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宝宝的第一年(Baby First Year)之四: 常见问题汇集之运动感觉篇(网上资料)
作者:home99
发表时间:2008-07-23
更新时间:2008-07-23
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写给准妈妈1
宝宝护理与成长3
写给准妈妈3
为人父母3
英语学习
为人处世
休闲娱乐
理财话题
为人父母2
写给准妈妈2
实用资料
宝宝护理与成长2
为人父母1
其它
医药健康话题
写给新妈妈
宝宝护理与成长1
异国他乡

五、宝宝的运动协调能力

1.新生儿

Babies are born with certain reflexes. They respond naturally to stimuli
like light or touch in certain ways — if you put your finger in your
newborn\'s hand, for example, the baby probably will automatically take hold
of it. If you lightly touch around the baby\'s mouth, he or she will likely
make a sucking motion.

● What Are a Newborn\'s Reflexes?

Babies typically display rooting, sucking, startle, grasp, and tonic neck
reflexes soon after birth. These movements are a normal part of the
development process, and they gradually disappear as babies mature, usually
by the time they are 3 to 6 months old.

The rooting and sucking reflexes help a a newborn get nourishment. Rooting
prompts an infant to automatically turn in the direction of a food source,
whether that\'s a breast or a bottle. You may be able to evoke this response
if you gently stroke your newborn\'s cheek near the mouth with your hand. The
infant will likely turn in that direction, mouth open, ready to suck. When
an object, such as a breast or a bottle nipple, is placed in the baby\'s
mouth, the baby will reflexively begin to suck.

A baby is also born with a startle response called the Moro reflex. An
infant who is startled (for example, by a loud noise) or abruptly moved may
respond by throwing out his or her arms and legs and curling them in again.

Your baby may also show a grasp reflex by taking hold of your finger when
you place it in his or her palm. If you touch the sole of your newborn\'s
foot, it will flex and the toes will curl.

A baby will also likely show the tonic neck reflex, or fencer\'s pose. This
is when a newborn\'s head is turned to one side and the infant automatically
straightens the arm on that side of the body while bending the opposite arm.

● How Can I Encourage My Child\'s Movement?

As your baby grows and gains more control over movements, these reflexes
will become less noticeable, less jerky, and more purposeful.

Give your infant enough space to stretch and move the arms and legs, as
these movements can help strengthen and tone muscles.

It\'s also important to give your newborn a chance to turn and lift the head.
When you do this, make sure to support the head and neck while holding your
baby.

Also, never leave your infant unattended, especially on high surfaces such
as a changing table or bed. Even newborns can unexpectedly roll or scoot
over to the edge.

● When Should I Talk to the Doctor?

Your baby\'s doctor will likely check these reflexes as part of your baby\'s
routine physical examinations, making sure they\'re present and the same on
both sides, and taking note of when they disappear.

Be sure to discuss any concerns about your baby\'s movements with your child\'
s doctor.

2.宝宝1-3个月

During the first few months of your infant\'s life, the reflexes that you may
have noticed just after your baby was born will likely begin to disappear.
Your infant will gain more control over his or her movements and begin to
interact more with the things and the people in the environment.

● What Can My Baby Do?

During the first few months of life, infants typically start to develop the
skills and the strength that they will need to make certain movements, like
rolling over, later on. During this time, infants tend to lift their heads
up while they\'re lying on their bellies. They also begin to prop themselves
up on their arms, hold their heads up, and look around.

You may also notice your infant stretching and kicking his or her legs. This
movement strengthens your infant\'s leg muscles. Your infant will need that
strength to roll over, which will probably happen when your infant is 4 to 6
months old. (But be careful: Even young infants can roll over on occasion,
so it\'s important to never leave a baby unattended on a changing table, bed,
or other high surface.)

Although infants are able to grasp reflexively from the time that they are
born, during the first 3 months of life they usually begin to open and shut
their hands and start moving their hands to their mouths. Your baby may be
able to shake a rattle or a toy that is placed in her or her hands - and
drop it when he or she loses interest in it.

Your baby\'s vision will also start to improve. During this time, infants
typically develop the ability to follow a moving object with their eyes.
They also start to reach out for objects that they see and swipe at objects
that are hung nearby.

● How Can I Encourage My Baby\'s Motor Development?

Even young infants need to practice their skills. Though many parents are
told not to let their babies sleep on their stomachs, it is a good idea to
give your child tummy time while he or she is awake. While lying on his or
her belly, your infant can practice lifting his or her head and
strengthening the neck, arm, and shoulder muscles. Your baby may get fussy
and frustrated in this position, so it\'s a good idea to keep the first
sessions of tummy time brief and gradually increase them. It\'s important to
keep an eye on your baby during tummy time.

You can encourage the development of your baby\'s hand-eye coordination by
letting your infant reach for favorite toys while sitting in your lap or by
letting your baby swipe at colorful objects hanging from an infant gym.

● When Should I Call the Doctor?

Though all infants develop at slightly different paces, there are certain
movements that most babies make by the time they are 3 months old. It\'s a
good idea to talk to your doctor if your infant doesn\'t seem to be making
the following movements by 3 months:

――opening and closing his or her hands

――grasping or holding objects in his or her hands

――supporting his or her own head

――lifting his or her head and chest when lying on his or her stomach

Remember that normal child development tends to follow a certain pattern.
The skills that babies develop early serve as building blocks that they will
need to develop other skills down the road. That said, there is a wide
variation in the time it takes for infants and children to develop these
skills. If you are concerned about your child\'s development, talk to your
child\'s doctor..

3.宝宝4-7个月

During this period your child will probably learn to roll over, reach out to
get what he or she wants, and sit up. You can help your child by providing
a safe place to practice moving and by providing lots of interesting objects
to reach for or move toward.

● How Is My Baby Moving?
By now your baby should be able to hold his or her head and chest up when
lying on his or her stomach. During this stage, your child will begin
pushing his or her head and chest further by straightening the arms and
arching the back, which strengthens chest and back muscles.

Your child may also begin moving his or her legs and rocking on the stomach.
In this way, your child is getting ready to do some rolling over and
building up to crawling. During this time, your child will probably be
rolling over in both directions. Never leave your baby unattended. These
newfound movements could cause your child to fall from a bed or couch unless
you are there with your child. Even if your child never rolled over before,
there\'s always a first time. Babies like to surprise you that way.

With improved neck and trunk strength, babies learn to sit when placed in
that position with support. Over these months, your baby will learn to lean
forward with arms outstretched for support, then gradually gain the strength
and confidence to sit on his or her own, though your child will not be able
to get into a sitting position without some help.

Leg strength is also improving. Your baby will learn to support all his or
her weight when held in a standing position. It\'s important not to force a
baby to stand who is not ready, but by 7 months most infants enjoy standing
(and bouncing!).

Your baby is using his or her hands more and more and will learn to reach
and grab for what he or she wants. During this time, your child is also
learning how to pass an object from one hand to the other, how to turn them
round and round for inspection, and how to pick up objects by raking things
with the fingers into his or her grasp. Give your child lots of toys with
sounds and textures to pick up, shake, and explore. Be careful with small
objects because babies will place just about anything they can into their
mouths for further exploration, so be on the lookout for potential choking
hazards.

● How Can I Encourage My Child\'s Movement?

Have a designated safe play space where favorite toys can be kept within
your baby\'s reach. Continue to let your baby spend time on his or her tummy.
In this position, encourage your baby to lift his or her head and chest off
the floor. Make some noises, shake a rattle to entice your child to look,
then lift up. Place a favorite toy in front of your baby to encourage
forward movement.

Let your baby practice sitting by supporting your child with your hands or
with a pillow behind his or her back. In a sitting position, your baby\'s
hands are free to reach for and explore toys.

From a sitting position, help your baby pull to stand. One. Two. THREE!
While standing, let your baby bounce a few times before lowering him or her
back down. These three positions (tummy, sitting, standing) let your baby
exercise his or her muscles and master the skills needed to move to the next
developmental level.

● When Should I Talk to the Doctor?

Development follows a predictable pattern that builds on skills your child
previously attained. There is a wide variation in the time it takes for
infants and children to achieve specific skills, but if you are concerned
about your child\'s development, talk to your child\'s doctor.

Let your doctor know if your child doesn\'t:

――use an arm, leg, or one side of body

――roll over

――bear weight on legs

――sit while supported

――reach for objects

Lingering newborn reflexes also may require attention at this age, so check
with your doctor if your infant still exhibits the Moro or tonic neck reflex:

――The Moro reflex causes an infant to suddenly throw his or her arms out
to the sides and then quickly bring them back toward the middle of the body
whenever he or she has been startled by a loud noise, bright light, strong
smell, sudden movement, or other stimulus.

――The tonic neck reflex is also called a fencer\'s pose. When an infant\'s
head is turned to one side, it\'s likely that he or she will automatically
straighten the arm on that side of the body while bending the opposite arm.

Failure to reach individual milestones doesn\'t necessarily mean there is a
problem, but it is worth discussing with your child\'s doctor who can
recommend further assessment, if needed.

4.宝宝4-7个月

From scooting to crawling to cruising, during these months, babies are
learning how to get around. So now is the time to babyproof your home, if
you haven\'t already. Be especially vigilant about gating staircases and
blocking off rooms that you would rather your baby didn\'t explore.

● How Is My Baby Moving?

By now your baby is sitting and using his or her hands every so often for
support. Once he or she feels comfortable in this position, your baby will
learn to turn and reach for objects without falling over. Your baby will
also get more adept at changing positions. Soon he or she will figure out
how to get into a sitting position and pull up to stand.

When on the stomach, your baby will learn to push up onto the hands and
knees and rock back and forth. This little \"exercise\" is working the arm and
leg muscles, getting your child ready to propel forward (or backward) in an
attempt to get moving. Some babies are better at crawling than others so
don\'t worry if your child has developed some novel ways of getting around,
including rolling, scooting on his or her bottom, or creeping.

As long as your baby is using the arms and legs on both sides of the body
and shows an interest in exploring his or her surroundings, there is usually
no reason to be concerned.
Leg muscles have gotten stronger from standing, bouncing, and crawling. Now
is the time for your baby to start taking steps while holding on to the
couch, coffee table, or other pieces of furniture for balance. This is
called \"cruising.\" You can encourage your baby\'s cruising by holding your
baby\'s hands while your baby is taking a few steps.
Fine motor and hand-eye coordination also continue to improve during this
period, and your baby will develop the ability to pick up very small things,
including cereal, with dexterity. This coordination can range from an
awkward raking grasp to a precise finger-to-thumb pincer grasp.

● What Can I Do to Encourage My Child\'s Movement?

During this time, it\'s a good idea to give your baby a safe place to
practice moving. It\'s also important to give your child the opportunity to
move by limiting the amount of time your baby spends in strollers, cribs,
and other equipment that restricts movement.

Allow for tummy time so your baby is in the right position to practice
crawling. Help your baby get onto his or her hands and knees, put a favorite
toy out of reach, and encourage your baby to move toward the desired object.

Encourage walking by letting your baby cruise along the furniture (remove or
pad furniture with sharp edges), holding your baby\'s hands while he or she
practices, or using a sturdy walking toy or wagon. Walking toys usually have
a bar that extends to about chest height on a baby and is attached to a
stable, weighted base with wheels. The baby holds the bar for support and
pushes the toy for movement. You\'ll need to keep an eye on your baby during
this process, of course, and make sure stairs are inaccessible.

● When Should I Call the Doctor?

It\'s a good idea to call your baby\'s doctor if your child does not:

――crawl, creep, or scoot around

――stand when supported

――use both sides of his or her body equally

――seem to have good control of his or her hands

Remember that normal child development tends to follow a certain pattern.
The skills that babies develop early serve as building blocks that they will
need to develop other skills down the road. That said, there is a wide
variation in the time it takes for infants and children to develop these
skills. If you are concerned about your baby\'s development, talk to your
child\'s doctor.


六、宝宝的感觉能力

1.新生儿

During the first weeks of life your newborn may seem to do little more than
eat, sleep, cry, and provide dirty diapers for you to clean up. But in
reality, all of your infant\'s senses are functioning already, taking in the
sights, sounds, and smells of this new world.
It\'s hard for us to know exactly what a newborn is feeling - but if you pay
close attention to your baby\'s responses to light, noise, and touch, you can
see his or her complex senses beginning to come alive.

● Sight

Your new baby can see best at a distance of only 8 to 14 inches, and focus
when gazing up from the arms of Mom or Dad. Your newborn can see things
further away, but it is harder to focus on distant objects. Still, the light
shining in from a faraway window may catch your infant\'s eye.

After human faces, brightness and movement are the things a newborn likes to
look at best. Even a crude line drawing of two eyes, a nose, and a mouth
may keep your infant\'s attention if held close enough. Although your baby\'s
sight is functioning, it still needs some fine tuning, especially when it
comes to focusing far off. Your baby\'s eyes may even seem to cross or
diverge (go \"wall-eyed\") briefly. This is normal, and your newborn\'s eye
muscles will strengthen and mature during the next few months.

Your newborn is better equipped to see contrasting colors than closely
related hues. Black-and-white pictures or toys will keep your baby\'s
interest far longer than objects or pictures with lots of similar colors. It
\'s a good idea to give your infant lots of interesting sights to look at,
but don\'t overdo it. One item at a time is plenty. And don\'t forget to move
your infant around a bit during the day to provide a needed change of
scenery.

● Hearing

Your newborn has been hearing sounds since way back in the womb. Mother\'s
heartbeat, the gurgles of her digestive system, and even the external sounds
of her voice and the voices of other family members have been part of your
baby\'s world for a while now. Once your baby is born, the sounds of the
outside world come in loud and clear. Your baby may startle at the
unexpected bark of a dog close by or seem to be soothed by the gentle
whirring of the clothes dryer or the hum of the vacuum cleaner.

Try to pay attention to how your newborn responds to your voice. Human
voices, especially Mom\'s and Dad\'s, are a baby\'s favorite \"music.\" Your
infant already knows that this is where care comes from: food, warmth, touch
. If your infant is crying in the bassinet, see how quickly your approaching
voice quiets him or her down. See how closely your baby listens when you
are talking in loving tones. Your infant may not yet coordinate looking and
listening, but even if your infant stares into the distance, that doesn\'t
mean that he or she isn\'t paying close attention to your voice as you speak.

● Taste and Smell

We assume newborns can smell because we know they can taste, and these are
the two most closely related of the human senses. Research shows that new
babies prefer sweet tastes from birth and will choose to suck on bottles of
heavily sweetened water but will turn away or cry if given something bitter
or sour to taste. In the first 6 months, your infant will get needed
nutrition from breast milk or formula and then will start \"solid\" baby foods
. Because infants like sweeter flavors, it is sometimes easier to get a baby
started on the sweeter vegetables, like carrots or sweet potatoes. As your
infant matures, you will want to expose him or her to different tastes and
flavors so that he or she develops a liking for a variety of foods.

Think of the world of smells an ordinary day affords your newborn: your
clothes, dinner cooking on the stove, flowers in the yard. And at this point
at least, you don\'t have to worry too much about your baby\'s taste buds.
Breast milk (the best!) or formula will satisfy your newborn completely!

● Touch

As it is to most humans, touch is extremely important to your newborn.
Through touch, your baby learns a lot about surroundings. At first, your
baby is looking only for comfort. Having come from a warm and enveloping
fluid before birth, your baby will be faced with feeling cold for the first
time, brushing up against the hardness of the crib, feeling the scratch of a
rough seam inside clothes. Your infant will be looking to parents to
provide the soft touch he or she needs: silky blankets, comforting hugs, and
loving caresses. With almost every touch your newborn is learning about
life, so provide lots of tender kisses and your infant will find the world
is a soothing place to be.

● Should I Be Concerned?

If you just want a little reassurance that your baby\'s senses are working
well, you can do some unscientific testing for yourself. Hold a small light
just out of your baby\'s direct line of vision, about a foot away from his or
her face. Your baby should turn to look at the light. Don\'t be too worried
if it doesn\'t hold his or her attention for too long - even a brief look at
the light indicates that he or she is seeing it. In just 4 to 8 weeks, your
newborn baby\'s eyes will begin to follow a moving light.

If your baby\'s eyes seem to cross more than just briefly, be sure to tell
your baby\'s doctor. Usually no intervention is necessary, but medical
correction sometimes will be required. Also tell the doctor if your baby\'s
eyes appear cloudy or filmy, or if they appear to wander in circles as they
attempt to focus.

Most newborns will startle if surprised by a loud noise nearby. If you want
to check that your baby is hearing, you can make a sharp noise while
standing behind your baby. Your baby should jump a little - but if he or she
doesn\'t, don\'t worry. It may mean your baby was concentrating on something
else and had \"tuned out\" the real world at that moment. Just try the noise
test again later. There are other ways to rest assured your baby is hearing
well. Does crying stop once he or she hears your voice? Does your baby
respond to soft lullabies or other music? Do sounds made out of sight
capture your baby\'s attention?

If you have any concerns about your newborn\'s ability to see or hear, talk
to your baby\'s doctor immediately. Even newborns can be tested using
sophisticated equipment, if necessary. The sooner a potential problem is
caught, the better it can be treated.


2.宝宝1-3个月

Every minute that your infant is awake, he or she is taking in the sights,
sounds, smells, and feel of the world around. Although it may take your
infant a while to understand what all this information means, he or she can
still find joy and comfort in the familiar faces, voices, and sensations of
everyday life.

● Sight

Newborns can only see blurry shapes because they are very near-sighted.
Perfect vision is 20/20, and a newborn has 20/400 vision. This allows your
baby to see your face from a nursing position, which is about 8 to 10 inches
away. As your baby grows, vision improves so that by 3 months he or she
will be able to recognize the outline of your face as you enter the room.
Human faces are one of an infant\'s favorite things to look at, especially a
parent\'s and his or her own. Install a baby-safe crib mirror at your infant\'
s eye level and see how your infant watches himself or herself. You also may
catch your baby gazing out a window or at a picture on the other side of
the room.

Your baby\'s color vision is also developing, so brightly-colored wall
hangings or toys will help this developing ability to distinguish color and
form. Soft pastel colors, though, are difficult for your baby to appreciate
- something to keep in mind when purchasing toys and books.

By the second to third month, your baby\'s eye coordination has improved
enough to follow an object through a 180-degree arch. If you hang a mobile
above your baby\'s crib, look for one that turns around, since watching
things move is becoming another favorite activity. By the end of this period
, he or she may begin to reach out for objects - the beginning of hand-eye
coordination.

Your baby will enjoy looking out from the stroller or baby carrier as you
walk the neighborhood or the mall. Point out the sights, letting your baby
linger over whatever catches his or her eye. Remember, the whole world is
your baby\'s classroom and there\'s so much to see!

● Hearing

In the first months of life, babies use crying as a form of communication.
After about the first month you\'ll be able to distinguish the different
cries and what they mean. Sometimes your baby will be hungry, tired, have a
wet diaper, or just want to be held. You cannot spoil your baby by picking
him or her up and cuddling, so cuddle and coo as much as you like.

Your baby loves to hear your voice, so talk, babble, sing, and coo away
during these first few months. Take special advantage of your baby\'s own \"
talking\" to have a \"conversation.\" If you hear your infant make a sound,
repeat it and wait for him or her to make another. You are teaching your
baby valuable lessons about tone, pacing, and taking turns when talking to
someone else.

Babies this age seem to respond best to a higher-pitched voice, which is why
most people naturally raise the pitch of their voices and exaggerate their
speech when talking to a small baby. This is fine - studies have shown that
talking \"baby talk\" doesn\'t delay the development of speech. In fact,
responding to your baby encourages speech. Feel free to mix in some regular
adult words and tone with the baby talk. It may seem early, but you are
really setting the stage for your baby\'s first word.

Besides voices, your infant will probably enjoy listening to music (try out
a variety to see which he or she seems to like best). Your baby may be
fascinated by the routine sounds of life as well. Keep your baby nearby as
you rattle pans while making dinner, and let him or her sit in an infant
seat within earshot of older siblings laughing and playing. Baby rattles and
musical mobiles are other good ways to stimulate your infant\'s hearing.

● Taste and Smell

We assume infants can smell because we know they can taste, and these are
the two most closely related of the human senses. Research with new babies
shows they prefer sweet tastes from birth and will choose to suck on bottles
of heavily sweetened water but will turn away or cry if given something
bitter or sour to taste.

Think of the world of smells that an ordinary day affords your newborn: your
clothes, dinner cooking on the stove, flowers in the yard. And at this
point at least, you don\'t have to worry too much about your baby\'s taste
buds. Breast milk or formula will satisfy your baby completely.

● Touch

It won\'t be long before your baby will seem to be reaching out and touching
everything, especially things that can break. But now, between 1 and 3
months, your baby is depending on you to provide touch. Infants know they
are loved and cared for when they are held, caressed, massaged, and kissed.

Your baby will come to know the difference between the touch of parents, and
will likely respond joyfully to a game of \"This Little Piggy\" as you touch
your infant\'s toes or fingers. You can try exposing your baby to different
textures and temperatures: the softness of a feather, the hardness of a
wooden block, the cool feel of a window in winter. Studies have shown that
babies who are never touched don\'t develop normally. In fact, other studies
with premature infants indicate that touch between parent and baby has a
very positive effect on the growth, blood pressure, and overall health of
the baby.

● Should I Be Concerned?

There are a few ways to do some unscientific testing of your infant\'s seeing
and hearing. By 8 to 10 weeks your baby will be able to follow you as you
move around the room, or will follow a shiny object that you pass in front
of him or her. Move a small, dim lamp or flashlight from one side of your
baby\'s face to the other. Does your baby follow the movement? Does he or she
seem to focus on the light at all, even briefly? Until 4 to 6 months it may
appear as if your infant is cross-eyed when he or she tries to look at
something that is close. This is normal in these first few months. At the
end of 3 months, does your baby smile when he or she sees you? By this time,
your baby should be recognizing your face. If these signs are missing,
discuss it with your child\'s doctor.

If you are concerned about your infant\'s ability to hear, ask yourself these
questions: does the baby respond to the sound of my voice, even if he or
she cannot see me? (Your baby\'s response might be to stop crying, to smile,
or to get excited and move his or her arms and legs.) Some studies indicate
that a newborn can already recognize a mother\'s voice, and by 3 months your
baby can turn his or her head toward voices. Does the baby startle at an
unexpected sound behind his or her head? Clap your hands behind your baby\'s
head and see if he or she responds. If he or she doesn\'t, try it again later
(your baby may be momentarily distracted). If you are still worried about
your infant\'s hearing, call your child\'s doctor. The earlier problems with
seeing and hearing are discovered, the better they can be treated..

3.宝宝4-7个月

Your baby is now rolling over, starting to sit up, grabbing toys and other
interesting objects, and possibly even crawling. While the majority of your
infant\'s energy during this period is spent developing motor skills, your
baby is also honing all five senses, understanding and anticipating more and
more of what he or she sees, hears, and feels in the world.

● Sight

As your baby\'s interaction with the environment increases, you should notice
a corresponding rise in his or her visual awareness. By 6 or 7 months you
may see your baby staring in concentration at a toy in his or her hands or
intently studying his or her own face in a mirror. Your baby is still
nearsighted, but can see much more than he or she could just a few months
ago. Your baby can focus without going cross-eyed, and is able to
distinguish colors at an adult level.

In keeping with your baby\'s ability to move around, he or she will be able
to track even rapid motion with the eyes. Your baby can follow the course of
a ball you roll past him or her and probably can focus on watching the
quick movements of an older sibling playing nearby. Your baby also will be
practicing newly acquired hand-eye coordination, so watch as your baby
stares for a while at an object, then slowly reaches out to get it.

If your baby has been looking at the same toys or crib mobile for several
months, now is a good time to change the scenery. Don\'t forget that babies
older than 6 months will start to pull themselves up to a sitting position,
so if you have a low-hanging mobile over the crib or wall hangings within
reach, remove them so your baby doesn\'t get hurt.

Your 4- to 7-month-old will likely enjoy more complex designs now, and is
capable of distinguishing colors. Try reading your infant books with large,
brightly colored pictures - he or she will likely enjoy staring at the pages
. Another way to stimulate your baby\'s vision is to take him or her out into
the world. Walks in the neighborhood, a trip to the supermarket, even an
outing to the local zoo all provide wonderful opportunities for your baby to
see new things.

● Hearing

Your baby\'s hearing is crucial to developing the ability to talk. While this
has been true since birth, your baby is just now beginning to understand
the fundamentals of communication through hearing and language. When your
baby was younger, he or she understood your meaning through the tone of your
voice: soothing tones made your infant stop crying, agitated tones told
your baby something was wrong. Now, your child is beginning to pick out the
components of your speech. Your baby can hear and understand the different
sounds you make and the way words form sentences. He or she responds to \"no\"
and is starting to notice new sounds, like the bark of a dog or the hum of
a vacuum cleaner.

By the seventh month, your baby should recognize and respond to his or her
own name. Your baby will also make more attempts to imitate sounds and spend
more time babbling. Make no mistake, these are your baby\'s early attempts
at speaking and should be encouraged as much as possible. Repeat sounds you
hear your infant making. Introduce your baby to simple words that apply to
everyday life. Have \"conversations\" with your baby, waiting for a pause in
the babble to \"answer\" him or her. The give-and-take of these early
discussions sets the stage for your baby\'s first real words in the months to
come.

● Taste and Smell

Your baby\'s doctor may suggest the addition of solid foods to his or her
diet sometime during this period. If this is the case, you\'ll want to select
foods carefully, introducing one new food at a time. Not only does this
help you pinpoint any food allergies that may occur, but it also helps you
discover which tastes your baby likes best.

While humans innately enjoy sweet tastes best of all, you\'ll want your baby
to be open to vegetables and other not-so-sweet tastes. You might consider
introducing vegetables like carrots or sweet potatoes right after those
initial days of baby cereal. This way your baby won\'t protest that he or she
would rather have the sweet-tasting bananas or applesauce. You may see your
baby respond to the sight and smell of your own dinner. Perhaps you can
provide your baby with similar foods, pureed to baby-food softness.

● Touch

The opportunities for exercising your baby\'s sense of touch at this age are
endless, even during the course of a regular day. Let your baby roll a while
in the coarse grass of your yard. See if your baby prefers to touch the
silky trim of the baby blanket, or feel the texture of a carpet with his or
her hands. If you label the textures - \"This is rough,\" \"This is soft\" - you
will be helping your baby learn more about the world.

At the same time, don\'t forget how important the feel of a gentle caress or
a tender kiss is, and hold your baby when you are able. This kind of
touching will teach your baby that he or she is safe, secure, and loved.

● Should I Be Concerned?

Between 4 and 7 months, you should see a noticeable increase in your baby\'s
awareness of the sights and sounds around him or her. Your baby should be
responding appropriately to more and more visual and audio stimuli.

Ask your baby\'s doctor to perform an eyesight assessment if your baby:

――doesn\'t seem to recognize you by sight or know you\'re in the room until
he or she sees you

――doesn\'t seem to be interested in looking at any new books, toys, or
pictures

――doesn\'t seem to have good control of eye motion (although some crossing
or independent eye movement is still normal until 6 months)

An evaluation also may be necessary if you have any family history of
serious eye diseases or abnormalities.

Since hearing is such a crucial component of language development, you\'ll
also want to discuss with your child\'s doctor any concerns you have about
your baby\'s hearing. If your baby doesn\'t seem to imitate simple sounds by
the end of his or her seventh month, or shows no interest in babbling or
having a \"conversation\" with you, you may want to talk with your baby\'s
doctor about getting a hearing evaluation.

Here are some warning signs of vision or hearing problems to look for:

――one or both eyes turn in or out consistently

――fluid draining from one or both eyes or persistent tearing

――extreme sensitivity to light

――no response to sound (for example, doesn\'t turn in direction of loud
noise)

――response to only some sounds, not all (some children can hear certain
pitches, some hear in only one ear)

――does not laugh out loud by 6 months

――does not babble or make a variety of sounds by 8 months, or concentrates
only on making vibrating sounds he or she can feel in the throat rather
than imitating sounds he or she can hear

Caught early, many vision and hearing problems can be treated successfully,
so be sure to report any concerns you have to your child\'s doctor
immediately.

4.宝宝8-12个月
Along with motor-skill accomplishments, your baby is continuing to develop
an understanding of the world through the sights, sounds, tastes, smells,
and textures in the environment. Take the necessary precautions to ensure
safety, but also provide your baby with countless ways to explore the world
through the senses.

● Sight

Your baby\'s sight has been maturing for several months, and he or she is
able to see quite well and even focus on quickly moving objects. Your baby
is now putting motor skills together with vision, and it\'s likely that he or
she can spot a toy across the room, focus on it, crawl to it, pick it up,
and turn it over.

Familiar and loving faces are still your baby\'s favorite thing to look at,
but he or she also may enjoy looking at the same picture book over and over
again, concentrating on certain images. Your baby may love objects with
parts or pieces he or she can move or connect, and will spend lots of time
staring at these things, perhaps trying to figure out how or why they work.

Take your baby with you to see new and interesting places. Point out the
sights and label them by name. You\'ll be promoting your baby\'s interest in
the surrounding world.

● Hearing

During this period, your baby will be making more and more recognizable
sounds, such as \"ga,\" \"ba,\" and \"da.\" By 9 months your baby is putting these
sounds together to make \"sentences\" and may even stumble onto a real word
like \"Mama.\" He or she will listen when spoken to and start to recognize
common words, such as ball, cup, bottle.

These sounds will let you know that your baby\'s been listening to you for
quite some time. You\'ll also know you\'re being heard and understood when you
ask \"Where\'s Daddy?\" and your baby looks his way; or you say \"Go find the
ball\" and he or she crawls right to it. Your baby should already respond
well to his or her own name, and look up (and at least pause) when you say,
\"NO!\"

Labeling simple objects during the course of the day reinforces the message
that everything has its own name. Your baby is learning what familiar
objects are called and storing this information away until the time when he
or she can form the words.

By the end of the first year, your baby should:

――be responding well to simple requests from you (\"Wave bye-bye\")

――have at least one true word in his or her vocabulary

――be making some valiant babbling attempts at real conversation

● Taste and Smell

By this age, your baby may have a pretty good idea of which tastes he or she
likes and which ones he or she doesn\'t. Don\'t be discouraged if your baby
seems to prefer only one or two kinds of foods. By continually offering
foods with a variety of tastes and smells, you\'ll be sending the message
that they are always available - and you\'ll be surprised when your child
decides to try something new.

Your baby\'s sense of smell is maturing, too. Use scents to help your baby
explore the world further. A trip outside can provide a wide variety, from
the sweet scent of flowers to the distinctive smell of a rubber ball.

Label smells and tastes for your baby (\"Doesn\'t this smell sour?\" and \"Oh,
this tastes so salty!\") and you\'ll be providing the tools to name them as
soon as your baby can form the words.

● Touch
Your baby is getting around more independently as he or she masters crawling
- perhaps even walking - skills. This means your baby can go and touch the
things he or she wants to touch. After making sure there are no hot or sharp
items that can hurt your baby and no small objects that can be put in the
mouth, let your baby explore the textures and surfaces of your home and yard.

Let your baby find out how that banana gets mushy on the highchair tray, and
that ice cubes feel hard and cold. Find some sandpaper and let your baby
rub a hand gently over its coarse surface, then move that hand to the smooth
coolness of a stainless-steel sink. Of course, your loving touch is still
the most important touch your baby knows, so lavish your baby with hugs and
kisses every chance you get.

● Should I Be Concerned?

Hopefully, you\'ve addressed any concerns you\'ve had about your baby\'s
eyesight already, but be sure to contact your child\'s doctor if you see any
of the following irregularities develop during this time period:

――eyes that wander in or out consistently

――inability to see or recognize distant objects or people

――persistent tearing, fluid discharge, crusting, or redness of eyes

――eyes that don\'t move together

――frequent squinting or sensitivity to light

――droopy eyelids

――pupils of different sizes

――excessive eye rubbing or scratching

Hearing problems may become more apparent during this stage because of the
emergence of speech. Don\'t hesitate to report any concerns you have to your
baby\'s doctor immediately, especially if you feel your child is not babbling
or responding to your speech patterns. Chronic ear infections can sometimes
leave children with excessive fluid buildup that can interfere with normal
hearing. Special tests can check for hearing loss at this age (and even
younger).

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