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宝宝第一年(Baby First Year)之三:小宝一岁CHECKUP归来 (附PED的一些建议)
作者:home99
发表时间:2008-07-06
更新时间:2008-07-07
浏览:4849次
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地址:10.
::: 栏目 :::
写给准妈妈1
宝宝护理与成长3
写给准妈妈3
为人父母3
英语学习
为人处世
休闲娱乐
理财话题
为人父母2
写给准妈妈2
实用资料
宝宝护理与成长2
为人父母1
其它
医药健康话题
写给新妈妈
宝宝护理与成长1
异国他乡

上周四是我家小宝一岁的CHECKUP,与9个月时相比,体重从50%降到38-40%,身高从25%
增至35%,其实主要是体重增加不多,从19磅 9盎司长到20 磅1盎司。总的来说,是个
小宝宝。

这次共打了3针,都是第一次打,其中MMR的反应说是可以持续12天。感觉这次似乎是小
宝反应最严重的一次,这两天特别特别fussy,已经连续发烧三天两夜,吃了好几次
Tylenol,今天早上和下午还各吃了一次,不知为什么,鼻子好象还有些不通。什么东西
也不肯吃,只要妈妈喂奶。小宝刚学会走,很想能和平常一样去EXPLORE,可是她不明
白为什么感到那么不舒服。这两天夜里睡得尤其不好,白天的NAP也从一小时两次减到
每次睡五分钟就醒。感觉哭得好象比这一年来的总和都要多。

每次吃下Tylenol大概半小时之后,小宝精神慢慢好一点儿,好不容易看到宝宝想玩想
走了,可是迈开步子没走两步腿就软了。试探地将奶瓶递过去,小宝一边哭一边将瓶子
推开,然后似乎很不解地看着妈妈,嘴里挺不满意地哼哼着,直到能钻到妈妈怀里吃奶。
妈妈已经一周没有泵奶了,只是因为宝宝不舒服,要吃奶妈妈又不忍心说不给吃,虽
然已经没什么奶了。吃着奶似乎睡着了,可是一放到自己的小床没几分钟又哭着醒来,
一摸脑袋又是烫乎乎的。

自从小宝会爬特别是开步走之后,除了喂奶,妈妈就很难得有机会长时间抱到小宝了,
而这两天小宝一反常态,多数时间要妈妈抱着或坐妈妈腿上,看着小宝无精打彩的样子,
还时不时要哭哭鼻子,妈妈好心疼,真希望能替宝宝承受这一切啊。


先来说说小宝的CHECKUP,几乎每次都要测体重、身高、头围,多数时候有SHOTS,具体
如下:

In the hospital Newborn SHOTS:Hep B

Newborn (出院后第二天) 体重、身高、头围

1 Week Visit  称重

1 Month Visit  体重、身高、头围

2 Month Visit   SHOTS: DTP/aP,Hib,Polio,Hep B,PCV,Rotavirus

4 Month Visit   SHOTS:DTP/aP,Hib,Polio,Hep B,PCV,Rotavirus

6 Month Visit   SHOTS:DTP/aP,Polio,Hep B,PCV,Rotavirus

9 Month Visit  体重、身高、头围

12 Month Visit  SHOTS:Hep A,MMR,Varicella


根据PED的安排,小宝还有一些SHOTS要等到15个月、18个月、4岁以及11岁打,大家可
以参看CDC的疫苗接种安排时间表。


宝宝的第一年,可能也是人生变化最大的一年吧。在这一年里,我家小宝首先分清了白
天昼夜,学会了好些“基本功”:抬头、趴、翻身、爬以及走,也学会了自己用手抓东
西吃,用杯子喝水,学会了玩各种玩具,还学会了喊爸爸妈妈以及自创了小宝特有的
“wake up song”可以很有效地喊爸爸和哥哥起床呢。我将PED给予的一些建议整理出来
贴在下面,供JMs参考。希望我的乖乖早点儿好起来,还妈妈一个开心的小宝宝啊。


1.Safety

* Your newborn has very little head control. Always be sure that anyone
carrying her supports the head, and never shakes it suddenly.

* Be sure your crib slats are less than 2 3/4inches apart.

* NEVER leave your infant unattended on a bed, sofa or table, even for a
moment. Make sure your smoke alarm functions, and that you have a fire
extinguisher.

** Use car seat for every ride. Place in back seat facing backward (until
12 months old and 20 lbs). Be sure your infant is buckled securely. Infants
who weigh over 20 lbs before one year should switch to a “convertible”
seat facing the rear rather than forward-facing toddler seat.

* Put your infant to sleep on the back(not stomach) on a firm, flat
mattress.

* Call the PED immediately if the baby’s temperature is 100.5 F or more
(38 C)

** Cover electrical outlets. Remove dangling electric and drapery cords
from reach. Install cabinet locks where poisons are stored.

* Lower crib mattress before baby can pull himself to standing position.

** Place safety gates at top and bottom of stairs. Add window locks on
all upstairs windows.

* Never use a walker.

* Place medicines, cleaners, and poisonous substances out of reach. Do not
rely on safety latches.

* Watch out for child grabbing hot pots, curling irons, irons, hot liquids,
or other hot surfaces. Install smoke detectors and check regularly.

* Always check water temperature before putting baby in bath. Water heater
temperature should be 120 F or lower. Do not leave the room during bath.
Never leave your infant unattended in the bath, even briefly.


2.Feeding

* Breast-milk is the best food for your baby throughout the first year.
Breastfeed baby “on demand”. Let the baby deicide when and how long to
nurse.

* Continue prenatal vitamins while breastfeeding. Breast-fed infants may
need Vitamin D supplements.

* Bottle-feeding Always use formula with iron.

* Feed baby about every 3-4 hours. By 2 months, most babies take 4-5oz
each feeding, 26-28 oz each day. By 4 months, most babies take 5-7 oz each
feeding, 28-32 oz each day.

* DO NOT warm bottles in microwave.

* Always check the temperature of formula before feeding.

* NEVER give baby honey in the first year of life.

* Fluoride is recommended for infants 6 months or older who either are
exclusively breast-fed or whose water supply lacks fluoride.

关于辅食的添加:
* Solid food is usually begun at 4-6 months. Your baby cannot take solids
until she has good head control and does not push food out with tongue.

◆ Breast-fed babies do require a source of iron daily by age 6 months.
Four tablespoons of rice cereal daily is adequate.

◆ Always offer cereal and solids by spoon, never in a bottle unless
discussed with your doctor.

◆ Rice cereal mixed with breast milk or formula is usually recommended
first.

◆ Make first feedings fairly dilute with milk, then firmer as your baby
learns to eat.

◆ After baby takes cereal, you may introduce strained vegetables and fruit.

◆ Introduce only one food every 3-4 days. Withdraw the food if your baby
develops rash, vomiting, or diarrhea.

◆ Meat is usually held until age 7 months, egg yolk still later.

◆ First cup feedings and finger foods may be introduced after 6 months old.
Offer your baby a sippy cup of water

◆ If making your own baby food, avoid beets, carrots, turnips, and collard
greens (may contain nitrates in parts of the country). Baby food products
containing these foods are safe.

◆ Infant over 6 months may have a small amount of juice. No more than 4-6
oz per day. It should always be 100% juice and pasteurized. Juice should
either be baby juice or diluted fresh juice. Always offer in a cup not a
bottle.

Juice offers no nutritional benefits over fruit, so if your baby eats fruit
well, skip juice!

* Never give your baby unpasteurized juice (available in some organic food
stores).

* Give a variety of table foods but watch out for choking (don't feed
nuts, hard candies, whole hotdogs, popcorn, grapes, raw vegetables, raisins,
gum, or seeds).

* Beef, ground beef should be cooked medium well (no redness).

* Finger food suggestions
◆ Yes: Zweibach toast, arrowroot cookies, cheerios and graham crackers
    Soft potatoes, cooked broccoli, carrots or green beans
    Shredded cheese, well-cooked pasta
    Canned or fresh fruits

◆ No: Hotdogs, nuts, popcorn, raisins, whole grapes, raw carrots
    Hard candies, chewing gum
    Peanut butter
    Potato chips

* Wean from bottle by 12 months, by 15 months at the latest.

* At 12 months of age, give child whole cow’s milk (may be 2% fat) to
drink, up to 2-3 cups each day. Limit juice to 4-6 oz per day, must be
pasteurized. Most children eat 3 meals per day plus snacks. Give a variety
of table foods but watch out for choking (don’t feed nuts, hard candies,
whole hotdogs, popcorn, grapes, raw vegetables, raisins, gum or seeds)


3.Bathing

* Bathing in the tub can begin after the cord has dropped off.

* Keep water temperature set less than 120 F. Always check water
temperature before putting baby in bath. Never leave baby unattended. Don’t
drink hot liquids near baby.


4.Sleeping

* Place baby in crib when drowsy but still awake. Many babies are restless
or cry for 15-20 minutes before falling asleep.

* Don't let baby sleep for more than 3 hours straight during the day.

* Try to space daytime feedings by 2 hours or more.

* Make middle-of-the-night feedings brief and boring. Leave lights off,
don't talk to baby.

* Try to delay or shorten middle-of-the-night feedings.

* Don't wake baby to change diapers during the night unless soiled or
baby has a diaper rash.

* Give the last feeding at your bedtime.

* Never awaken baby at night for a feeding except at your bedtime.

* Keep baby's crib in a separate room.


5.Parenting

** Show affection: Don't worry about spoiling your baby.

* Never leave baby alone in home, car or bathtub.

* Help your baby develop good sleep habits.

* Set special time aside for older siblings.

* Hold, talk and sing to baby.

* Shaking or spanking a baby may cause serious injury and death.

* Read books to your baby every day.

* Say “no”, then physically move baby from dangerous situation. Don’t
yell or spank.

* Praise and reward good behaviors .

* Play games and read stories to your child.

* Be a good role model.

* Suggested Reading

“Touchpoints: Your Child’s Emotional and Behavioral Developments”: also see
“Infant and Mothers” T. Berry Brazelton

“Caring for Your Baby and Young Child” American Academy of Pediatrics

“Your Child's Health”-Barton Schmitt

“What to Expect the Toddler Years”-Eisenberg

“Raising Your Spirited Child”-Kurcinka


* Some phone numbers and websites
Governor’s Highway Safety Program (800) 672-4527

Child Passenger Safety Web
www.chldsafety.org
(Excellent visual aids)

National Highway Safety Administration
www.nhtsa.dot.gov/people/injury/childps/
(Consumer info)

www.brightfutures.org
(Infant Care)


6.Safe Toys

* Always choose toys made for baby’s age.

* No small removable parts baby could choke on.

* Check stuffed animals and dolls for loose eyes and noses. Remove all
ribbons.

* No toys less than 1-5/8 inches across (could cause choking).

* So strings, cords or necklaces on toys, or around baby’s neck.

* No sharp or pointed edges.

* No old painted toys (could contain lead).

* No toys strung across the crib.

* Toys for 4-6 Months Olds:
  Soft balls and toys with fingerholds
  Baby books (board, cloth, vinyl pages)
  Textured toys making sounds
  Unbreakable mirror attached to crib
  Musical toys (bells, tambourines)
  See-through rattles showing pieces making the noise

7.Other concerns

* Most one-month-old infants experiences growth spurt, causing a fussy
period at the end of the day. Typically this lasts 2-3 hours, and has an
unnerving tendency to occur just as you’re ready to ready or go to sleep.

* Between 4 and 6 months
Good head control, supporting chest with arms
Rolling
Sitting alone (by 6-7 months)
Reaching for toys with both hands
Passing toys from one hand to another
Imitating speech sounds, making sounds with lips

* The first teeth typically erupt soon after 6 months, but may not appear
until the second year of life.

* Child Care and Baby Sitting

Introduce your child to childcare slowly: if possible, part-time is a good
way to start. Staying with your child for the first few sessions will ease
the transition. Review with the caregiver important items/habits your child
may have, such as security objects, methods of self-soothing, or favorite
activities.

◆ Choose a Child Care Provider

Find out how many children are cared for by each adult on site. The fewer
children per adult, the more individual attention your child is apt to get.

Ask for references and a daycare license.

Make sure caregivers have CPR certification.

Observe the area where the children are cared for: it should be clean and
safe.

If possible, observe caregivers interacting with your child or other
children.

◆ Leaving Your Child with a Baby-Sitter
When you are ready to leave your child with a baby-sitter, it’s essential
that you choose one with whom you feel comfortable. A good baby sitter will
nurture, play with, and respect your child, and knows how to set reasonable
limits. If possible, have the sitter spend time with the baby at your home
for a trial run before you actually leave them for the first time.

* Cold Your child may have a runny or stuffy nose with cough,
watery eyes and sneezing.

◆ Treatment Tips:
Use the bulb syringe you were given in the nursery to suction the mucus from
your infant’s nose.

Saline nose drops used with the bulb syringe help clear the nasal passages.
You can make your own Saline nose drops by mixing ½ teaspoon of salt
with one cup of water.

Vaseline applied to nasal openings will help protect them from irritation.

Elevate the head of your child’s bed by placing a folded towel or blanket
under the head of the mattress.

Cold medicine is not recommended for children under 18 months of age.

◆ Call your doctor if:

――Your baby has a fever over 100.4F

――Baby has thick yellow nasal discharge that persists for over 10 days.

――You cannot unblock the nose enough for baby to take adequate fluids.

* Fever Most are from colds or viruses.

Healthy babies often pull at their ears. Suspect an ear infection if your
baby develops irritability and poor sleep along with fever or cold symptoms.

Babies with viruses may have high fevers, but after Acetamenophen usually
return to being playful and drinking well.

Worry most about infants with fever who will not smile, drink their milk, or
who have a weak or moaning cry.

Remember that you may not be able to bring a fever all the way down to
normal.

* Vomiting is usually caused by a stomach or intestinal infection or virus
and is usually self-limiting. Your goal is to prevent baby from getting
dehydrated. Signs and symptoms of dehydration include dry mouth, no urine in
more than 8 hours, no tears, or depression of the “soft spot” in infants.

◆ Treatment Tips:

For the breastfed infant, try feeding for a shorter period of time at more
frequent intervals.

If breast of bottle milk is vomited, start Pedialyte or Ricelyte in small
amounts for frequent feedings.

Resume formula in infants after several hours without vomiting and a bland
diet for older children after 24 hours without vomiting.

When your child vomits, wait a few minutes after vomiting before offering a
small amount of fluids.

◆ Call your doctor if:

――Your child has severe abdominal pain or has blood in the vomited
material.

――Your child has not urinated in more than 8 hours or has no tears or acts
lethargic.

――Your child has vomited clear fluids 3 times and has watery diarrhea.

――Your child recently suffered a head injury.

――Your child is very fussy or excessively sleepy.

――Your child’s vomiting continues for more than 24 hours.

* Diarrhea is usually caused by a virus. Your child loses fluids,
nutrients, salt, and minerals with the diarrhea. Your goal in the treatment
of the child is to prevent dehydration. Over-the-counter anti-diarrheal
medications for children are not recommended.

First 24 hours: For breastfed infants under 6 months of age, continue to
feed at more frequent intervals. Offer bottle-fed babies Pedialyte or
Ricelyte for no longer than 24 hours.

After 24 hours, if diarrhea is decreasing: Offer your breastfed infant over
6 months of age starchy foods such as rice cereal, bananas, of applesauce.
Offer the bottle-fed baby formula and the same starchy foods. Old children
may have a blank diet, including toast, rice, potatoes, or crackers. Avoid
liquids that are high in sugar and salt.

Call your doctor if:

――Your infant under 6 months has an increase in diarrhea stools in 24
hours.

――Your child shows sighs of dehydration mucous or blood in the diarrhea.

* Temper Tantrums (发脾气) All children have temper tantrums at some
time. Temper tantrums are a child’s way of expressing anger and frustration.
They often occur from 1-5 years of age, and are more common when a child
is tried, hungry or sick.

Children stop having tantrums when:

――They learn they will not get attention from them.

――They learn how to express themselves with words.

◆ Prevention

――Be consistent with discipline. Don’t have too many rules.

――Have regular naps.

――Offer regular meals and snacks.

――Quietly remove toys which cause frustration- remove objects which tempt
your child to misbehave.

――Be a good role model.

――Do not yell or spank.

――Be patient.

――Teach your child how to express him/herself with words.

◆ When your child has a tantrum…

Comfort and soothe child. Praise when successful. Be understanding. Put
child to bed if tired, or feed if hungry. Remove objects (like candy) which
tempt your child to misbehave.

◆ Attention-seeking or demanding tantrums

Ignore these tantrums. Move to different room so child does not have an
audience. Don’t try to reason with child (usually makes tantrum worse). Don't
give in to these tantrums. You can prevent some demanding tantrums by
saying “no” less often.

◆ Refusal tantrums

If your child refuses to do something important like going to daycare,
gently pick him/her up and take to daycare. If child refuses to do something
unimportant, let it go. Some refusal tantrums can be prevented by giving a
5-minute warning instead of asking child to suddenly stop what he/she is
doing. Try to “ask once,” and don’t repeat requests to the child. Guide
the child yourself if you need to.

◆ Disruptive tantrums

Having a tantrum in a public place and hitting are examples of disruptive
tantrums. Send child to his/her room or take child to your car for 1-2
minute time out.

◆ Rage-type tantrums

If child is totally out of control and screaming wildly, or if there is
danger of self-injury (throwing self backwards), you may tell your child “I
love you, but I’m going to hold you until you calm down.”

◆ After a tantrum

Wait for the first good behavior and praise it. (e.g.
“I like the way you…”)


** Acetaminophen (Tylenol) Dose (infant drops):

Baby's weight Every 4-6 hours

6-11 lbs 0.4ml (40mg) (1/2 dropper)

12-17 lbs 0.8ml (80mg) (1 dropper)

18-23 lbs 1.2ml (120mg)(1 1/2 dropper)

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