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乳房疾病(一):乳房疼痛(breast pain)与乳腺癌(下)
作者:home99
发表时间:2011-04-16
更新时间:2011-04-16
浏览:3414次
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地址:71.
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这部分主要是缓解Breast pain的一些办法,并附上几篇英文资料供JMs参考与了解啊!

●乳痛症如何护理
●文胸的正确穿戴方法和乳房保健
●五大爱胸要点 远离乳房疾病
●乳房不适11招你轻松搞定
●揭开乳房健康的24个小秘密
●Breast Pain
●Breast Pain
●Breast Pain: Mastitis or IBC?
●Breast Pain or Tenderness
●Breast Pain: Cyclical and Noncyclical
●Breast Pain: Should You Worry?
●Breast Pain And Breast Cancer Risk
●Breast Cancer Pain: Symptoms and Statistics

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乳痛症如何护理

乳痛症是乳房疾病的一个共同特征,因此所有的乳房疾病的患者都会有疼痛这样的烦恼,面对这样的疼痛,患者该怎样去护理才能减轻患者的痛苦呢!上海真爱女子医院的乳腺外科的专家对此给出了一下几点建议!

如果你有乳痛症的现象不妨试试下面的方法,说不定能让自己疼痛感减轻很多!

1、改变饮食习惯。采用低脂高纤的饮食,食用谷类(全麦)、蔬菜及豆类的纤维。

2、经常按摩乳房。轻轻按摩乳房,可使过量的体液再回到淋巴系统。按摩时,先将肥皂液涂在乳房上,沿着乳房表面旋转手指,约一个硬币大小的圆。然后用手将乳房压入再弹起,这对防止乳房不适症有极大的好处。

3、穿稳固的胸罩。胸罩除了防止乳房下垂外,更重要的作用是防止已受压迫的乳房神经进一步受到压迫,消除不适。细心的姐妹会发现,那些慢跑运动员穿戴稳固的胸罩就是这个保健原因。

4、避免利尿剂。利尿剂的确有助于排放体内的液体,也能削减乳房的肿胀。但这种立即的缓解需付出代价的。过度使用利尿剂会导致钾的流失、破坏电解质的平衡,以及影响葡萄糖的形成。

5、不吃咸。高盐的食物易使乳房胀大,月经来前的7~10天尤应避免这类食物。

6、试用热敷。热敷是一种传统的中医疗法,可用热敷袋、热水瓶或洗热水澡等方式缓解乳房痛。如果采用冷、热敷交替法,消除乳房不适症效果会更好。

7、防止肥胖。对于过度肥胖的女性,减轻体重将有助于缓解乳房肿痛。

8、用蓖麻油敷胸。蓖麻油含有一种能提升T11淋巴细胞功能的物质,这种淋巴细胞能加速各种感染的复原,去除疼痛。方法是:将蓖麻油滴于折成四层的棉布上,让其沾满蓖麻油,但勿过湿,以免四处滴流。将此布敷于乳房上,盖一层塑胶薄膜,再放上热敷袋。将热敷袋调至你能忍受的热度,敷一小时即可。

9、摄取维生素。饮食中应摄取富含维生素C、钙、镁、及维生素B群的食物。这些维生素有助于调节前列腺素E的制造,同时,少吃人造奶油,因其中的氢化脂肪会干扰体内必需的脂肪酸(来自食物)转化为Y-亚麻油酸(GIA)的能力,而GIA促成前列腺素E的形成,进而抑制催乳激素的产生。

10、远离咖啡。咖啡因是否导致乳房不适?目前尚未证实。但据医学调查发现,许多有乳房痛及其它良性症状的妇女,在戒除咖啡因后,症状有明显的改善。因此,你得全面戒掉咖啡,也就是要对汽水、巧克力、冰淇淋、茶以及含咖啡因的止痛药等完全死心。

11、切忌滥用药。有的人胡乱吃些消炎药或是抗生素类药来止住乳房。

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文胸的正确穿戴方法和乳房保健

你的Bra穿对了吗?除了身体对舒适度的自然感觉之外,还有几个细节表示你穿的Bra有问题:

1、乳房从罩杯上突出——说明乳罩杯太小或形状太尖。

2、腋下有突出部分——说明Bra的身围太小,或侧面太窄。

3、两臂上举之后,乳罩往上窜——说明乳罩的身围太大。

4、肩带嵌入肩膀内——说明肩带太短,应该调整。文胸的正确穿戴方法和乳房保健

文胸的正确穿戴方法和乳房保健

Bra这样穿

1、将乳罩肩带推到肩膀上,当你拉着乳罩两端的背扣将它们系在一起时,上身前倾,使乳房自然落入乳罩杯内,然后系上乳罩。

2、将左手伸到右边的乳罩杯里,置入乳房之下,用手将乳房托起,这样乳房就不会被乳罩压在胸壁上,另一侧同法。

3、穿上Bra后发现乳头不在Bra的最高处——说明Bra尺码不对,应重新测量。

4、撤掉肩带后发现罩杯不再服贴——说明罩杯过大,应该重新选择。好的 Bra应该在撤掉肩带后依然很合身。

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五大爱胸要点 远离乳房疾病

乳房的主要组织虽是脂肪,但它更是个由激素控制的器官,年轻时雌激素丰富可以助它发育,成年后过多的雌激素则会带来不适。乳房上面密布着丰富的神经感受器,饮食、作息、压力、碰触……都会反映到神经,做出的激素反应则集中到乳腺。粗做粗得,细做细得。只有细心地照护它,满足它适当的激素需要,才是健康的胸前管理。

一、饮食上,控制激素水平

1、别喝酒

在所有与饮食相关的能用来预防乳腺疾病的措施中,减少酒精摄入是最关键的。酒精会升高体内的雌激素水平,而雌激素水平过高则会导致乳房肿块。

2、吃低脂性食物

在日本这种以低脂肪含量的食物(大米、鱼)为主食的国家,女性患乳腺癌的比例只有美国的10~15%。脂肪含量高的食物一方面阻碍了雌激素的排出,同时会促进体内细菌的生长而使体内雌激素水平升高。

3、每天至少食用30克纤维

例如吃些全麦面包、胡萝卜、南瓜,各种纤维均有助于过多的雌激素排出体外,从而阻止激素刺激乳房组织,并引起不适。

二、穿着上,给乳房松绑

美国一项对5000名女性戴文胸的习惯与乳腺癌的关系进行的调查表明,每天戴文胸12小时以上的女性比短时间或者根本不戴文胸的女性,患乳腺癌的可能性高出21倍。

据分析,文胸致癌的原因在于文胸卡紧胸部后,会影响了乳房部分淋巴液的正常流通,不能及时清除体内有害物质,久而久之就会使那里的正常细胞发生癌变。

三、激情时,乳房需要温柔

欢愉时刻,抚摸乳房可以得到更多的快感,但千万别把这上升为粗暴的抓揉。那会给乳房带来过多的刺激,致使雌激素分泌增加,埋下危险隐患。

四、工作时,不时站起来走走

美国亚利桑那州立大学研究发现,如果女性从事体育老师这样有一定活动量的工作,患乳腺癌的几率要比从事办公事务类久坐工作的女性低50%。这是因为,运动能减少体重和脂肪,体内雌激素的含量就会降低。

五、预防上,动用科研新武器

1、乳腺癌风险基因

科学证实,BRC-1 和BRC-2是乳腺癌的风险基因,可以在国内设有“基因门诊”的 医院或科研单位检查是否携带这两种基因。有乳腺癌家族史、长期吸烟和习惯食用红色肉类(牛肉、羊肉等深色肉类)的女性,可以加查SBC基因。

2、做专业检查

医生建议,女性35岁以后,应每18个月做一次专业乳腺检查。包括专科医生的触诊、超声波乳腺检查、X线钼靶照相。

3、乳腺癌新检测方法

美国密歇根大学的研究人员研究开发出一种装置,可以利用气味检测乳腺癌。理论上,女性如果患有乳腺癌,其癌症产生的代谢物就有一种特殊的气味。通过装置这些代谢物会被吸收到纳米口袋中,研究人员通过电导的变化或者从屏幕上就可以检测到这些代谢物,从而标记乳腺癌。该研究小组获得了美国癌症研究创意奖金。

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乳房不适11招你轻松搞定

导语:女性朋友们,平时要注意自我的乳房检查,这点很重要。乳房不适11招你轻松搞定,让你不再为此烦恼,乳房的不适感,应该是和每个人的体质还有就是身体状况是密切相关的,让你拥有愉快的每一天……

一、改变饮食习惯

采用低脂高纤的饮食,食用谷类(全麦)、蔬菜及豆类的纤维。

二、经常按摩乳房

轻轻按摩乳房,可使过量的体液再回到淋巴系统。按摩时,先将肥皂液涂在乳房上,沿着乳房表面旋转手指,约一个硬币大小的圆。然后用手将乳房压入再弹起,这对防止乳房不适症有极大的好处。

三、穿稳固的胸罩

胸罩除了防止乳房下垂外,更重要的作用是防止已受压迫的乳房神经进一步受到压迫,消除不适。细心的姐妹会发现,那些慢跑运动员穿戴稳固的胸罩就是这个保健原因。

四、避免利尿剂

利尿剂的确有助于排放体内的液体,也能削减乳房的肿胀。但这种立即的缓解需付出代价的。过度使用利尿剂会导致钾的流失、破坏电解质的平衡,以及影响葡萄糖的形成。

五、不吃咸辣香肠

高盐的食物易使乳房胀大,月经来前的7~10天尤应避免这类食物。

六、试用热敷

热敷是一种传统的中医疗法,可用热敷袋、热水瓶或洗热水澡等方式缓解乳房痛。如果采用冷、热敷交替法,消除乳房不适症效果会更好。

七、防止肥胖

对于过度肥胖的女性,减轻体重将有助于缓解乳房肿痛。

八、用蓖麻油敷胸

蓖麻油含有一种能提升T11淋巴细胞功能的物质,这种淋巴细胞能加速各种感染的复原,去除疼痛。方法是:将蓖麻油滴于折成四层的棉布上,让其沾满蓖麻油,但勿过湿,以免四处滴流。将此布敷于乳房上,盖一层塑胶薄膜,再放上热敷袋。将热敷袋调至你能忍受的热度,敷一小时即可。

九、摄取维生素

饮食中应摄取富含维生素C、钙、镁、及维生素B群的食物。这些维生素有助于调节前列腺素E的制造,同时,少吃人造奶油,因其中的氢化脂肪会干扰体内必需的脂肪酸(来自食物)转化为Y-亚麻油酸(GIA)的能力,而GIA促成前列腺素E的形成,进而抑制催乳激素的产生。

十、远离咖啡

咖啡因是否导致乳房不适­目前尚未证实。但据医学调查发现,许多有乳房痛及其它良性症状的妇女,在戒除咖啡因后,症状有明显的改善。因此,你得全面戒掉咖啡,也就是要对汽水、巧克力、冰淇淋、茶以及含咖啡因的止痛药等完全死心。

十一、切忌滥用药

有的人胡乱吃些消炎药或是抗生素类药来止住乳房胀痛,这是错误和危险的,因为乳房胀痛不能使用局部性的类固醇消炎剂。

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揭开乳房健康的24个小秘密

1、Asymmetry:我的乳房两侧看起来不完全一样?

这个问题其实没有看起来那么严重——大概有很多女性认真审视自己的胸部都会发现左右两边乳房的确有那么点不对称。就像人的左脸与右脸也无法做到完美对称一样。辛苦一点,多做做运动会有所改变。值得警惕的是其中一侧乳房的大小突然发生改变。这往往意味着大麻烦。一旦发现,立即就医!

2、Birth Control Pills:服用避孕药会增加得乳腺癌的风险?

不必担心。美国疾病控制和防治中心在对全美近1万名35岁到64岁之间经常服用避孕药的女性进行追踪研究后,郑重声明,即使长期服用,避孕药物也不会增加女性患乳腺癌的风险。

3、Cancer:乳腺癌的早期症状有哪些?

30岁到40岁之间,女性患乳腺癌的概率是1/250;而在 41岁到50岁之间,概率增长到1/67。不过,随着早期检测技术水平的提高,乳腺癌死亡率较以往已有大幅度下降。请注意以下乳腺癌的早期症候:乳房中产生新的硬块或者增厚;乳房的大小或者形状变化;皮肤粗糙或者起皱纹;乳房皮肤膨胀、变红或者变暖;乳房有痛点且不随月经周期变化;乳房分泌或分泌物中有血;乳头内陷;一侧乳头发痒、疼痛或者角化。

4、Discharge:乳房常常发现有分泌物?

乳房有分泌物是一类常见问题。大多数哺育过的女性在乳头周围受到挤压时都会产生液体。但当下面的情况发生时,您最好去医院检查:没有受到外界刺激,自发出现分泌物;经常出现分泌物,且只出现在一侧乳头;分泌物中有血。乳头有血样的分泌物,是比较严重的问题,45%是乳管内乳突瘤,其他原因包括纤维囊肿、乳管扩张或是怀孕末期症状等等,也有15%的可能是乳腺癌。

5、Exercise:体育运动可使女性患乳腺癌的概率降低40%。

美国Seattle Fred Hucthinson癌症研究中心工作人员、《健美乳房》杂志主编Anne McTiernan博士指出,对于20岁之后参加工作的女性而言,体育运动的效果更加明显。她建议女人们应该每天坚持半个小时的体育锻炼。

6、Flaxseed:亚麻籽对乳房保健也有奇效?

没错。在食品中添加一些亚麻籽粉末能够起到预防乳腺癌的作用。研究表明,连续两个月每天食用10克(一汤勺)亚麻籽能够增加血液中乳腺癌抗体,减少乳腺癌促发比率达31%。

7、Genetics:乳腺癌有很明显的家族遗传倾向。

遗传因素已经被认为是乳腺癌发生的重要原因。如果家族中有人曾经患乳腺癌,那你本身罹患乳腺癌的机会则约为常人的2~3倍。饮食习惯也是乳腺癌重要诱因之一,好食高脂肪类食物的国家,其乳腺癌致病率也较高,因而从饮食观点建议,不妨多食绿色蔬菜、十字花科植物等含纤维质量较多的食物。

8、Hair:不受欢迎的毛发无关紧要。

乳头周围可能会长一些细微的毛发。不必担心,剪掉或者拔掉它就可以了。这只是个小CASE。

9、Imbibe:嗜酒的危险。

每天饮酒超过两次的女性得乳腺癌的可能性将是根本不饮酒女性的两倍。专家指出,酒精不仅会提高雌性激素水平,在乳房细胞中产生更多的荷尔蒙,而且还会破坏免疫系统,而这些都是乳腺癌的诱因。

10、JAVA:戒除喝咖啡的习惯也会有益乳房健康。

如果你有咖啡瘾,最好还是戒掉。根据研究,咖啡因会提高体内氧化水平,咖啡因此也被怀疑为导致乳房痛和乳腺癌的诱因之一。

11、Killing Time: 健康地打发时间。

在繁忙的工作间隙,每天抽出一点时间,做一点适当的扩胸运动不仅仅是为了使胸部的形状更好看,更重要的是能够使胸部的血脉流通,减少患乳房疾病的可能。对于长期伏案工作的职业女性,这一点尤其重要。

12、Lumps:乳房肿瘤 ≠ 乳腺癌

乳房中如果出现圆形、橡胶质感的硬肿块并不意味着一定是癌症。对绝经前的女性而言,乳房肿瘤中恶性和良性的比率是1:12。大多数年轻女性的良性肿瘤都是纤维性瘤。通常情况下,并不需要做手术切除。但是40岁以上的女性如果有明显的肿块(即使经过乳房照相、超声波或者是细胞学检查认为是良性的变化),都应该切除,并做进一步的病理检验,证实是良性的病变才能放心。

13、Mastitis:乳腺炎只是一种常见的细菌感染。

乳腺炎是一种发病率很高的乳腺感染,最常见的就是哺乳期乳腺炎。发病原因是哺乳期女性的乳腺管道堵塞,积留细菌并感染。通常的治疗方法是热敷、冷敷和服用抗生素。

14、Nipples That Itch:乳头瘙痒也是乳腺癌的症状吗?

乳头瘙痒非常讨厌,但如果是两个乳头同时痒,请放心,没有危险。可能的原因是过敏反应或者仅仅是因为皮肤干燥。

15、Ouch:乳房为何会出现不名痛感?

乳房痛并不总是乳腺癌的前兆。如果你的乳房痛,先不必过于紧张,最有可能是乳房上被称做“囊肿”的无害液囊作怪。囊肿的治疗也很简单:用一根针把囊肿刺破,让其中的液体流出,痛感就消失了。乳房疼痛可以分为周期性或者是非周期性。大概有70% 的病人属于周期性。周期性的乳房疼痛一般发生在月经周期到来前7~10天,通常是某一边的乳房比较痛,而且会痛到腋下或者手臂。这种情况通常会持续到停经的时候才会完全消失。而非周期性的乳房疼痛发生的年龄稍稍晚一些,大概都是在35岁到45岁的妇女,多数疼痛二三个月以后自然消失。

16、PMS:经前综合征也会殃及乳房。

如果月经使乳房备感不适,原因可能是体内水分不平衡。有两个方法值得一试:补钙(600毫克/每天两次);服用黄荆(Vitex)或者贞节莓(Chasteberry)。纽约内分泌科专家 Geoffrey Redmond 硕士说:“就所有治疗周期性乳房不适的方法而言,使用黄荆(Vitex)是最令人信服的方法。”

17、Queen- like walking:像女王一样走路?

“像女王一样走路?”没错。如果你观察伊莉莎白女王、戴安娜王妃在公众目光下如何的仪态万方,一定会注意到她们总是保持挺直背脊的姿势。实际上,这不仅是王室礼仪对她们的训练,也是母亲们从少女时就喋喋不休提醒我们的。挺直背脊走路,会适当地分散脊柱所承受的压力,也使乳房腺体组织得以放松,有效减缓乳房下垂。

18、Reduction:乳腺癌手术一定要切除乳房吗?

近年来,因为放射线治疗机器及工艺的进步,早期乳腺癌的治疗已不必切除乳房,多数也不必做化疗,乳腺癌不再等于失去乳房。对于早期乳腺癌的治疗,可以只切除局部肿块及周围部分正常乳腺组织及同侧的腋下淋巴腺,手术以后加以放射线治疗来代替乳房切除的方法。两种不同的治疗方案都有相当好的结果。

19、Sports Bras:运动内衣。

合体的运动内衣不仅会使你运动起来得心应手,更重要的是它能保护你的身体。由于乳房没有骨骼和肌肉的支撑,任何剧烈的运动都会使乳房的组织支撑结构受到震动而下垂,这些甚至还会引起乳房病症。专家推荐:运动时应选择款型设计上强支撑和收束性好的运动内衣。

20、Treatments:一般用于乳腺癌治疗的两种药物。

如今,现代治疗手段的提高使乳腺癌不再是一种闻之色变的绝症。通过应用西药它莫西(Tamoxifen),可以阻断雌性激素对被感染细胞的作用,从而使乳腺癌的死亡率降低50%。初步研究表明,另一种叫anastrozolede的药物也是通过降低体内雌性激素的分泌,来治疗绝经后女性的乳腺癌,效果与它莫西芬一样,甚至副作用更小。

21、Ultrasound:超声波成像检查的使用。

现代医学已经可以用超声波来确定乳房肿瘤的硬肿块,并形成三维图像供研究用。由于亚洲女性乳房内组织较致密,脂肪较少,尤其是年轻妇女,所以更适合用超声波检查。

22、Vigilance:每月一次自查。

每月抽出一点时间,在沐浴之后平躺下来,认真做乳房自我检查。最佳时间则是在生理周期开始之内的7天,或者结束之后第4天。无论如何,关爱自己都是每个聪明女性应有的态度--80%有触感的乳腺肿瘤都是被患者自己发现的。

23、Walk:为了胸前美丽,试试做一个徒步族。

就算是平日忙得不可开交,没有专门的时间做运动,但在日常生活中总有办法增加运动量。好像是搭电梯回家或上班,其实你可以早点出电梯,再徒步走上几层楼到达目的地,又或是早点下车徒步回家,这些已经是很好的运动机会。整个身体的血液流通畅快了,乳房的健康也就有了保障。

24、X-ray Mammography:乳房X光造影并不是检查乳腺癌的完美仪器。

乳房X光造影常常被用来判断乳房是否发生病变,但它的诊断率只有8成左右。利用X光造影做乳腺癌筛检,仍有年龄上的限制。太年轻就每年接受乳房 X光造影,也可能对乳房产生负面影响,在美国,建议35~40岁间每年做一次基础检查;40~50岁每1~2年做一次X光乳房检查;50岁以上每年1次;到了65岁以上则停止筛检。

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更多内容可参看这里:

乳腺疾病
http://www.hudong.com/wiki/%E4%B9%B3%E8%85%BA%E7%96%BE%E7%97%85

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下面顺便附上几篇关于乳房疼痛的英文资料,与JMs一起学习与分享啊!
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Breast Pain

1.What Does Breast Pain Feel Like?

Breast pain may range from mild to severe in intensity, and from an overall ache to a sharp or tingling pain. The breasts may feel full or heavy, and it may be uncomfortable to sleep on your stomach or wear a bra. Tenderness, swelling and lumpiness may come and go with the menstrual cycle. These symptoms are usually felt strongest just before menstruation and improve during or immediately after the cycle

2.Why Do Women Have Breast Pain?

As many as 50% to 70% of women experience breast pain. The most common complaints are premenstrual breast discomfort and lumpy breasts. These are often related to fibrocystic tissue in the breast. This does not increase your risk for developing breast cancer and no treatment is required.

Breasts are affected by changing hormone levels during the menstrual cycle and sometimes during emotional stress. Changes in estrogen and progesterone levels can cause the breasts to feel more lumpy, painful and/or swollen. Lumpiness and/or pain increases in many women as they get older. This may be because women become more sensitive to normal female hormones as they age.

Breast pain may also be caused by cysts, or small pockets of fluid in the breast. Cysts can usually be seen on a mammogram or ultrasound. Most women with lumpy or painful breasts do not have cysts. Their mammograms and ultrasound examinations are usually normal.

3.What Can Be Done About Breast Pain?

Some women find that making certain lifestyle changes can relieve breast pain. Here are some tips:
●Wear a supportive bra, such as a sports bra, 24 hours a day, or when the breasts are most sensitive. This may relieve pain caused by movement of your breasts. Change to a larger bra size if you have breast swelling.
●Heat, such as from a heating pad, warm compress or a bath can provide relief. For some women, using an icepack or cold compress may help.
●Maintain a healthy weight.
●Eat more fruits and vegetables and follow a low-fat diet.
●Reduce the amount of salt you eat, and drink 8 to 10 glasses of caffeine-free fluids a day. This may reduce swelling in your breasts.
●One of the best ways to relieve breast pain is to reduce or eliminate caffeine from your diet (see chart). Eliminate caffeine from the diet for at least 3 to 4 months to see if pain improves.
●Take daily calcium (1,000mg to 1,500mg) and vitamin E (800 I.U.) supplements.
●Take aspirin or Tylenol™.
●Try stress-relieving measures such as regular physical exercise, relaxation techniques and massage.

There is no proven remedy for cyclical breast discomfort. However, the good news is that it is not a sign of breast cancer and usually disappears when menopause begins.

Breast pain that occurs in one particular area and does not change throughout the month can be a danger sign and should not be ignored. Check with your doctor to see if a complete breast examination and mammogram are necessary.

4.Average Caffeine content of common foods, beverages and medications

Coffee          mg/cup
Brewed ground      135
Decaffeinated       5
Drip           164
Instant          95
Percolated        134

Tea           mg/5oz
Herbal          0
1-min brew        21-33
3-min brew        35-46
5-min brew        39-50

Soft drinks       mg/12oz
Barqs Root Beer      22
Coke Classic       34.5
Diet Coke        46.6
Dr. Pepper reg/diet     42
Fanta           0
Fresca          0
Mountain Dew       55
Mr. Pibb         41
Mug Root Beer      0
Pepsi Cola        37.5
Pepsi (sugar free)     36
Sprite          0
7-Up reg/diet       0
Sunkist Orange      42
Tab           45

Drugs          mg/tab
Actifed          0
Anacin          64
Aspirin (generic)      0
Bufferin          0
Contac          0
Dristan          30
Excedrin         130
Midol           64
NoDoz          200
Triaminicin        30
Tylenol          0
Sudafed          0
Vanquish         66
Vivarin          200

Chocolate, cocoa, carob  mg/oz
Baking chocolate      35
Bittersweet chocolate     25
Carob           0
Chocolate milk       6
Cocoa mix drink       1
Ovaltine          1
Sweet/Dark Chocolate    20

Adapted from Levy M, Management of Painful Breasts, Breast Diseases, 1988; 1:65-69
Love S, Lumpy Breasts, The Medical Forum, Nov 1984, PP 3-5
McGinn A, Keeping Abreast, Bull Publishing, 1987

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Breast Pain

●What Causes Breast Pain?
●Evaluating Breast Pain
●Treating Breast Pain
●Breast Pain While Nursing
●Additional Resources and References

Breast pain (mastalgia) is the most common breast related complaint among women; nearly 70% of women experience breast pain at some point in their lives. Breast pain may occur in one or both breasts or in the underarm (axilla) region of the body. The severity of breast pain varies from woman to woman; approximately 15% of women require treatment. Though breast pain is not normally associated with breast cancer, women who experience any breast abnormalities, including breast pain, should consult their physicians.

What Causes Breast Pain?

There are two main types of breast pain:
●Cyclical
●Non-cyclical

Cyclical breast pain is related to how the breast tissue responds to monthly changes in a woman’s estrogen and progesterone hormone levels. If breast pain is accompanied by lumpiness, cysts (accumulated packets of fluid), or areas of thickness, the condition is usually called fibrocystic change. During each menstrual cycle, breast tissue sometimes swells because hormonal stimulation causes the breast’s milk glands and ducts to enlarge, and in turn, the breasts retain water. The breasts may feel swollen, painful, tender, or lumpy a few days before menstruation. Breast pain and swelling usually ends when menstruation is over. The average age of women who have cyclical breast pain is 34 years old. Cyclical breast pain may last for several years but usually stops after menopause unless a woman uses hormone replacement therapy (HRT).

Cyclical breast pain accounts for nearly 75% of all breast complaints. Of all women who experience breast pain, two thirds experience cyclical breast pain. Physicians often have patients chart their pain to determine whether the pain is cyclical. Though cyclical breast pain is usually related to the menstrual cycle, stress may also affect hormone levels and influence breast pain. Physical activity, especially heavy lifting or prolonged use of the arms, has also been shown to increase breast pain (pectoral (chest) muscles may become sore from physical activity).

Non-cyclical breast pain is far less common than cyclical breast pain and is not related to a woman’s menstrual cycle. Women who experience non-cyclical breast pain often experience pain in one specific area of the breast(s). Woman who experience injury or trauma to the breast or those who undergobreast biopsy sometimes experience non-cyclical pain. The condition may occur in both pre-menopausal and post-menopausal women and usually subsides after one to two years. Non-cyclical pain is most common in women between 40 and 50 years of age. Usually, non-cyclical breast pain does not indicate breast cancer, though women should discuss the condition with their physicians.

Another type of non-cyclical pain called costochondritis does not actually occur in the breast; however, the condition may feel as though it is coming from the breast. This type of arthritic pain occurs in the middle of the chest where the ribs and the breast bone connect. Costochondritis may occur as the result of poor posture or aging. Women who experience costochondritis usually describe it as a burning sensation in the breast.

Other factors that may contribute to breast pain in some women include:
●Oral contraceptive pills
●Hormone replacement therapy
●Weight gain
●Bras that do not fit properly
●Tumors (most painful tumors do not usually indicate breast cancer; however, all abnormalities should be examined by a physician. For example, some patients with inflammatory breast cancer describe "stabbing pains" in the breast.)

Evaluating Breast Pain

Women should report all complaints of persistent breast pain to their physicians. Physicians will evaluate the pain, taking into account the woman’s personal history, family history, the area of pain, the intensity and duration of the pain, and the extent to which the pain interferes with her lifestyle.

Physicians will also perform clinical breast examinations, and if necessary, order additional breast imaging exams (such as mammography or ultrasound) to help determine whether the pain is related to another breast condition or possibly cancer. If no breast abnormality is indicated, the physician and woman should decide together whether drug treatment is necessary.

Treating Breast Pain

Most women with moderate breast pain are not treated with medications or surgical procedures. The following suggestions have been shown to reduce breast pain in some women (although there is not sufficient scientific evidence to establish the effectiveness of any of these suggestions):
●Wear a good, supportive bra to reduce breast movement. Many women with breast pain find it comfortable to also wear a bra while they sleep.
●Limit sodium intake.
●Reduce caffeine intake (coffee, tea, soft drinks, chocolate).
●Maintain a low fat diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and grains.
●Maintain an ideal weight. Losing excess weight may reduce breast pain by stabilizing hormone levels.
●Occasionally use over-the-counter pain-relief drugs such aspirin, acetaminophen, or Motrin.
●Take vitamins. Some women have found that taking Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), Vitamin B1 (thiamine), and Vitamin E relieves breast pain.
●Try evening primrose oil. Some women have found that regular consumption of the herb, evening primrose oil, in liquid or tablet form reduces breast pain.
●Cyst aspiration. Physicians sometimes drain benign (non-cancerous), fluid-filled cysts to relieve breast pain. It may not be possible to drain very small cysts.
●Relax. Some breast pain can be caused by stress and may subside by reducing anxiety and tension.

If breast pain is severe and interferes with a woman’s daily activities, further treatment may be necessary. Diuretics, substances that remove excess fluid from the body in the form of urine, are the most commonly prescribed treatment for persistent, non-cyclical breast pain. The release of fluid in the body helps decrease breast pain and swelling.

Drug treatments for severe breast pain include:
●danazol
●bromocriptine

Bromocriptine and danazol both relieve cyclical breast pain by blocking certain hormones (such as estrogen and progesterone). However, these drugs may cause serious side effects in some women. Bromocriptine is poorly tolerated by many patients; side effects include nausea, dizziness, and fertility problems. Side effects of danazol may include weight gain, amenorrhea (absence of menstruation), and masculinization (such as extra facial hair) when given high doses. Other drugs, such as tamoxifen or goserelin, have been shown to have some effect on cyclical breast pain; however, these drugs are presently only approved for use in women with breast pain in the United Kingdom.

In cases where non-cyclical pain occurs only in a specific area of the breast (localized pain), physicians may choose to inject anesthetics or corticosteriods in this "target area" to relieve the pain. In very rare cases, the painful area may be surgically removed. However, surgery usually leads to increased breast pain, and some women may develop non-cyclical breast pain at the site of previous surgeries on the breast.

Breast Pain While Nursing

While 80% of women experience mild breast pain during the first few days of breast-feeding, pain usually subsides within a few weeks. Chronic breast pain during nursing should be reported to a certified lactation consultant for clinical evaluation.

Persistent breast pain while nursing may result from:
●Improper positioning. Leaning over the baby can lead to breast and back pain.
●Engorgement. Engorgement is a build-up of fluids that occurs as milk converts from colostrum (nutrient produced during the first few days after birth) to mature milk. Engorgement is a temporary condition (lasting approximately 12 to 24 hours) and is most common during the first few weeks after pregnancy. If the breasts are becoming swollen, physicians recommend breast-feeding to avoid engorgement.
●Strong milk ejection reflexes. The actual process of expelling milk from the breast is called milk-ejection reflex. Milk is ejected from the breast into the baby’s mouth. Normally, women feel a mild tingling sensation during milk ejection. However, some women have strong milk ejection reflexes and experience a painful tingling or stinging sensation during breast-feeding. This usually subsides after the first few weeks of nursing.
●Nipple blanching (also called vasospasm). The nipples turn white during and often in between breast-feeding. Many women report burning sensations in the nipples. Nipple blanching may be relieved with warm compresses and good breast support.
●Mastitis. This benign (non-cancerous) condition is common among women who breast-feed. Cracking of the skin around the nipple allows bacteria from the skin surface to enter the breast duct where it grows and attracts inflammatory cells. Inflammatory cells release substances to fight the infection but also cause breast tissue swelling and increased blood flow. Breasts infected with mastitis often swell, become red in color, and feel warm to the touch. Nasopharyngeal organisms from the infant's mouth, sinuses and other air passages are usually the source of breast infections in lactating women. Physicians recommend keeping the breast empty of milk helps to drain the culture medium (environment and food source) that is facilitating growth of organisms. Breast-feeding with mastitis is generally not harmful to the infant and may actually help speed up recovery. Mastitis is also treated with antibiotics.

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Breast Pain: Mastitis or IBC?

Breast Pain

Women frequently complain about breast pain (mastalgia). But what is causing it?

Most commonly, breast pain is related to the menstrual cycle and hormone level fluctuations or with use of hormone replacement therapy. If symptoms include pain with lumpiness, cysts or thickened areas, we generally refer to this as fibrocystic change.

Breast pain can (in many, but not all cases) be caused by
●birth control pills
●breastfeeding
●breast infection/mastitis
●breast injury
●costochondritis (an arthritic pain occurring in the middle of the chest, but may feel like a burning sensation in the breast)
●hormone changes during your period
●hormone replacement therapy
●ill-fitting bras
●inflammatory breast cancer
●physical activity
●pregnancy
●thrush (an overgrowth of yeast)
●tumors
●weight gain

Your health care practitioner will ask questions to rule out the above causes. If the doctor diagnoses mastitis, antibiotics are usually prescribed. Mastitis is a breast infection occurring in the milk ducts.

Symptoms of Mastitis
●breast enlargement (one side only)
●breast pain
●enlarged lymph nodes in the armpit
●fever
●flu-like symptoms
●itching
●lump
●nipple discharge
●redness
●swelling

Symptoms of inflammatory breast cancer are similar to those of mastitis; however, fever is not generally a sign of inflammatory breast cancer.

Tests may be ordered to help with the diagnosis and include mammogram, sonogram, and/or biopsy. Remember, you do not have to have a lump to have breast cancer and a mammogram may not detect inflammatory breast cancer.

If You Are Breastfeeding

Mastitis can occur when you are not breastfeeding; however it is more likely in a breastfeeding mother. In most cases, doctors agree that nursing should continue, because stopping may worsen symptoms of mastitis and delay healing. If antibiotics do not clear up your symptoms, you may not have mastitis, and you may require further testing. Although screening mammograms are not generally performed, a diagnostic mammogram read by an experienced radiologist and/or a biopsy can help in the diagnosis of breastfeeding women.

We need to emphasize that any breast changes such as pain, swelling, dimpling, redness, or thickening of the skin need to be brought to the attention of your heath care practitioner.

Resources

* Imaginis.com Fact Sheet on Breast Pain http://www.imaginis.com/breasthealth/breast_pain.asp
* Information from Medline on Breast Pain http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003152.htm
* Information from Medline on Breast Infections http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001490.htm
* For information on treating mastitis while breastfeeding http://www.lalecheleague.org/FAQ/mastitis.html
* Information on Breast Health, Breast Cancer, Biopsy http://www.lalecheleague.org/ba/May01.html
* Information on Thrush and Breastfeeding http://www.lalecheleague.org/FAQ/thrush.html

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Breast Pain or Tenderness

Breast Pain Considerations

There are many possible causes for breast pain. For example, hormonal fluctuations related to menstruation or pregnancy are often responsible for breast tenderness. Some degree of swelling and tenderness just before your period is normal. The question is how tolerable (or intolerable) the discomfort is to you.

Although many women with pain in one or both breasts understandably fear breast cancer, breast pain is NOT a common symptom of cancer.

Boys and men have breast tissue. If a male has breast tissue that is visible, this is called gynecomastia. As a normal part of development, adolescent boys can have some breast swelling and tenderness. Like breast tenderness in women, this is due to hormonal changes.

Breast Pain Common Causes

Some degree of breast tenderness is normal, caused by hormonal fluctuations from:
●Menstruation
●Pregnancy -- tends to be more common during the first trimester and pregnancy at a young age
●Puberty -- in both girls and boys
●Breast feeding
●Approach of menopause (once your menstrual periods have stopped completely, breast tenderness often goes away unless you are taking hormone replacement therapy)

Soon after childbirth, your breasts may become engorged with milk. This can be very painful and is usually accompanied by swelling. If you also have an area of redness, call your health care provider.

Other common causes of breast pain include:
●Fibrocystic breast changes
●Mastitis -- a blocked and infected milk duct that may have some redness, usually associated with breastfeeding
●Premenstrual syndrome (PMS)
●Alcoholism with liver damage
●Injury

Fibrocystic breast tissue is a common condition. It involves breast lumps and bumps throughout the breast tissue that tend to be more tender just before your menstrual period.

Certain medications may also cause breast pain, including digitalis preparations, aldomet, aldactone and other potassium-sparing diuretics, anadrol, and chlorpromazine.

Shingles can lead to pain felt in the breast if the painful blistering rash appears on the skin over one of your breasts.

Breast Pain Home Care

For tips on how to manage pain from fibrocystic breasts, see breast lumps.

Talk to your doctor about possibly taking birth control pills. These can help relieve pain.

If you have a breast infection, you will need antibiotics. Look for signs of infection like localized redness, nipple discharge, or fever. Contact your doctor if you have these signs.

Just after an injury to the breast occurs, apply a cold compress such as an ice pack (wrapped in a cloth -- don't apply directly to the skin) for 15 to 20 minutes. Take a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as ibuprofen to reduce the likelihood of developing persistent breast pain or swelling.

Call your health care provider if

Call your doctor if you have:
●Discharge from your nipples, especially blood or pus
●Given birth within the last week and your breasts are swollen or hard
●Signs of a breast infection, including localized redness, pus, or fever
●Noticed a new lump associated with the pain that does not go away after your menstrual period
●Persistent, unexplained breast pain

What to expect at your health care provider's office

Your health care provider will perform a breast examination and ask questions about your breast pain, such as:
●How long have you had the symptoms?
●Are one or both of your breasts affected?
●Do you have any nipple discharge?
●Do you perform breast self-examination?
●Have you noticed any lumps or anything unusual when you examine your breasts?
●When was your last mammogram?
●What other symptoms are present? Do you have fever?
●What medication are you currently taking?

Diagnostic tests that may be performed include the following:
●Breast biopsy
●Culture of nipple discharge to test for infection
●Cytology (microscopic evaluation) of nipple discharge
●Mammography
●Fine needle aspiration -- a small needle is inserted into the breast to remove fluid that may have collected in a cyst (usually not cancerous)

Treatment may include the following:
●Pain relievers may be prescribed.
●Changes to your diet may be suggested.
●Certain medications may be changed or discontinued.

Your health care provider should schedule a follow-up visit in case the symptoms have not resolved in a given period of time. He or she may recommend consultation with a specialist if the symptoms do not go away or if you have a complicated condition.

Breast Pain Prevention

Wear a well-fitting brassiere for support, especially if your breasts are large.

Perform a monthly breast self-exam 3-5 days after your period (when the breast tissue is the least tender). This is important to feel for any changes in your breast tissue. If you detect any change from the previous month, it is important to notify your doctor.

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Breast Pain: Cyclical and Noncyclical
Understand And Recognize Two Main Types of Breast Pain
By Pam Stephan, About.com Guide
Created February 28, 2011

Breast pain can be anything from a vague feeling of tenderness, to a dull ache, to a constant, throbbing pain. Episodes of breast pain may come on a regular schedule, may happen only once, or may endure for long periods of time. Most cases of breast cancer are not associated with breast pain. You may have heard breast pain referred to as mastodynia, mastalgia, mammalgia, or mastitis. Here are the two main types of breast pain.

Cyclical Breast Pain

Cyclical breast pain happens during a woman's menstrual cycle. A range of sensations in both breasts can accompany the hormonal ebb and flow that a premenopausal woman normally experiences. Those of us who have had premenstrual syndrome -- PMS -- know the feeling of achy, swelling breasts that starts before your period and goes on until your menses have stopped. Cyclical breast pain can be due to fibrocystic breast changes, but may also be due to mammary duct ectasia -- two benign breast conditions.

Noncyclical Breast Pain

Noncyclical breast pain is also known as trigger zone pain. With noncyclical breast pain, you will feel pain in one specific area, and it will be unrelated to your menstrual cycle. This noncyclical breast pain may occur in only one breast, but may affect both breasts. This kind of pain also varies in intensity and may be caused not by hormones, but by illness or injury; internal changes brought on by pregnancy, weight gain, or breast surgery; or certain medications. Hormonal medications, such as HRT or birth control pills, will cause changes in your breast sensitivity. Wearing an ill-fitting bra can cause breast pain, but it won't cause breast cancer. In only 5 out of 100 cases of cancer, pain is linked to a breast tumor.

Pain Near Your Breast

Your breasts rest on your chest wall muscles and ribs. Breasts are threaded through with nerves, blood vessels and connective tissues. If you feel noncyclical pain in the middle of your chest, it may be due to arthritis -- try some ibuprofen for the pain. Sometimes you may pull a muscle in your chest and pain will appear beneath one breast. Again, this isn't breast pain, and should fade as the muscle recovers. Nerves can get pinched, veins can become inflamed, but anti-inflammatory medications can help resolve this pain.

How To Handle Breast Pain

If you are premenopausal, you can understand the nature of your breast pain by keeping a chart of your cycle and tracking your pain. Review the chart to see if you have cyclical or noncyclical breast pain. See your doctor if your pain persists in order to have a clinical breast exam and get proper medications or treatments if those are needed. And if your body and breasts have changed, perhaps it is time for a bra fitting session and some pretty, supportive, new bras.

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Breast Pain: Should You Worry?
Thursday March 31, 2011
Painful Breast
Art © Sebastian Kaulitzki

Breast pain in the era of Pink Ribbon Awareness campaigns is really disturbing. Most of us instantly worry, "Is my breast pain a symptom of breast cancer?" Even men with breast pain may get worried about their own breast health. Pain in both breasts or a sharp pain in just one breast may send us scurrying to the bathroom to do a quick breast self exam. Suddenly every little bump, bruise, and hair follicle on your breast skin seems ominous and important.

Even when we've heard the statistics about 80% of all breast lumps being benign, when a lump or bump or odd rash is bothering our own breasts, its very hard to remain calm. So take a deep breath and slow down, because I have good news for you. Most breast pain is not related to breast cancer. There are many benign breast conditions - many of which can cause breast tenderness, aching, swelling, lumps, shooting pain, and even nipple discharge. Once you figure out if your breast pain may be hormonal or non cyclical, you can use some home care to alleviate the pain - or you can call your doctor for help.

But the flip side of the good news is the bad news: since breast cancer rarely causes pain, it can sneak up on you, if you aren't aware of your breast health, or you aren't being regular about your self-exams and annual screenings. That is why you need to know about your family health history, your personal risk factors, and what healthy choices you can make to reduce your risk. So its okay to have breast pain, if you take care to treat your breasts right. Get your doctor's help when home care doesn't reduce your breast pain, and remember that those twinges and tenderness most likely are not breast cancer.

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Breast Pain And Breast Cancer Risk
By Pam Stephan, About.com Guide
Created March 31, 2011

When you frequently experience breast pain, you might wonder if it raises your risk for breast cancer. Breast pain, or mastalgia, is very common and is often related to benign causes. Having hormonal breast pain or discomfort related to fibrocystic tissue or breast infections does not raise your breast cancer risk.

Hormones And Breast Pain:
Between puberty and menopause, most women have some cyclical breast pain and tenderness as hormone levels change. At menopause, when your menstrual periods end, most breast pain also ceases. Your ovaries will produce lower levels of estrogen during menopause, which results in less swelling and tenderness in your breasts and tummy. Menopausal breast pain is noncyclical and usually hurts in only one breast. Noncyclical breast pain is not hormonal and can be caused by illness, injury, weight gain or certain medications.

Breast Pain Doesn't Always Mean Breast Cancer:
At the Breast Care Center of University Hospital, Syracuse, New York, researchers did a study with 5463 women who visited their clinic. There were 861 of these women who were diagnosed with breast cancer, and of that group, only 14% of those women reported any breast pain. The majority of women who complained of breast pain did not have breast cancer. Having breast pain is uncomfortable and upsetting, but it is rarely a sign of breast cancer, and seldom increases cancer risk.

Painful Benign Breast Conditions And Cancer Risk:
Certain benign breast conditions can cause breast pain, but these have a very small impact on your risk for developing breast cancer. These breast conditions are made of non-proliferative cells, which grow and divide at a normal rate.

Benign Breast Conditions With Low Risk:
Causes pain and affects breast cancer risk over normal: Very Slight Increase

Non-proliferative cells - normal rate of cell growth and division

* Abscess beneath areola or within breast tissue
* Ductal ectasia - blocked milk duct, sometimes with nipple discharge
* Fat necrosis - fatty tissue that has died and become thick or hard
* Fibrocystic changes - cyclical symmetrical swelling and tenderness
* Mastitis - breast infection
* Sebaceous cyst with infection - bump below skin containing keratin
* Simple fibroadenoma - lump made of fibrous and lobular tissue

Benign Breast Conditions With Moderate Risk:
Causes pain and raises risk over normal: 150 - 200% Increase
Proliferative cells without atypia - faster than normal rate of cell growth with no abnormal cells

* Complex fibroadenoma - lump made of mixed fibrous and lobular tissue, cysts, lobes, etc.
* Multiple fibroadenomas - two or more simple fibroadenomas
* Radial scar - a star-shaped dense mass within breast (rare)

Fibroadenomas and scar tissue can be removed with surgery or non-invasive ablation by laser, freezing, radio waves, or vacuum. A breast fibroadenoma must be diagnosed with a breast biopsy, so the cells can be tested to rule out other conditions.

Benign Breast Conditions With Heightened Risk:
Causes pain and raises risk greatly: 4 to 5 Times Normal
Proliferative with atypia - faster than normal rate of cell growth and having abnormal cells

* Atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH)
* Atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH)

Hyperplasia is a benign condition in which cells grow faster than normal. Atypical hyperplasia is considered a precancerous condition. Atypical cells are abnormal and have the potential to develop into noninvasive breast cancer, such as ductal carcinoma in situ. Discuss the benefits of surgically removing any atypical hyperplasia with your doctor.
Benign Sources of Breast Pain:

Other sources of breast pain that do not increase cancer risk:

* Breast injury
* Healing from breast surgery

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Breast Cancer Pain: Symptoms and Statistics
By Pam Stephan, About.com Guide
Created March 22, 2011

Feeling Breast Pain:
Breast pain is usually not a sign of breast cancer. In fact, many of us who are diagnosed with breast cancer after a suspicious mammogram are shocked - we had no breast pain, so how could something be wrong? The truth is that breast cancer is a rather sneaky disease that hides within breast tissue, using your body's resources to grow and thrive. Breast cancer doesn't usually begin by causing breast pain, but if gets beyond a certain point, it can become painful.

Most Breast Pain Is Benign:
Breast pain, or mastalgia, happens only rarely with breast cancer. Most of the time, breast pain happens along with your menstrual cycle, but it can also be linked to benign non-hormonal causes. Breast cysts, fibroadenomas or blocked milk ducts can cause pain - but even though that pain can seem awful, it isn't life threatening.

Breast Cancer Pain Statistics:
A breast tumor - a hard clump of breast cancer cells - usually doesn't cause breast pain unless it reaches the size of 2 centimeters (almost 0.8 inches) in diameter. But a tumor can be larger than 2 cm and still not cause pain. In fact, only about 5 to 15% of women newly diagnosed with breast cancer complain of breast pain. Only 7% of those diagnosed with breast cancer seek a doctor because of breast pain, excluding other symptoms.

How Breast Cancer Pain May Feel:
If breast cancer is the cause of breast pain, it may occur only in one breast. Breast cancer pain can be persistent and very specific, always hurting in just one spot. But, breast cancer can be present in your breast before it causes pain. If you have other symptoms of breast cancer, such as nipple retraction, sudden swelling of your breast, or sudden skin changes, consult your doctor for a clinical breast exam.

Metastatic Breast Cancer Pain:
When cancer does cause breast pain, breast tumors over 2 cm in size could be the cause, but it could also come from symptoms of inflammatory or metastatic breast cancer. If cancer spreads to your bones, brain or spinal cord, it may cause bone pain, headaches, or back pain with leg weakness. In case breast cancer travels to the adrenal glands, you may feel a dull back pain. If it spreads to the liver, you could have pain in the upper right part of the abdomen.

When to See Your Doctor:
If you have been diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer, be sure to report pain symptoms to your doctor and get them checked out. Cancer pain can often be alleviated with treatments; so don't be shy about complaining. Sometimes a headache is just a headache, and other pains are due to arthritis and similar causes. Pain is a signal of some type of change, so investigate it and get a proper diagnosis.

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