. Some may not seem to bother your
baby, but some skin conditions like eczema can result in dry, scaly patches
that are itchy and uncomfortable. Your doctor can tell you which lotions,
creams, and soaps to use.

――Upper respiratory tract infections (including the common cold), which
affect infants just like the rest of us. Since a baby can't blow his or her
own nose, you'll have to handle clearing mucus with a rubber bulb aspirator.
Don't give your baby any medications without checking first with your
doctor. Call the pediatrician's office immediately if baby develops a cough,
refuses to eat, has a rectal temperature above 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit (38
degrees Celsius), or is excessively cranky or sleepy.

Again, don't hesitate to contact your child's doctor's office if you have
any health or behavior concerns.

3.宝宝4-7个月

Because your baby grows rapidly during these months, your questions may move
from simple sleeping and eating concerns to those about physical
development and motor skills. Your child's doctor will monitor your baby's
progress and answer any questions you may have.

● When Will We See the Doctor?

Most likely your baby will now be seen at four months and at six months, but
your child's doctor may have his or her own schedule for well-baby visits.
Extra visits may be scheduled to check on a problem found at an earlier time.

It is not uncommon for parents to be calling the doctor more frequently
about suspected colds or ear infections during these months, especially
during the wintertime. Once your baby can reach out and grab objects, and
starts having contact with more people, he or she may be at increased risk
for contagious illness, particularly if entering a day care or if they have
an older brother or sister. Also, much of the immunity that a baby received
from his or her mother before birth is "wearing off" now.

● What Will Happen at the Office Visit?

Well-baby visits vary from doctor to doctor, but here are some common
elements of a checkup:

――Measurement of your baby's length, weight, and head circumference.
Growth will be plotted on a growth chart, and you will be advised of his or
her progress.

――A physical examination to check for normal function of the eyes, ears,
heart, lungs, abdomen, arms and legs, etc. The doctor will check the baby's
soft spot (the fontanel) at the top of the head, and he or she may check
baby's mouth for signs of teething.

――A review of your baby's physical and emotional development through both
observation and your report of his or her progress. Can he or she hold up
his head? Is he or she rolling over? Is he or she attempting to sit up after
six months? Is he or she trying to use his or her hands more and more? How
does he or she react to strangers? Your doctor may ask you these questions
and more.

――You may be asked how you are doing with your baby and how the rest of
the family is functioning. Your child's doctor may go over safety questions
with you: Have you babyproofed your home? Is he or she in an appropriate
safety seat while riding in the car? Have you begun removing mobiles and
bumpers from the crib if he or she is able to pull himself up?

――A discussion of your baby's eating habits, including the likelihood that
solid foods will be introduced soon.

――Advice on what to expect in the coming months.

――Your baby will receive immunizations during some visits (see below).

Sometime during the 6 months before their first birthday babies are checked
for anemia (low blood iron). This can be done with a simple finger prick to
collect a drop of blood for examination. Other than this test, most babies
do not need any routine laboratory tests in the first year of life.

Bring to your child's doctor any questions or concerns you may have at this
time. Make sure to write down any specific instructions he or she gives you
regarding special baby care. Keep updating your child's permanent medical
record, listing information on his or her growth and problems or illnesses.

● What Immunizations Will My Baby Receive?

Immunizations generally given at the four-month visit:

――Second diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine

――Second Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine

――Second polio vaccine (IPV)

――Second pneumococcal conjugate (PCV) vaccine

――Second hepatitis B (HBV) vaccine. (This can vary depending on whether
your doctor uses combination vaccines).

At your baby's six-month visit he or she may receive the following:

――Third diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccine

――Possibly the third polio vaccine (IPV) at this time

――Third hepatitis B vaccine (if first two doses have been given earlier)

――Third Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine

――Third pneumococcal conjugate (PCV) vaccine

● When Should I Call the Doctor?

Coming down with colds and other illnesses is a normal part of growing up.
Your baby is beginning to explore his environment on his or her own, and is
probably getting exposure to other children. It might be hard to see your
baby fight a stuffy nose or suffer with an ear infection, but rest assured
that most children grow out of the frequent-illness stage (though perhaps
not for some time). Meanwhile, there are safeguards you can take to try and
keep your baby well:

――Breast-feeding your baby will give him or her antibodies and enzymes
that help protect from illness.

――Try to keep your baby away from children who you know are sick,
especially those with infectious diseases such as chickenpox.

――Family members who are sick should not share food or drink with the baby,
and they should wash their hands well before handling the baby and his or
her toys.

――Be vigilant about your baby's vaccines. Stick to the immunization
schedule recommended by your child's doctor.

Call your child's doctor right away if your baby seems less energetic or
lethargic, refuses to eat, suddenly has trouble sleeping, has diarrhea, or
is vomiting. Also, temperature over 101 degrees Fahrenheit (38.3 degrees
Celsius) should be reported to the doctor immediately, even if your baby
seems well otherwise.

4.宝宝8-12个月

As your baby becomes more independent and mobile, your questions for your
child's doctor may have more to do with bumps, bruises, and behavior than
with anything else. You can't protect your baby from every knee-bump
suffered while learning to walk or finger-pinch received while investigating
his or her room. But you can make sure poisons and medicines are kept where
he or she can't possibly get to them, and you can try to provide a safe
environment in which to satisfy budding curiosity about the surrounding
world.

Your baby is probably hearing "no" a lot these days as he or she explores
boundaries; consequently, you'll hear that word from him or her a lot later
on. It's your job to remain consistent but loving while teaching the
difference between acceptable and unacceptable behavior. Although you may
have depended on your child's doctor primarily for medical advice until this
point, he or she is also a wealth of information on the emotional and
social aspects of childhood.

● When Will We See the Doctor?

Doctors often have their own schedules for well-baby visits, but most will
generally see a baby twice during this stage, once at 9 months and again at
12 months. If you have missed any immunizations, or if a problem has been
detected that needs special attention, additional visits may be scheduled
during this time.

● What Will Happen During the Office Visit?

The well-baby visits at 9 and 12 months are pretty similar to the exams that
have taken place so far, although your discussions with your child's doctor
about behavior and habits may become more detailed as your baby becomes
more mobile and independent.

You can expect these common procedures and questions:

――Measurement of your baby's length, weight, and head circumference.
Growth will be plotted on his or her own growth chart, and you will be
advised of his or her progress.

――A physical examination checking for normal function of the eyes, ears,
heart, abdomen, hands and feet, reflexes, etc. The doctor may check your
baby's soft spot (the fontanel). The soft spot may be closed or much smaller
(the size of a fingertip). The doctor will check your baby's mouth for new
teeth and signs for the appearance of others to come.

――A review of your baby's physical and emotional development through both
observation and your report of his or her progress. Can he or she sit on her
own by now? Do you discover him or her pulling up on things to stand? Does
he or she recognize his or her own name and the names of other family
members? Does he or she enjoy interacting with you through games like "
peekaboo"? Your doctor may ask you these questions and others.

――You may be asked how you are doing with your baby and how the rest of
the family is functioning. Your child's doctor may go over safety questions
with you: Have you babyproofed your home? Is your baby in an appropriate car
seat while riding in the car?
――A discussion of your baby's eating habits. Is he or she eating more
table foods? Is he or she interested in finger foods on the tray of the
highchair? Can he or she use a cup? Is he or she being weaned from the
breast or bottle? Most doctors advise a switch from bottle to cup by the
first birthday or before to be sure the bottle doesn't interfere with normal
tooth development, and to avoid a struggle with a determined toddler later
on. By 1 year, most babies can be given foods that were off-limits before,
such as cow's milk, citrus fruits, and eggs. Your doctor can discuss these
additions to your baby's diet with you.

――Advice on what to expect in the coming months.

――Your baby will receive immunizations during some visits (see below).

Depending on where you live and the potential risk of getting tuberculosis
it is sometimes recommended that babies at about 1 year of age undergo a
tuberculin skin test. You'll be given instructions on how to monitor the
test and will be asked to return to the office for the nurse or doctor to
check the results of the test. Discuss possible vaccine reactions with your
child's doctor, and get advice on when to call with unusual problems.

Bring to your child's appointments any questions or concerns you may have at
this time. Make sure to write down any specific instructions the doctor
gives you regarding special baby care. Keep updating your child's permanent
medical record, listing information on his or her growth and problems or
illnesses.

● What Immunizations Will My Baby Receive?

If your baby missed immunizations at previous visits because of illness or
scheduling problems, he or she will probably be brought up-to-date during
this stage. Because your baby is becoming more and more mobile and is coming
in contact with other children more often, you'll want to make sure
immunizations are given as close to the recommended times as possible. This
is especially true if your baby goes out of your home for child care.

Because more immunizations than ever before are being given to children by
the age of 2 years, doctors are spacing vaccinations so that infants will
not need more than three to four shots per well-baby visit.

From the Recommended Childhood Immunization Schedule of the American Academy
of Pediatrics:

――At your baby's 12-month visit, he or she may receive his or her first
measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine (it can be given between 12 and 15
months of age).

――The varicella (chickenpox) vaccine is currently given as a single
injection between 12 and 18 months of age.

――The fourth pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) is given between 12 and
15 months of age.

――The fourth Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) vaccine is given between
12 and 15 months of age.

Your baby may also receive:

――the third hepatitis B vaccine (Hep B), which can be given at any time
during 6 to 18 months of age

――the third polio vaccine (IPV), which can be given at any time during 6
to 18 months of age

The schedule of these immunizations can vary depending on what combined
vaccines your doctor uses.

● When Should I Call the Doctor?

You should feel comfortable enough with your baby's doctor to call with
questions and concerns that can't wait until the next scheduled visit. If
you have questions that can wait until the next visit, write them down so
you don't forget. Of course, call your child's doctor immediately if your
child has an injury or illness that needs attention.

Call your child's doctor right away if your baby seems especially sluggish,
is refusing food or drink, is vomiting or has diarrhea, or has a temperature
of 102 degrees Fahrenheit or higher.

At this age, developmental delays may cause concern, so contact your child's
doctor if you suspect your child is not developing within the range of
normal. Each child has their own timetable for crawling, talking, and
walking, so keep that in mind when checking for these signs of developmental
progress by your child's first birthday. Make sure your child:

――has said a first single word (mama, dada)

――uses gestures (waves bye-bye, shakes head no)

――responds to familiar pictures or toys

――stands when supported and pulls up on things to stand

Again, the absence of any of these signs may or may not be cause for concern.
Share them with your baby's doctor. Problems caught early can be treated
more successfully.


★ 宝宝的体检时间表一览

From your baby's long-awaited arrival until those first days of school, you'
ll be visiting the doctor regularly to make sure that your child is healthy
and developing well. It can be tough to remember everything you want to
discuss with the doctor and everything the doctor tells you.

These sheets give you a sense of what to expect at each visit and help you
keep track of the guidance your doctor provides. Print them out and take
them with you!

● Your Child's First Checkup: The Hospital

● Your Child's Checkup: 2 to 4 Weeks

● Your Child's Checkup: 2 Months

● Your Child's Checkup: 4 Months

● Your Child's Checkup: 6 Months

● Your Child's Checkup: 9 Months

● Your Child's Checkup: 12 Months (1 Year)

● Your Child's Checkup: 15 Months

● Your Child's Checkup: 18 Months (1½ Years)

● Your Child's Checkup: 2 Years

● Your Child's Checkup: 3 Years

● Your Child's Checkup: 4 Years

● Your Child's Checkup: 5 Years


★ 疫苗接种时间表


This schedule may vary depending upon where you live, your child's health,
the type of vaccine, and the vaccines available. Ask your doctor about the
vaccines your child should receive.

● Birth

● 1–4 months

● 2 months

● 4 months

● >6 months and annually

● 6 months

● 6–18 months

● 12–15 months

● 12–23 months

● 15–18 months

● 4–6 years

● 11–12 years

● College entrants

1.Birth

● Hep B: Hepatitis B vaccine; may be given at any age for those not
previously immunized.

2.1–4 months

Hep B: Second dose should be administered 1 to 2 months after the first dose.
If the first dose of Hep B vaccine is not given until a child is 2 months
old, the second will be given when the child is 3 to 4 months old.

3.2 months

● DTaP: Diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine

● Hib: Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccine

● IPV: Inactivated poliovirus vaccine

● PCV: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

● RV: Rotavirus vaccine, recommended for infants at 2, 4, and 6 months of
age

4.4 months

● DTaP

● Hib

● IPV

● PCV

● RV

5.>6 months and annually

● Influenza. Influenza vaccine is recommended every year for high-risk
children older than 6 months. High-risk groups include, but aren't limited
to, kids with asthma, heart problems, sickle cell anemia, diabetes, and
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP)
recommends vaccinating all infants 6 to 59 months old against the influenza
virus, and all those in contact with children in that age range. Annual
vaccination is available for other children; but in times when the vaccine
is in short supply, certain people need it more than others. You and your
family's doctor(s) should determine who in your family should get the flu
vaccine in a particular flu season. For kids under 9 who are getting a flu
shot for the first time, it's given in two separate shots 1 month apart. It
can take up to 1 or 2 weeks after the shot for the body to build up
protection to the flu.

6.6 months

● DTaP

● Hib

● PCV

● RV

7.6–18 months

● Hep B

● IPV

8.12–15 months

● Hib

● MMR: Measles, mumps, and rubella (German measles) vaccine

● PCV

● Var: Varicella (chickenpox) vaccine; may be given at any visit after
first birthday. A second dose should be given between 4 and 6 years of age.

9.12–23 months

● Hep A: Hepatitis A vaccine; recommended for kids 12–23 months old,
given as two shots at least 6 months apart

10.15–18 months

● DTaP

11.4–6 years

● DTaP

● MMR

● IPV

● Var

12.11–12 years

● HPV: The AAP recommends the vaccine to prevent the human papillomavirus
(HPV) be given to girls 11–12 years old, in addition to a catch-up
immunization for girls ages 13–18. The vaccine prevents most cases of
genital warts and cervical cancer.

● Tdap: Tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis booster

● MCV: Meningitis vaccine; recommended for kids at age 11 years, and for
kids age 15 who haven't had the vaccine or are entering high school,
whichever comes first. Also recommended for kids age 11 or older with a
chronic illness or HIV or traveling to countries where meningitis is common.
Also recommended for college entrants who plan to live in dormitories.

13.College entrants

● MCV4: Meningitis vaccine; recommended for previously unvaccinated
college entrants who will live in dormitories.


★ 宝宝接种的疫苗简介

At birth, infants have protection against certain diseases because
antibodies have passed through the placenta from the mother to the unborn
child. After birth, breastfed babies get the continued benefits of
additional antibodies in breast milk. But in both cases, the protection is
only temporary.

Immunization (vaccination) is a way of creating immunity to certain diseases
by using small amounts of a killed or weakened microorganism that causes
the particular disease.
Microorganisms can be viruses, such as the measles virus, or they can be
bacteria, such as pneumococcus. Vaccines stimulate the immune system to
react as if there were a real infection — it fends off the "infection" and
remembers the organism so that it can fight it quickly should it enter the
body later.

Some parents may hesitate to have their kids vaccinated because they're
worried that the children will have serious reactions or may get the illness
the vaccine is supposed to prevent. Because the components of vaccines are
weakened or killed — and in some cases, only parts of the microorganism are
used — they're unlikely to cause any serious illness. Some vaccines may
cause mild reactions, such as soreness where the shot was given or fever,
but serious reactions are rare.

The risks of vaccinations are small compared with the health risks
associated with the diseases they're intended to prevent.

The following vaccinations and schedules are recommended by the American
Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). Please note that some variations are acceptable
and that changes in recommendations frequently occur as new vaccines are
developed. Many of these vaccines are available as combinations to reduce
the number of shots a child receives. Your doctor will determine the best
vaccinations and schedule for your child.

Recommended Vaccinations:

● Hepatitis B

● Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV)

● DTaP (diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis)

● Hib (meningitis)

● IPV (polio)

● Influenza

● MMR (measles, mumps, rubella)

● Varicella (chickenpox)

● MCV4 (bacterial meningitis)

● Hepatitis A

1.Hepatitis B

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) affects the liver. Those who are infected can become
lifelong carriers of the virus and may develop long-term problems such as
cirrhosis (liver disease) or cancer of the liver.

● Immunization Schedule

Hepatitis B vaccine usually is given as a series of three injections. The
first shot is given to infants shortly after birth. If the mother of a
newborn carries the hepatitis B virus in her blood, the infant needs to
receive the first shot within 12 hours after birth, along with another shot
(HBIG) to immediately provide protection against the virus. If a newborn's
mother shows no evidence of HBV in her blood, the infant may receive the
hepatitis B vaccine any time prior to leaving the hospital. It may also be
delayed until the 4- or 8-week visit to the child's doctor.

If the first dose is given shortly after birth, the second shot is given at
1 to 4 months and the third at 6 to 18 months. For infants who don't receive
the first shot until 4 to 8 weeks, the second shot is given at 3 to 4
months and the third at 6 to 18 months. In either case, the second and third
shots are usually given in conjunction with other routine childhood
immunizations.

● Why the Vaccine Is Recommended

The hepatitis B vaccine usually creates long-term immunity. Infants who
receive the HBV series should be protected from hepatitis B infection not
only throughout their childhood but also into the adult years. Eliminating
the risk of infection also decreases risk for cirrhosis of the liver,
chronic liver disease, and liver cancer. Young adults and adolescents should
also receive the vaccine if they did not as infants.

● Possible Risks

Serious problems associated with receiving the HBV vaccine are rare.
Problems that do occur tend to be minor, such as fever or redness or
tenderness at the injection site.

● When to Delay or Avoid Immunization

――if your child is currently sick, although simple colds or other minor
illnesses should not prevent immunization

――if a severe allergic reaction (called anaphylaxis) occurred after a
previous injection of the HBV vaccine

● Caring for Your Child After Immunization

The vaccine may cause mild fever, and soreness and redness in the area where
the shot was given. Pain and fever may be treated with acetaminophen or
ibuprofen. Check with your child's doctor about the appropriate dose.

● When to Call the Doctor

――if you're not sure of the recommended schedule for the hepatitis B
vaccine

――if you have concerns about your own HBV carrier state

――if moderate or serious adverse effects appear after your child has
received an HBV injection

2.Pneumococcal Vaccine (PCV)

The pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) protects against pneumococcal
infections. The bacterium is the leading cause of serious infections,
including pneumonia, blood infections, and bacterial meningitis.

Children under 2 years old are most susceptible to serious pneumococcal
infections. The pneumococcus bacterium is spread through person-to-person
contact. The vaccine not only prevents the infection in children who receive
it, it also helps stop its spread.

● Immunization Schedule

PCV immunizations are given as a series of four injections starting at 2
months of age and following at 4 months, 6 months, and 12 to 15 months.
Children who miss the first dose or may have missed subsequent doses due to
vaccine shortage should still receive the vaccine, and your child's doctor
can give you a modified schedule for immunization.

● Why the Vaccine Is Recommended

The most serious infections affect children younger than 2 years old, and
the vaccine will protect them when they're at greatest risk.

PCV also is recommended for kids between 2 and 5 years of age who are at
high risk for serious pneumococcal infections because they have:

――sickle cell anemia

――a damaged spleen or no spleen

――HIV/AIDS

――cochlear implants

――a disease that affects the immune system, such as diabetes or cancer

――to receive medications that affect the immune system, such as steroids
or chemotherapy

In addition, these high-risk children may also receive the pneumococcal
polysaccharide vaccine (PPV) in addition to the PCV when they're older than
24 months.

The PCV vaccine should be considered for all other 2- to -5-year-olds,
especially those who are under 3 years of age; are of Alaska Native,
American Indian, or African American descent; or who attend group child-care
centers.

● Possible Risks

Children who receive the PCV vaccine may have redness, tenderness, or
swelling where the shot was given. A child may also have a fever after
receiving the shot.

● When to Delay or Avoid Immunization

――if your child is currently sick, although simple colds or other minor
illnesses should not prevent immunization

――if your child has had a severe allergic reaction to a previous dose of
the vaccine

● Caring for Your Child After Immunization

The vaccine may cause mild fever, and soreness and redness in the area where
the shot was given. Pain and fever may be treated with acetaminophen or
ibuprofen. Check with your child's doctor about the appropriate dose.

● When to Call the Doctor

――if your child missed a dose in the series

――if a severe allergic reaction or high fever occurs after immunization

3.DTaP

The DTaP vaccine protects against:

――diphtheria — a serious infection of the throat that can block the
airway and cause severe breathing difficulty

――tetanus (lockjaw) — a nerve disease, which can occur at any age, caused
by toxin-producing bacteria contaminating a wound

――pertussis (whooping cough) — a respiratory illness with cold symptoms
that progress to severe coughing (the "whooping" sound occurs when the child
breathes in deeply after a severe coughing bout); serious complications of
pertussis can occur in children under 1 year of age, and those under 6
months old are especially susceptible

● Immunization Schedule

DTaP immunizations are given as a series of five injections and are usually
administered at ages 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 15 to 18 months, and 4 to
6 years (before starting school). After the initial series of immunizations,
a vaccine called Tdap (the booster shot) should be given at ages 11 to 12.
Then, Td (tetanus and diphtheria) boosters are recommended every 10 years.

● Why the Vaccine Is Recommended

Use of the DTaP vaccine has virtually eliminated diphtheria and tetanus in
childhood and has markedly reduced the number of pertussis cases.

● Possible Risks

The vaccine frequently causes mild side effects: fever, mild crankiness,
tiredness, loss of appetite, and tenderness, redness, or swelling in the
area where the shot was given. Rarely, seizures can occur following DTaP.
Most of these side effects result from the pertussis component of the
vaccine. Severe complications caused by DTaP immunization are rare. Most
kids have little or no problem.

● When to Delay or Avoid Immunization

――if your child is currently sick, although simple colds or other minor
illnesses should not prevent immunization

――if your child has an uncontrolled seizure disorder or certain neurologic
diseases or seems not to be developing normally — the pertussis component
of the vaccine may not be given, and your child may receive a DT (diphtheria
and tetanus) vaccine instead.
If your child experienced any of the following after an earlier DTaP,
consult with your doctor before your child receives another injection of the
vaccine:

――seizures within 3 to 7 days after injection

――worsening of seizures

――an allergic reaction after receiving the vaccine, such as mouth, throat,
or facial swelling

――difficulty breathing

――temperature of 105° Fahrenheit (40.5° Celsius) or higher during the
first 2 days after injection

――shock or collapse during the first 2 days after injection

――persistent, uncontrolled crying that lasts for more than 3 hours during
the first 2 days after injection

● Caring for Your Child After Immunization

Your child may experience fever, soreness, and some swelling and redness in
the area where the shot was given. Pain and fever may be treated with
acetaminophen or ibuprofen. Check with your child's doctor about the
appropriate dose. Some doctors recommend a dose just before the immunization.

A warm, damp cloth or a heating pad also may help reduce soreness. Moving or
using the limb that has received the injection often reduces the soreness.

● When to Call the Doctor

――if you aren't sure whether the vaccine should be postponed or avoided.
Children who have had certain problems with the DTaP vaccine usually can
safely receive the DT vaccine.

――if complications or severe symptoms develop after immunization,
including seizures, fever above 105° Fahrenheit (40.5° Celsius),
difficulty breathing or other signs of allergy, shock or collapse, or
uncontrolled crying for more than 3 hours

4.Hib

Haemophilus influenzae type b bacteria were the leading cause of meningitis
in children until the Hib vaccine became available.

● Immunization Schedule

The Hib vaccine is given by injection at ages 2 months, 4 months, and 6
months (however, some of the Hib vaccines do not require a dose at 6 months)
. A booster dose is given at 12 to 15 months.

● Why the Vaccine Is Recommended

Long-term protection from Haemophilus influenzae type b occurs in more than
90% of infants receiving three doses of the vaccine. Those immunized have
protection against meningitis, pneumonia, pericarditis (an infection of the
membrane covering the heart), and infections of the blood, bones, and joints
caused by the bacteria.

● Possible Risks

Minor problems, such as redness, swelling, or tenderness where the shot was
given, may occur.

● When to Delay or Avoid Immunization

――if your child is currently sick, although simple colds or other minor
illnesses should not prevent immunization

――if severe allergic reaction occurs after an injection of the Hib vaccine,
further Hib immunizations may not be given to your child

● Caring for Your Child After Immunization

The vaccine may cause mild soreness and redness in the area where the shot
was given. Pain may be treated with acetaminophen or ibuprofen. Check with
your child's doctor about the appropriate dose.

● When to Call the Doctor

――if you aren't sure whether the vaccine should be postponed or avoided

――if moderate or serious adverse reactions appear after the Hib injection

5.IPV

Polio is a viral infection that can result in permanent paralysis.

● Immunization Schedule

The inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is usually given at ages 2 months,
4 months, 6 to 18 months, and 4 to 6 years before entering school.

Until recently, the oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) was given in the United
States. Updated recommendations by the Advisory Committee on Immunization
Practices now call for IPV injections. This change eliminates the previous
small risk of developing polio after receiving the live oral polio vaccine.

● Why the Vaccine Is Recommended

Protection against polio occurs in more than 95% of children immunized.

● Possible Risks

Side effects include fever and redness or soreness at the site of injection.

● When to Delay or Avoid Immunization

--IPV should not be given to kids with severe allergy to neomycin,
streptomycin, or polymyxin B.

● Caring for Your Child After Immunization

IPV may cause mild fever, and soreness and redness at the site of the
injection for several days. Pain and fever may be treated with acetaminophen
or ibuprofen. Check with your child's doctor about the appropriate dose.

● When to Call the Doctor

――if you aren't sure whether the vaccine should be postponed or avoided

――if moderate or severe adverse reactions occur after the immunization

6.Influenza

Influenza, commonly known as "the flu," is a highly contagious viral
infection of the respiratory tract.

● Immunization Schedule

These groups, who are at increased risk of flu-related complications, should
receive the flu shot every year:

――children 6 to 59 months old

――any child or adult with chronic medical conditions, such as asthma,
cystic fibrosis, diabetes, sickle cell anemia, and HIV/AIDS

――children — from 6 months to 18 years — on long-term aspirin therapy

――anyone age 65 and older

――women who will be pregnant during the flu season

――anyone who lives or works with infants under 6 months old

――residents of long-term care facilities, such as nursing homes

――health-care personnel who have direct contact with patients

――out-of-home caregivers and household contacts of anyone in any of these
high-risk groups

In the past, there have been times when there were vaccine shortages and
delays. So talk with your doctor about availability.

For kids younger than 9 who are getting a flu shot for the first time, it's
given in two separate shots a month apart. It can take about 2 weeks after
the shot is given for the body to build up protection to the flu.

Another non-shot option called the nasal mist vaccine came on the market in
2003 and is now approved for use in healthy 5- to 49-year-olds. But this
nasal mist isn't for everyone, and can't be used by high-risk children and
adults or pregnant women.

● Why the Vaccine Is Recommended

The flu vaccine reduces the average person's chances of catching the flu by
up to 80% during the season. Getting the shot before the flu season is in
full force gives the body a chance to build up immunity to, or protection
from, the virus.

The shot usually becomes available between September and mid-November.
Although you can get a flu shot well into flu season, it's best to try to
get it earlier rather than later, if your doctor thinks it's necessary.
However, even as late as January there are still 2 to 3 months left in the
flu season, so it's still a good idea to get protection.
Even if you or your child got the vaccine last year, that won't protect you
from getting the flu this year, because the protection wears off and flu
viruses constantly change. That's why the vaccine is updated each year to
include the most current strains of the virus.

● Possible Risks

Given as one injection in the upper arm, the flu shot contains killed flu
viruses that will not cause someone to get the flu, but will cause the body
to fight off infection by the live flu virus. Getting a shot of the killed
virus offers protection against that particular type of live flu virus if
someone comes into contact with it.

Some of the most common side effects from the flu shot are soreness, redness,
or swelling at the site of the injection. A low-grade fever and aches are
also possible. Because the nasal spray flu vaccine is made from live viruses,
it may cause mild flu-like symptoms, including runny nose, headache,
vomiting, muscle aches, and fever. Very rarely, the flu vaccine can cause
serious side effects such as a severe allergic reaction.

● When to Delay or Avoid Immunization

People who should not get the flu shot include:

――infants under 6 months old

――anyone who's severely allergic to eggs and egg products because the
ingredients for flu shots are grown inside eggs. Tell the doctor if your
child is allergic before he or she gets a flu shot.

――anyone who's ever had a severe reaction to a flu vaccination

――anyone who's had Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS, a rare medical condition
that affects the nerves) within 6 weeks of getting a flu shot

――anyone with a fever

● Caring for Your Child After Immunization

Pain and fever may be treated with acetaminophen or ibuprofen. Check with
your child's doctor about the appropriate dose. Some doctors recommend a
dose just before the immunization. A warm, damp cloth or a heating pad also
may help minimize soreness. Moving or using the limb that has received the
injection often reduces the soreness as well.

● When to Call the Doctor

――if you aren't sure if the vaccine should be postponed or avoided

――if there are problems after the immunization

7.MMR (measles, mumps, rubella)

The MMR vaccine protects against measles, mumps, and rubella (German measles).
MMR vaccinations are given by injection in two doses. The first is
administered at age 12 to 15 months; the second generally is given prior to
school entry at age 4 to 6 years.
● Why the Vaccine Is Recommended

Measles, mumps, and rubella are infections that can lead to significant
illness. More than 95% of children receiving MMR will be protected from the
three diseases throughout their lives.

● Possible Risks

Serious problems are rare. Potential mild to moderate adverse effects
include rash, fever, swollen cheeks, febrile seizures, and mild joint pain.

● When to Delay or Avoid Immunization

――if your child is currently sick, although simple colds or other minor
illnesses should not prevent immunization

――if your child has an allergy to eggs, gelatin, or to the antibiotic
neomycin that has required medical treatment

――if your child has received gamma globulin

――if your child has immune system problems related to cancer, leukemia, or
lymphoma

――if your child is taking prednisone, steroids, or immunosuppressive drugs

――if your child is undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy

● Caring for Your Child After Immunization

If a rash develops without other symptoms, no treatment is necessary and it
should resolve within several days. Pain and fever may be treated with
acetaminophen or ibuprofen. Check with your child's doctor about the
appropriate dose.

● When to Call the Doctor

――if you aren't sure if the vaccine should be postponed or avoided

――if there are problems after the immunization

8.Varicella (chickenpox)

The varicella vaccine protects against chickenpox (varicella), a common and
very contagious childhood viral illness.

● Immunization Schedule

The varicella vaccine is given by injection between the ages of 12 and 15
months, followed by a booster shot at 4 to 6 years of age for further
protection. Older children who have not had chickenpox may also receive the
vaccine. Kids 13 years or older who have not had either chickenpox or the
vaccine would need two vaccine doses at least 1 month apart.

● Why the Vaccine Is Recommended
The varicella vaccine prevents severe illness in 95% of children who are
immunized. It's up to 85% effective in preventing mild illness. Vaccinated
kids who do get chickenpox generally have a mild case.

● Possible Risks

Serious reactions are extremely rare. Possible mild effects are tenderness
and redness where the shot was given, fever, fatigue, and a varicella-like
illness. A rash can occur where the shot was given or elsewhere on the body
up to 1 month after the injection. It may last for several days but will
disappear on its own without treatment.

● When to Delay or Avoid Immunization

――if your child is ill with anything more serious than a cold,
immunization should be delayed

――if your child has an allergy to gelatin or to the antibiotic neomycin
that has required medical treatment

――if your child has received gamma globulin

――if your child has immune system problems related to cancer, leukemia, or
lymphoma; is taking prednisone, steroids, or immunosuppressive drugs; or is
undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy

● Caring for Your Child After Immunization

Pain and fever may be treated with acetaminophen or ibuprofen. Check with
your child's doctor about the appropriate dose.

● When to Call the Doctor

――if you aren't sure if the vaccine should be postponed or avoided

――if there are problems after the immunization

9.MCV4

The meningitis vaccine protects against meningococcal disease, a serious
bacterial infection that can lead to bacterial meningitis.

The vaccine is recommended for kids at age 11 or 12 years, at age 15 years
if not previously vaccinated (before entering high school), and for older
teens who are entering college and will be living in a dormitory setting.

● Why the Vaccine Is Recommended

Bacterial meningitis, an inflammation of the membrane that protects the
brain and spinal cord, is a rare but highly contagious disease that can
spread rapidly among kids who are in close quarters. It can be life-
threatening if it's not promptly treated.

● Possible Risks

Some of the most common side effects are swelling, redness, and pain at the
site of the injection, along with headache, fever, fatigue, and a rash.

● When to Delay or Avoid Immunization

――if your child tends to have allergic reactions to the DTaP vaccine or to
latex

――if your child is currently sick, although simple colds or other minor
illnesses should not prevent immunization

● Caring for Your Child After Immunization

Your child may experience fever, soreness, and some swelling and redness in
the area where the shot was given. Pain and fever may be treated with
acetaminophen or ibuprofen. Check with your child's doctor about the
appropriate dose. Some doctors recommend a dose just before the immunization.
A warm, damp cloth or a heating pad also may help reduce soreness. Moving or
using the limb that has received the injection often reduces the soreness.

● When to Call the Doctor

――if you aren't sure if the vaccine should be postponed or avoided

――if there are problems after the immunization

10.Hepatitis A

The hepatitis A virus (HAV) causes fever, nausea, vomiting, and jaundice,
and can lead to community-wide epidemics. Child care centers are a common
site of outbreaks.
The vaccine is recommended for children 12-23 months old, followed by a
second dose 6 months later. The vaccine is also recommended for older kids
and adults who are at high risk for the disease, including those who are
traveling to locations where there are high rates of HAV.

● Why the Vaccine Is Recommended

Vaccination against HAV can help stop epidemics from developing in the
community. Some infected children do not have any symptoms, and can spread
the virus to others. The more young children who are vaccinated against HAV,
the more limited the spread of disease will be in a community.

● Possible Risks

Side effects are usually mild fever, and tenderness, swelling, and redness
at the site of the injection.

● When to Delay or Avoid Immunization

――if your child is currently sick, although simple colds or other minor
illnesses should not prevent immunization

――if your child had an allergic reaction to the first dose of hepatitis A
vaccine

● Caring for Your Child After Immunization

Your child may experience fever, soreness, and some swelling and redness in
the area where the shot was given. Pain and fever may be treated with
acetaminophen or ibuprofen. Check with your child's doctor about the
appropriate dose.

● When to Call the Doctor

――if you aren't sure if the vaccine should be postponed or avoided

――if there are problems after the immunization


★ 疫苗接种之ABC

This immunization chart is a handy reference to help you keep track of which
vaccines your child needs to receive and when.

1.Types of Vaccines

Four different types of vaccines are currently available:

● Attenuated (weakened) live viruses are used in some vaccines such as in
the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine.

● Killed (inactivated) viruses or bacteria are used in some vaccines, such
as in IPV.

● Toxoid vaccines contain a toxin produced by the bacterium. For example,
the diphtheria and tetanus vaccines are toxoid vaccines.

● Biosynthetic vaccines (such as Hib) contain synthetic substances.

2.Immunizations for Travel

Specific information about which immunizations are required by travelers to
each country worldwide is available directly from the Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention (CDC). Ask your doctor for more information.

Depending on the type and length of travel, some vaccines may be recommended.
Most immunizations should be given at least 1 month before travel. Take
your child's immunization records with you when you travel internationally.

3.Helping Your Child Through Vaccine Injections

Sometimes it's hard to tell who dreads immunizations more — parents or kids.
Here are some tips to help make the procedure easier for everyone:

● Tell older kids what's going to happen and that the shot helps to keep
them healthy.

● Tell younger kids that it's OK to cry, but also encourage them to be
brave.

● Try to be calm yourself. Your child can pick up on your concerns.

● Distraction at the moment of the injection is helpful. Try having kids
count, sing a song with you, or look away (perhaps at a picture on the wall).
You may want to have a joke or funny comment ready.

● Offer praise after the injection is over.

● Plan something fun for after the appointment. A trip to the park or
playground can make the overall immunization experience less unpleasant.

As uneasy as getting vaccinated may make both you and your child, remember
that immunizations are one of the best means of protection against
contagious diseases.


★ 疫苗接种常见问题及解答

1.What do immunizations do?

Vaccines work by preparing a child's body to fight illness. Each
immunization contains either a dead or a weakened germ, or parts of it, that
cause a particular disease.

The body practices fighting the disease by making antibodies that recognize
specific parts of that germ. This permanent or longstanding response means
that if someone is ever exposed to the actual disease, the antibodies are
already in place and the body knows how to combat it and the person doesn't
get sick. This is called immunity.

2.Will my child's immune system be weaker by relying on a vaccine?

No, the immune system makes antibodies against a germ, like the chickenpox
virus, whether it encounters it naturally or is exposed to it through a
vaccine.

3.Will the immunization give someone the very disease it's supposed to
prevent?

This is one of the most common concerns about vaccines. However, it's
impossible to get the disease from any vaccine made with dead (killed)
bacteria or viruses or just part of the bacteria or virus.

Only those immunizations made from weakened (also called attenuated) live
viruses — like the chickenpox (varicella) or measles-mumps-rubella (MMR)
vaccine — could possibly make a child develop a mild form of the disease,
but it's almost always much less severe than the illness that occurs when a
person is infected with the disease-causing virus itself.

The risk of disease from vaccination is extremely small. One live virus
vaccine that's no longer used in the United States is the oral polio vaccine
(OPV). The success of the polio vaccination program has made it possible to
replace the live virus vaccine with a killed virus form known as the
inactivated polio vaccine (IPV). This change has completely eliminated the
possibility of polio disease being caused by immunization in the United
States.

4.Why should I have my child immunized if all the other kids in school are
immunized?

It is true that a single child's chance of catching a disease is low if
everyone else is immunized. Yet if one person thinks about skipping vaccines,
chances are that others are thinking the same thing. And each child who
isn't immunized gives these highly contagious diseases one more chance to
spread.

This actually happened between 1989 and 1991 when an epidemic of measles
broke out in the United States. Lapsing rates of immunization among
preschoolers led to a sharp increase in the number of measles cases, deaths,
and children with permanent brain damage. Similar outbreaks of whooping
cough (pertussis) struck Japan and the United Kingdom in the 1970s after
immunization rates declined.

Although vaccination rates are fairly high in the United States, there's no
reliable way of knowing if everyone your child comes into contact with has
been vaccinated, particularly now that so many people travel to and from
other countries. As the 1999 outbreak of encephalitis from West Nile virus
in New York illustrated, a disease can hop halfway around the world very
quickly because of international travel. So, the best way to protect your
child is through immunization.

5.Why should I subject my child to a painful shot if vaccines aren't 100%
effective?

Few things in medicine work 100% of the time, but vaccines are one of the
most effective weapons we have against disease — they work in 85% to 99% of
cases. They greatly reduce your child's risk of serious illness (
particularly when more and more people use them) and give diseases fewer
chances to take hold in a population.

It can be difficult to watch kids get a shot, but the short-term pain is
nothing compared with suffering through a potentially deadly bout of
diphtheria, pertussis, or measles.

6.Why do kids who are healthy, active, and eating well need to be immunized?

Vaccinations are intended to help keep healthy kids healthy. Because
vaccines work by protecting the body before disease strikes, if you wait
until your child gets sick, it will be too late for the vaccine to work. The
best time to immunize kids is when they're healthy.

7.Can immunizations cause a bad reaction in my child?

The most common reactions to vaccines are minor and include:

● redness and swelling where the shot was given

● fever

● soreness at the site where the shot was given

Although in rare cases immunizations can trigger seizures or severe allergic
reactions, the risk of these is much lower than that of catching the
disease if a child is not immunized. Every year, millions of kids are safely
vaccinated and almost all of them experience no significant side effects.

Meanwhile, research continually improves the safety of immunizations. The
American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) now advises doctors to use a diphtheria,
tetanus, and pertussis vaccine that includes only specific parts of the
pertussis cell instead of the entire killed cell. This vaccine, called DTaP,
has been associated with even fewer side effects.

8.Do immunizations or thimerosal cause autism?

Numerous studies have found no link between vaccines and autism (a
developmental disorder that's characterized by mild to severe impairment of
communication and social interaction skills). Likewise, a groundbreaking
2004 report from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) found that thimerosal (an
organic mercury compound that's been used as a preservative in vaccines
since the 1930s) does not cause autism. Still, some parents have opted not
to have their children immunized, putting them at great risk of contracting
deadly diseases.

The MMR vaccine, especially, has come under fire despite many scientific
reports indicating that there's no clear evidence linking the vaccine to
autism. In fact, in 2004 a long-disputed 1998 study that suggested a
possible link between autism and the MMR vaccine was retracted. Even before
the retraction, not only had other studies found no link, but the
controversial 1998 study was rejected by all major health organizations,
including the AAP, the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the World Health Organization (WHO).


There's also no reason to believe that thimerosal is linked to autism,
according to the 2004 IOM report. Nevertheless, in an effort to reduce
childhood exposure to mercury and other heavy metals, thimerosal began being
removed from kids' vaccines in 1999. Now, vaccines for infants and young
children contain no or very little thimerosal. And recent studies have not
shown any cognitive and behavioral problems in babies who might have
received these thimerosal-containing vaccines.

So what could explain the increased rates of autism in recent years? For one
thing, there's a broader definition of autism that can be applied to more
kids who show varying degrees of symptoms. A greater awareness of the
condition among health professionals also has led to more diagnoses.

And although the number of children diagnosed with autism may be increasing,
the rates of MMR vaccination are not. In London, diagnoses of autistic
disorders have been on the rise since 1979 but rates of MMR vaccination
haven't increased since routine MMR vaccination began in 1988.

In addition, the average age of diagnosis of autism has been found to be the
same both in children who have and who have not received the MMR vaccine.
What many researchers are discovering is that subtle symptoms of autism are
often present before a child's first birthday — sometimes even in early
infancy — but often go unnoticed until the symptoms are more obvious to
parents.

9.Wasn't there a problem with the rotavirus vaccine?

Rotavirus is one of the most common causes of diarrhea in young children. In
1999, a rotavirus vaccine was taken off the market because it was linked to
an increased risk for intussusception, a type of bowel obstruction, in
young infants. However, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recently
approved a new, different rotavirus vaccine called RotaTeq, which was
studied in more than 70,000 children and has not been found to have this
increased risk. RotaTeq has been shown to prevent approximately 75% of cases
of rotavirus infection and 98% of severe cases. The vaccine is now on the
regular immunization schedule to be given orally to infants as a liquid
during standard vaccination visits at ages 2 months, 4 months, and 6 months.
Your doctor will have the most current information.

10.Do immunizations cause SIDS, multiple sclerosis, or other problems?

There are concerns, many of which circulate on the Internet, linking some
vaccines to multiple sclerosis, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), and
other problems. To date, several studies have failed to show any connection
between immunizations and these conditions. The number of SIDS cases has
actually fallen by more than 50% in recent years, whereas the number of
vaccines administered yearly continues to rise.

11.Why does my child need to be immunized if the disease has been
eliminated?

Diseases that are rare or nonexistent in the United States, like measles and
polio, still exist in other parts of the world. Doctors continue to
vaccinate against them because it's easy to come into contact with illnesses
through travel. That includes anyone who may not be properly immunized who's
coming into the United States, as well as Americans traveling overseas.

If immunization rates fell, a disease introduced by someone visiting from
another country could cause serious damage in an unprotected population. In
1994, polio was brought to Canada from India, but it didn't spread because
so many people had been immunized. It's only safe to stop vaccinations for a
particular disease when that disease has been eradicated worldwide, as in
the case of smallpox.

12.How long does immunity last after getting a vaccine?

A few vaccines, like the one for measles or the series for hepatitis B, may
make you immune for your entire life. Others, like tetanus, last for many
years but require periodic shots (boosters) for continued protection against
the disease.

The whooping cough (pertussis) vaccine also does not give lifelong immunity,
and that may be one reason why there are still outbreaks of the disease.
And although pertussis isn't a serious problem for older kids and adults, it
can be for infants and young children. Because of this, adolescents and
adults now receive a pertussis booster along with the tetanus and diphtheria
booster (Tdap) — an important step in controlling this infection.
It's important to keep a record of vaccinations so you'll know when your
child is due for a booster. Also consider getting the flu vaccine each year,
if it isn't in short supply. Having been immunized last year won't protect
someone from getting the flu this year because the protection wears off and
flu viruses constantly change. That's why the vaccine is updated each year
to include the most current strains of the virus.

The flu vaccine reduces the average person's chances of catching the flu by
up to 80% during the season. But because the flu vaccine doesn't prevent
infection by all of the viruses that can cause flu-like symptoms, getting
the vaccine isn't a guarantee that someone won't get sick during the season.
But even if someone who's gotten the shot gets the flu, symptoms will
usually be fewer and milder.

13.Are vaccines continuously studied and improved because they're unsafe?

The FDA's Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research is the government
agency responsible for regulating vaccines in the United States. Working in
conjunction with the CDC and the NIH, they continuously research and monitor
vaccine safety and effectiveness.

New vaccines are licensed only after thorough laboratory studies and
clinical trials, and safety monitoring continues even after a vaccine has
been approved. There have been — and will continue to be — improvements (
such as those that have already been made to the DTaP and polio vaccines,
for example) that will minimize potential side effects and ensure the best
possible safety standards.

14.Where can I get affordable immunizations for my child?

Clearly, vaccines are one of the best tools we have to keep kids healthy,
but the effectiveness of immunization programs depends on availability. You
can receive inexpensive or free vaccines through many local public health
clinics and community health centers, and campaigns to vaccinate kids often
hold free vaccination days.
A program called Vaccines for Children covers Medicaid-eligible, uninsured,
Alaskan and Native American populations, and some underinsured kids for
routine immunizations up to 18 years of age. The vaccines are provided by
the government and administered in the doctor's office. However, the doctor'
s visit itself is not covered (unless the child has insurance, including
Medicaid). But some public health clinics may cover both the visit and the
immunizations.

15.Where can I find out more about immunizations?

Read Your Child's Immunizations for details about each recommended
immunization. Also, the CDC's National Immunization Program maintains a
website dedicated to helping consumers evaluate information about
vaccinations from sources in the media and on the Internet.

And talk with your doctor about which immunizations your child needs —
working together, you can help keep your child healthy.

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