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转几篇关于Flu Shot及猪流感(Swine Flu)的文章
作者:home99
发表时间:2009-10-03
更新时间:2009-10-03
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写给准妈妈1
宝宝护理与成长3
写给准妈妈3
为人父母3
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为人处世
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为人父母2
写给准妈妈2
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写给新妈妈
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异国他乡

Flu Shot又开始了,恐怕有不少JM和我一样有疑虑,特别是准妈妈和哺乳妈妈,对其安全性及有效性可能更为关切。我来美不久就听说过Flu的厉害,怀小宝时虽说过了前3个月也打了flu shot,但还是感冒了数月,并不象在国内一两周就能好,感觉可以重复或交叉感染似的,所以JMs千万不要等闲视之啊。

看到的几篇关于FLU(Seasonal Flu,季节性流感)及Swine Flu (猪流感)的文章,觉得可能回答了不少我们所关心的问题,贴出来供JMs参考啊!

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★ Prepare the flu with these tips:

1. Get Your Flu shot
2. Avoid close contact with people who are sick - stay at arms length
3. Stay home when you are sick
4. Cover your mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing
5. Avoid touching eyes, nose, and mouth
6. Wash hands often and follow good hand washing techniques
7. Carry hand sanitizer for use in public places (i.e. stair rails,
doorknobs, public transportation, grocery stores, etc.)
8. Keep over-the-counter pain reliever/ fever reducer on hand (check
expiration dates on products in your home, and replace products that have
expired).
9. Practice good health habits: get enough sleep, drink plenty of fluids, be
physically active, and eat a healthy, well-balanced diet.

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★ There are things you need know about Swine Flu.

H1N1 Flu (Swine Flu)

Things you need to know:
1. How you can prevent H1N1 flu (swine flu)
2. What antiviral drugs are available
3. Learn the warning signs
4. H1N1 Flu (swine flu), what you should know (FAQs)

Human cases of H1N1 influenza (a.k.a. swine flu) have been found throughout
the United States as well as internationally. On June 11, 2009 the World
Health Organization (WHO) raised the worldwide pandemic alert level to phase
6, the highest level. H1N1 flu infections have been reported in over 70
countries worldwide. The CDC will continue to take aggressive action to
respond to this outbreak.

The symptoms of H1N1 flu in people are similar to the symptoms of regular
human flu and include fever, cough, sore throat, body aches, headache,
chills and fatigue. Some people have reported diarrhea and vomiting
associated with H1N1 flu. Like seasonal flu, H1N1 flu may cause a worsening
of underlying chronic medical conditions.

1. Everyday healthy actions you can do to help prevent H1N1 flu (swine flu)
include:
● Wash your hands with soap and water often, especially after you cough or
sneeze. An alcohol based hand sanitizer can also be used.
● Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you cough or sneeze and
discard of the tissue in the trash.
● Avoid touching your eyes, nose, or mouth as germs can spread easily that
way.
● Avoid contact with those who are sick as influenza is thought to be
mainly spread from person-to-person through coughing and sneezing of those
who are infected
● If you’re sick, stay home from school or work to keep others from
getting infected.

2. There are antiviral drugs that are available to treat H1N1 flu (swine flu
) and prevent infection with H1N1 flu virus. The two antiviral drugs that
are effective in treating H1N1 flu are Tamiflu® (oseltamivir) and
Relenza® (zanamivir).
● If you are already sick with H1N1 flu, these antiviral drugs can make
your symptoms milder and help you feel better faster.
● If you have been in contact with the H1N1 flu virus, these antiviral
drugs can help prevent you from getting H1N1 flu.

Both antiviral medications must be prescribed by a healthcare practitioner.
To find out how MinuteClinic can help keep your family safe, click here.
http://www.minuteclinic.com/swineflu

3. If you get sick and have any of the following warning signs you should
seek emergency medical care:

In children emergency warning signs that need urgent medical attention
include:
● Fast breathing or trouble breathing
● Bluish skin color
● Not drinking enough fluids
● Not waking up or not interacting
● Being so irritable that the child does not want to be held
● Flu-like symptoms improve but then return with fever and worse cough
● Fever with a rash

In adults, emergency warning signs that need urgent medical attention
include:
● Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
● Pain or pressure in the chest or abdomen
● Sudden dizziness
● Confusion
● Severe or persistent vomiting

4. H1N1 Flu (swine flu), what you should know (FAQs)
● What is H1N1 flu (swine flu)?
● How widespread is H1N1 flu (swine flu)?
● Is H1N1 flu (swine flu) contagious?
● What are the symptoms?
● Will the flu vaccine I got this year protect me from H1N1 flu (swine flu)
?
● What medicines are available to treat H1N1 flu (swine flu) ?
● How can I protect myself?
● Can people catch swine flu from eating pork?
● What is being done on a national level to prevent H1N1 flu (swine flu) ?
● Is it ok to travel?

● What is H1N1 flu (swine flu)?

H1N1 flu (swine flu) is a disease that usually affects pigs, although some
human cases have been reported.

● How widespread is H1N1 flu (swine flu)?

H1N1 flu infections have been reported in over 70 countries
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is continuing to
monitor for additional cases and will update their website daily. (http://www.cdc.gov/flu/swine)

● Is H1N1 flu (swine flu) contagious?

The CDC has found that this virus is contagious and is spreading from human
to human. However, at this time, it not known how easily the virus spreads
between people.
Persons with H1N1 flu (swine flu) should be considered potentially
contagious for up to 7 days after getting sick. Children, especially younger
children, might potentially be contagious longer.

● What are the symptoms?

Symptoms are similar to human influenza with fever, body aches, decreased
appetite, cough, runny nose, and sore throat. A couple of patients also
reported diarrhea and vomiting.

● Will the flu vaccine I got this year protect me from H1N1 flu (swine flu)
?

It is not known if this year's influenza vaccine will protect against H1N1
flu (swine flu).

● What medicines are available to treat H1N1 flu (swine flu)?
The CDC recommends that patients with H1N1 flu (swine flu) be treated with
the same medicines we currently use to treat human flu. (Tamiflu and Relenza
are recommended)

●What You Can Do to Stay Healthy

* Stay informed. This website will be updated regularly as information
becomes available.
* Influenza is thought to spread mainly person-to-person through coughing or
sneezing of infected people.
* Take everyday actions to stay healthy.
――Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze. Throw
the tissue in the trash after you use it.
――Wash your hands often with soap and water, especially after you cough or
sneeze. Alcohol-based hands cleaners are also effective.
――Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth. Germs spread that way.
――Stay home if you get sick. CDC recommends that you stay home from work
or school and limit contact with others to keep from infecting them.
* Follow public health advice regarding school closures, avoiding crowds and
other social distancing measures.
* Find healthy ways to deal with stress and anxiety.
* Call 1-800-CDC-INFO for more information.

● Can people catch swine flu from eating pork?

No. H1N1 influenza viruses are not transmitted through food. Eating properly
handled and cooked pork and pork products is safe. Cooking pork to an
internal temperature of 160°F kills bacteria and viruses.

● What is being done on a national level to prevent H1N1 flu (swine flu)?

The CDC, and other state agencies such as the California Department of
Public Health, and the Texas Department of Health and Human Services are:
* Investigating close contacts of all patients to determine whether person-
to-person spread has occurred.
* Testing viruses from identified H1N1 flu (swine flu) patients for
resistance to antiviral medications.
* Enhancing surveillance for H1N1 flu (swine flu)
* The World Health Organization (WHO) and the Global Alert and Response
Network (GOARN) are sending experts to Mexico to work with health
authorities as well.

● Is it ok to travel?

CDC travel advisories can be viewed at http://wwwn.cdc.gov/travel/

● For more information, visit the Center for Disease Control and Prevention
http://www.cdc.gov/swineflu/

● View information about the Swine Flu from the U.S. on the Centers for
Disease Control and Prevention.
http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/

● View information about planning and preparing from PandemicFlu.gov.
http://www.pandemicflu.gov/

● View International information from the World Health Organization.
http://www.who.int/csr/disease/swineflu/en/index.html

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★ 2009 H1N1 Influenza Vaccine and Pregnant Women (FAQs)

General Public

Q: Why does CDC recommend that pregnant women receive the 2009 H1N1
influenza vaccine?
A. It is important for a pregnant woman to receive the 2009 H1N1 influenza
vaccine as well as a seasonal influenza vaccine. A pregnant woman who gets
any type of flu is at risk for serious complications and hospitalization.
Pregnant women who are otherwise healthy have been severely impacted by the
2009 H1N1 influenza virus (formerly called “novel H1N1 flu” or “swine flu
”). In comparison to the general population, a greater proportion of
pregnant women infected with the 2009 H1N1 influenza virus have been
hospitalized. In addition, severe illness and death has occurred in
pregnant women. Six percent of confirmed fatal 2009 H1N1 flu cases thus far
have been in pregnant women while only about 1% of the general population is
pregnant. While hand washing, staying away from ill people, and other steps
can help to protect pregnant women from influenza, vaccination is the
single best way to protect against the flu.

Q: Is there a particular kind of flu vaccine that pregnant women should get?
Are there flu vaccines that pregnant women should not get?
A. There are two type of flu vaccine. Pregnant women should get the "flu
shot"— an inactivated vaccine (containing fragments of killed influenza
virus) that is given with a needle, usually in the arm. The flu shot is
approved for use in pregnant women.
The other type of flu vaccine — nasal-spray flu vaccine (sometimes called
LAIV for “live attenuated influenza vaccine)—is not currently approved for
use in pregnant women. This vaccine is made with live, weakened flu
viruses that do not cause the flu). LAIV (FluMist®) is approved for use
in healthy* people 2-49 years of age who are not pregnant.

Q. Will the seasonal flu vaccine also protect against the 2009 H1N1 flu?
A. The seasonal flu vaccine is not expected to protect against the 2009 H1N1
flu. Similarly, the 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine will not protect against
seasonal influenza.

Q. Can the seasonal influenza vaccine and the 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine be
given at the same time?
A. It is anticipated that seasonal flu and 2009 H1N1 vaccines may be
administered on the same day but given at different sites (e.g. one shot in
the left arm and the other shot in the right arm). However, we expect the
seasonal vaccine to be available earlier than the 2009 H1N1 influenza
vaccine. The usual seasonal influenza viruses are still expected to cause
illness this fall and winter. Pregnant women and others at increased risk of
complications of influenza are encouraged to get their seasonal flu vaccine
as soon as it is available.

Q: Is the 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine safe for pregnant women?
A: Influenza vaccines have not been shown to cause harm to a pregnant woman
or her baby. The seasonal flu shot (injection) is proven as safe and
already recommended for pregnant women. The 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine will
be made using the same processes and facilities that are used to make
seasonal influenza vaccines.

Q: What safety studies have been done on the 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine
and have any been done in pregnant women?

A: A number of clinical trials which test 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine in
healthy children and adults are underway. These studies are being conducted
by the National Institutes of Allergies and Infectious Diseases (NIAID).
Studies of 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine in pregnant women are expected to
begin in September.

Q: Does the 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine have preservative in it?
A: There is no evidence that thimerosal (used as a preservative in vaccine
packaged in multi-dose vials) is harmful to a pregnant woman or a fetus.
However, because some women are concerned about exposure to preservatives
during pregnancy, manufacturers will produce preservative-free seasonal and
2009 H1N1 influenza vaccines in single dose syringes for pregnant women and
small children. CDC recommends that pregnant women may receive influenza
vaccine with or without thimerosal.

Q. How many doses of the 2009 H1N1 flu vaccine will pregnant women need to
get?
A. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the use of one
dose of 2009 H1N1 flu vaccine for persons 10 years of age and older.

In addition to protecting pregnant women from infection, infants less than 6
months old will not be able to be vaccinated so it is recommended that
everyone who lives with or provides care for infants less than 6 months of
age receive both the seasonal influenza vaccine and 2009 H1N1 influenza
monovalent vaccine to provide protection for the infant. One recent study
conducted in Bangladesh, assessed the effectiveness of influenza
immunization for mothers and their young infants. Inactivated influenza
vaccine reduced proven influenza illness by 63% in infants up to 6 months of
age. This study confirmed that maternal influenza immunization is a
strategy with substantial benefits for both mothers and infants.

Q: Should the 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine be given to someone who has had
an influenza- like illness since between April and now? Do I need a test to
know if I need the vaccine or not?
A. There is no test that can show whether a person had 2009 H1N1 influenza
in the past. Many different infections, including influenza, can cause
influenza-like symptoms such as cough, sore throat and fever. In addition,
infection with one strain of influenza virus will not provide protection
against other strains. People for whom influenza vaccine is recommended
should receive the 2009 H1N1 vaccine, even if they had an influenza-like
illness previously. It is not necessary to test a person who previously had
an influenza-like illness. People for whom the 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine
is recommended should receive it, even if they have had an influenza-like
illness previously, unless they can be certain they had 2009 H1N1 influenza
based on a laboratory test that can specifically detect 2009 H1N1 viruses.
CDC recommends that persons who were tested for 2009 H1N1 influenza discuss
this issue with a healthcare provider to see if the test they had was either
an RT-PCR or a viral culture that showed 2009 H1N1 influenza. There is no
harm in being vaccinated if you had 2009 H1N1 influenza in the past.

Q: What are the possible side effects of the 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine?
A. The side effects from 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine are expected to be
similar to those from seasonal flu vaccines. The most common side effects
following vaccination are expected to be mild, such as soreness, redness,
tenderness or swelling where the shot was given. Some people might
experience headache, muscle aches, fever, nausea and fainting. If these
problems occur, they usually begin soon after the shot and may last as long
as 1-2 days. Like any medicines, vaccines can cause serious problems like
severe allergic reactions. However life-threatening allergic reactions to
vaccines are very rare. In 1976, an earlier type of swine flu vaccine was
associated with cases of a severe paralytic illness called Guillain-Barre
Syndrome (GBS) at a rate of approximately 1 case of GBS per 100,000 persons
vaccinated. Some studies done since 1976 have shown a small risk of GBS in
persons who received the seasonal influenza vaccine. This risk is estimated
to be no more than 1 case of GBS per 1 million persons vaccinated. Since
then, flu vaccines have not been clearly linked to GBS. GBS has a number of
different causes, and GBS can occur in a person who has never received an
influenza vaccine. The potential benefits of influenza vaccination in
preventing serious illness, hospitalization, and death substantially
outweigh these estimates of risk for vaccine-associated GBS.

Anyone who has a severe (life-threatening) allergy to eggs or to any other
substance in the vaccine should not get the vaccine. People should always
inform their immunization provider if they have any severe allergies, if
they’ve ever had a severe allergic reaction following flu vaccination, or
if they have ever had GBS.

Q. Can the family members of a pregnant woman receive the nasal spray
vaccine?
A. Pregnant women should not receive the live nasal spray influenza vaccine
but family and household members and other close contacts of pregnant women
(including healthcare personnel) who are 2 through 49 years old, healthy*
and not pregnant may receive live nasal spray vaccine.

Q. Can a pregnant healthcare worker administer the live nasal influenza
vaccine?
A. Yes. No special precautions are (such as gloves) are necessary. Hands
should be washed or cleaned with waterless hand sanitizer before and after
administering the vaccine or having any direct contact with patients in a
health care setting.

Healthcare Providers

Q. Where can healthcare providers obtain 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine?
A. The CDC will be distributing the 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccine to each
state. If healthcare providers want to provide H1N1 vaccine directly to
their patients, they can contact their local health department to obtain
H1N1 vaccine. Information to direct providers interested in obtaining
vaccine to appropriate public health contacts in their state is available.

Q. How will healthcare providers obtain other supplies necessary for
vaccination?
A. The vaccine will be distributed with a kit which will contain needles,
syringes, sharps containers and alcohol swabs.

Q. How much does the vaccine cost?
A. The vaccine will be provided free; however, healthcare providers may
bill for vaccine administration.

Q. Where can healthcare providers get more information about the 2009 H1N1
influenza vaccine?
A. Information is continually updated at http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/vaccination/

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★ Use of Antiviral Medicines for the Treatment and Prevention of Flu among
Pregnant Women for the 2009–2010 Season
September 25, 2009, 1:00 PM ET

Pregnant women who are healthy have had severe illness from the 2009 H1N1
flu (also called “swine flu”). Compared with people in general, pregnant
women with 2009 H1N1 flu have been more likely to be admitted to hospitals.
Some pregnant women have died. For this reason, CDC advises doctors to give
antiviral medicines that treat 2009 H1N1 flu to pregnant women who have
symptoms of flu.

For general information on 2009 H1N1 flu, go to http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/qa.htm

● How does 2009 H1N1 flu affect a pregnant woman?

Pregnant women have signs and symptoms of H1N1 flu similar to those in other
people. Flu signs and symptoms include fever, cough, sore throat, runny or
stuffy nose, body aches, headache, and chills. Some people with this virus
also have had diarrhea or vomiting. People may only have some of these
symptoms and still have flu. Some people have not had a fever but still
have had 2009 H1N1 flu.

For most pregnant women, 2009 H1N1 flu has been a mild illness. However,
some pregnant women have become very sick. These women needed to be
admitted to the hospital. Some pregnant women have died. For this reason,
a pregnant woman who thinks she might have the flu needs to call her doctor
right away.

● Is there a test to know for sure if I have 2009 H1N1 flu?

Some health care providers will do a rapid test (one that gives results the
same day) to see if a patient has flu. The rapid test looks for several flu
viruses, not just for 2009 H1N1 flu virus. These tests are not perfect --
even when a person has 2009 H1N1 flu, the test might be negative.

There is another test that will look just for 2009 H1N1 flu. This test is
only done in a few places. The results from this test usually take a few
days. If the doctor thinks a pregnant woman has flu, he or she should not
wait for test results to start the woman on antiviral medicines.

● What should I do if I think I have the flu?

If a pregnant woman thinks she has flu, she should call her doctor right
away. If needed, he or she will prescribe an antiviral medicine that treats
the flu. The medicine is most helpful if it is started soon (within the
first 48 hours) after the pregnant woman becomes sick.

Not everyone with flu in the general population needs to get antiviral
medicines. Flu antiviral medicines should be used mostly to treat people
with the flu who have a condition that increases their chances for serious
problems from flu, such as pregnant women. These medicines are also used to
treat people with flu who have more severe flu illness or who are in the
hospital.

Clinical judgment is needed to decide if a person should be treated with
antiviral medicines.

● What should I do if I have a fever?

Fever should be treated right away. It can cause problems for the pregnant
woman and her unborn child. Acetaminophen (Tylenol®) is best for a
pregnant woman to use to lower a fever.

● What antiviral medicines are available for pregnant women who have the
flu?

Oseltamivir (Tamiflu®) or zanamivir (Relenza®) can be used to treat
2009 H1N1 flu. To get these medicines, a doctor needs to write a
prescription. These medicines fight against the flu by keeping flu viruses
from making more viruses in your body. If you get sick, antiviral drugs can
make your illness milder and make you feel better faster. They may also
prevent serious health problems that can result from flu illness. At this
time, Tamiflu® is the best medicine to treat pregnant women who have
2009 H1N1 flu.

● Is it safe for me to take an antiviral medicine for flu while I am
pregnant?

The flu can cause severe illness and even death in pregnant women. Taking
antiviral medicine can help prevent these severe outcomes. At this time,
there are no studies suggesting harm to a pregnant woman or her unborn baby
if she takes antiviral medicine. Studies in pregnant animals also have not
raised concern for problems from taking these medicines. Even if there was
a very small chance that antiviral medicines might cause harm, having the
flu could cause more harm. Being pregnant should not stop women from using
antiviral medicines if their doctor advises them to take the medicine.
Antiviral medicines can be taken at any stage during pregnancy.

● What is the difference between antiviral medicines for flu and
antibiotics?

Antiviral medicines for flu (pills, liquid, or an inhaled powder) reduce the
ability of the flu viruses to make more flu viruses in the body.
Antibiotics kill or stop the growth of bacteria. Most women with the flu
will be prescribed an antiviral medicine (Tamiflu® or Relenza®).
But, if the doctor is concerned that a woman also has a bacterial infection,
in addition to the flu, an antibiotic may also be prescribed.

● What should I do if I have come in close contact with someone who has the
flu?

A pregnant woman should call her doctor right away to talk about what she
should do. Sometimes, doctors will give a pregnant woman an antiviral
medicine to decrease the chance that she might become sick with flu. Other
times, this might not be needed. The doctor may instead recommend that a
pregnant woman take antiviral medicines if they get sick.

● I'm pregnant -- is there anything I should do now?

All pregnant women should talk to their doctors now about the early symptoms
of flu. Also, they should discuss a plan to be sure they can get treated
quickly if they get sick with the flu.

It’s always better to avoid getting the flu in the first place.
* The best way to prevent the flu is by getting a flu vaccine.
* CDC advises that pregnant women get both the 2009 H1N1 and the seasonal
flu shots.
* For more information on flu shots, go to http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/vaccination/
* Other ways that may help lower the chance of getting the flu are washing
hands often; avoiding touching eyes, nose and mouth; and staying away from
sick people.

● More information:
Updated Interim Recommendations for Obstetric Health Care Providers Related
to Use of Antiviral Medications in the Treatment and Prevention of Influenza
for the 2009-2010 Season
http://www.cdc.gov/H1N1flu/pregnancy/antiviral_messages.htm

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★ Children's Health Flu and Kids

● What is the flu?
● What are the signs that my child has the flu?
● How did my child get the flu?
● What's the best way to treat my child?
● Does my child need a flu shot?
● How can I prevent my child from getting the flu?
● Can the flu lead to a more serious illness?
● When should I call my child's pediatrician?

● What is the flu?

The flu (influenza) is an all-too-familiar illness for most parents,
especially during flu season (November to April). This highly contagious
respiratory tract infection can send a child to bed for three to five days
with a high fever, headache, congestion, chills, coughing, diarrhea, and
vomiting, as well as muscle aches and fatigue. It's caused primarily by two
flu viruses, influenza A and influenza B, which spread quickly in schools
and other places where people gather in large groups. Occasionally the flu
virus mutates, causing enormous outbreaks. The flu may have more serious
consequences for children with chronic health problems like asthma and
diabetes.

● What are the signs that my child has the flu?

The early symptoms aren't always easy to detect. The first sign may be a
change in her behavior, such as acting unusually grumpy or tired. If your
child has a high fever (101 to 103 degrees F), a dry cough, chills, fatigue,
sore muscles, and a headache, she probably has the flu. The group of
symptoms, of course, differs slightly from child to child. Children
typically recover from the symptoms in about three to four days (although
they may continue to feel achy for up to two weeks), and the body's immune
system will build natural defenses against the virus.

● How did my child get the flu?

Children usually become infected through contact with someone who has the
flu or by touching infected items such as plastic toys and utensils. People
can pass on the flu virus by touching, kissing, and coughing, and the hardy
virus can live for up to two hours on the surface of objects like toys or
bedposts. Because it's so easily transmitted in densely populated areas such
as schools, the flu has the highest incidence among children ages 5 to 14.
During flu season, anywhere from 5 to 20 percent of the entire US population
may be infected with a flu virus of one type or another.

● What's the best way to treat my child?

Bed rest, plenty of water and juice, and nutritious foods are the best
remedies when your child has the flu. Frozen fruit bars are a good way to
give her extra liquid, and hot soup or broth may ease the sense of
congestion. For muscle aches, give your child a pain reliever such as
acetaminophen. (Never give aspirin to children or teenagers, particularly if
they may have a viral infection; this can cause Reye's syndrome, a rare but
potentially life-threatening condition.) Because the flu is so contagious,
practice good hygiene around your child during her illness: Use disposable
paper cups, throw away used tissues promptly, and wash your hands after
caring for her.

● Does my child need a flu shot?

Experts recommend inoculating all children against the flu, since the
illness is responsible for so much lost time from work and school. Because a
bout of the flu can send even healthy children to the hospital, the Centers
for Disease Control recommends the flu shot for children aged 6 months up
to their 19th birthday.

Children with chronic heart or lung illnesses, such as asthma, should
receive the flu vaccine sometime between October and mid-November, according
to the CDC. The CDC also strongly recommends flu vaccinations for children
who are regularly hospitalized because of a suppressed immune system, for
children who have chronic metabolic diseases (including diabetes mellitus
and certain kidney diseases), and for children on chronic aspirin therapy.

Likewise, caretakers and family members of children at high risk, especially
those taking care of children younger than 6-months-old, should be
vaccinated.

If your child has never been vaccinated for influenza, she'll need two shots
, one month apart, to build immunity. Because the flu vaccine is developed
from eggs, children who are allergic to eggs or chicken should not be
vaccinated.

● How can I prevent my child from getting the flu?

Because the flu virus is so easily spread -- through human touch, on objects
, and in the air -- it's tough to guard your child against it. Here are some
tips that can help:

Teach her to cough or sneeze into a tissue, then throw it out immediately
afterwards. If she doesn't have a tissue handy, tell her to cough or sneeze
into her elbow or sleeve.

Teach her to wash her hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds,
especially after she coughs, sneezes, or touches her eyes. Alcohol-based
hand sanitizers are great for killing germs. When someone in your house is
sick, antibacterial wipes are good to use on surfaces in high-traffic areas,
such as kitchens and bathrooms.

Tell her not to touch her eyes, nose, or mouth. (You can spread germs from
the mucus in your eyes and mouth this way.)

Killing germs is one thing; staying healthy is another. Make sure your child
gets enough sleep, stays hydrated, and eats lots of fruits and vegetables -
- it will help keep her body's immune system working at its peak.

Finally, if your child feels sick or has a fever, keep her home until the
fever is gone for 24 hours (without having to take medicine to reduce it),
and limit her contact with others

● Can the flu lead to a more serious illness?

Yes. The flu can turn into ear, sinus, or dangerous lung infections such as
pneumonia. But most normally healthy children make a full recovery from the
flu in three to five days.

● When should I call my child's pediatrician?

If your child is HIV-positive or has a chronic illness (such as cancer,
sickle cell anemia, diabetes, or lung, heart, or kidney disease), call your
pediatrician at the first sign of flu. Call, too, if your child is on
chronic aspirin therapy and shows symptoms of flu.

In these circumstances, call for an immediate appointment:
* If your child has an earache, ear drainage, or severe pain in her face or
forehead; this could signal sinusitis or an ear infection.
* If she has persistent chest pain and fever, or if she's wheezing and
coughing up discolored mucus; these might be signs of pneumonia or
bronchitis.

Pediatricians also stress that each child's case depends on the combination
of symptoms. A child with a fairly high fever who is resting quietly, for
example, probably has "normal" flu symptoms. On the other hand, a child who
is running a slight fever but straining to breathe while lying in bed or
watching television should be seen by her doctor. If your child becomes sick
again soon after quickly bouncing back from the flu, or if she has a high
fever for more than three to four days, call your pediatrician for advice.

● References
Mi Young Hwang, Do You Have the Flu? JAMA 281(10):310.

Who Should Get a Flu Shot (Influenza Vaccine). Recommendation of the
Advisory Committee on Immunization Practicse (ACIP). Centers for Disease
Control and Prevention. April 12, 2002; last reviewed October 17, 2002.

Louis Z. Cooper, President, American Academy of Pediatrics. Press Statement
on Smallpox, Flu and Tetanus Vaccines for Children. June 21, 2002.

Is It a Cold or the Flu?, NIAID Fact Sheet Dec 1997, Office of
Communications and Public Liaison, National Institute of Allergy and
Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland,
20892.

Centers for Disease Control. Questions & Answers: Influenza Vaccine Supply
and Vaccination Prioritization Recommendations for the US 2006-07 Influenza
Season. October 2006. http://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/qa/vaxprioritygroups.htm

Centers for Disease Control. Seasonal Influenza Vaccine Supply for the US
2007-08 Influenza Season. October 2007. http://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/qa/vaxsupply.htm

Centers for Disease Control. Key Facts About Seasonal Influenza (Flu).
September 2007. http://www.cdc.gov/flu/keyfacts.htm

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Key Facts About Seasonal Flu
Vaccine. July 2008. http://www.cdc.gov/FLU/protect/keyfacts.htm

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★ The flu can have a serious effect on seniors.

● How serious is the flu?
● Should I get a flu shot?
● Is the flu shot safe?
● How effective is it? Is there a chance I can catch the flu anyway?
● Do I need a flu shot every year?
● When should I get a flu shot?
● Will my insurance cover it?
● How can I treat the flu?

● How serious is the flu?

Many people think the flu is nothing more than a bad cold -- until they come
down with it. When your entire body aches, your energy vanishes, and a
fever, dry cough, sore throat, and headaches set in, it's impossible to
mistake the flu for a mild illness.

The flu can hit anybody hard, but it's especially dangerous for people over
65 and others with weak immune systems. If you're older, it's particularly
dangerous because the viral infection can exhaust your body, making it easy
for life-threatening complications such as bacterial pneumonia to take hold.
It can also worsen the symptoms of conditions like heart disease, asthma,
and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The Centers for Disease Control
and Prevention (CDC) reports that every year the flu sends on average more
than 200,000 to the hospital. Flu and pneumonia combined kill over 36,000
Americans, making the deadly duo the eighth leading cause of death in the
country. A whopping 90 percent of these deaths are among people over 65 each
year.

● Should I get a flu shot?

It's a really good idea. For years, the CDC urged every person 65 and over
to get an annual flu shot. The latest CDC guidelines recommend that every
person 50 and over get an annual flu shot.

The CDC also recommends flu shots for the following groups at high risk for
flu-related complications:
* People with chronic lung disease such as asthma, or cardiovascular disease
(except high blood pressure)
* People who need regular medical care (or needed hospitalization in the
past year) for diabetes, kidney problems, blood cell diseases, or immune
disorders
* People who live or work with anyone at risk for flu-related complications.
This is to make sure those who have contact with seniors (or other high-
risk people) don't inadvertently pass the infection on to them.

In addition, it's a good idea to be vaccinated against pneumococcal
pneumonia (the pneumonia caused by strep bacteria) if you're over 65 or in
one of the high-risk groups above. You can get this shot anytime, including
the day you go in for your flu shot.
● Is the flu shot safe?

Although it's a common fear, it's impossible to catch the flu from a flu
shot. The vaccination contains a killed virus that stimulates your immune
system to make antibodies but can't cause disease. The most common side
effect (in a third of all people) is a little soreness and swelling at the
site of the shot. About 5 to 10 percent of people, especially children who
have never been exposed to influenza viruses, develop mild fever, fatigue,
and body aches immediately after the vaccination.

There are certain people who should not get vaccinated. If you have a severe
allergy to eggs, the shot could trigger a dangerous reaction because the
virus for the vaccine is grown in chicken eggs. Talk with your doctor if you
think you have an allergy to hens' eggs, if you've had a severe reaction to
a flu shot in the past, or if you've developed Guillain Barre Syndrome
within 6 weeks of a flu shot.

● How effective is it? Is there a chance I can catch the flu anyway?

A flu shot is your best defense against the wily virus -- people over 65 who
get vaccinated every year lower their odds of being hospitalized for
pneumonia and the flu by about 70 percent and their risk of dying by about
85 percent. For people living in nursing homes, vaccinations cut the risk of
flu-related hospitalizations by 50 percent and deaths by 80 percent.

Keep in mind that the shot isn't as effective when you get older for the
same reason you can't fight off the flu as easily -- your immune system isn'
t as good as making antibodies to fight off bacteria, viruses, and other
intruders. A flu shot will protect about 50 percent of people over 65 (but
70 to 90 percent of healthy young adults). So even if you get vaccinated, it
helps to be careful. Wash your hands often when you're around people who
may have the flu, and if possible, avoid spending a lot of time in crowded
buildings -- the flu virus spreads when infected people cough or sneeze.

● Do I need a flu shot every year?

Yes. Unlike many other vaccinations, a flu shot does not give you lifelong
protection. The flu virus comes in many different strains that change from
one year to the next, and the shots are only designed to protect you from
the few major strains that are expected to be a problem in a certain year.
Even if the same strain comes back a year later, your immunity can weaken
between flu seasons.

● When should I get a flu shot?

The best time to get a flu shot is from early September (or as soon as the
vaccine is available) and throughout the flu season. Within one to two weeks
, your body will develop antibodies against the disease. Since the flu
season generally runs through March, getting vaccinated as late as February
may still save you some misery, but it's best not to wait until the last
minute. You'll want protection for the duration of the yearly epidemic; in
addition, supplies of the vaccine often run out towards the end of the flu
season.

● Will my insurance cover it?

Low cost flu shots (about $10) are available at many clinics and pharmacies
at the beginning of flu season. If you have Medicare Part B, your flu shot
is free every year (there's no co-pay and it doesn't apply towards your
deductible) no matter where you get it, as long as your doctor orders it and
the provider accepts Medicare and doesn't charge more than what Medicare
will pay. Members of Medicare HMOs need to ask their health plan for details
. If you have Medicare Part B, the pneumonia shot is also free when your
physician orders it.

● How can I treat the flu?

If you think you have the flu, schedule an appointment with your doctor
promptly. He or she can prescribe drugs that fight the flu virus, but they'
ll only help if you take them within 48 hours of the onset of symptoms. Your
doctor can also determine if you really have the flu or if your symptoms
indicate one of several other illnesses -- such as viral bronchitis or
rhinovirus infections -- that also make the rounds every winter.

You can take several steps on your own to ease the misery of the flu or keep
from getting it in the first place:
* Avoid close contact with people who are sick.
* Wash your hands with soap and water for at least 20 seconds, especially
after you cough, sneeze, or touch your eyes. Alcohol-based hand sanitizers
are great for killing germs when you're on the go. When someone in your
house is sick, antibacterial wipes are good to use on surfaces in high-
traffic areas, such as kitchens and bathrooms.
* Don't touch your eyes, nose, or mouth. (You can spread germs from the
mucus in your eyes and mouth this way.)
* Cough or sneeze into a tissue, then throw it out immediately afterward. If
you don't have a tissue handy, cough or sneeze into your elbow or sleeve.
* Killing germs is one thing; staying healthy is another. Getting enough
sleep, staying hydrated, and eating lots of fruits and vegetables will help
keep your body's immune system working at its peak.

Finally, if you feel sick or have a fever, stay home until the fever is gone
for 24 hours (without having to take medicine to reduce it). If you're sick
, limit contact with others unless you need a friend or relative to bring
you medication or other supplies.

● References

Nichol KL, Goodman M. The health and economic benefits of influenza
vaccination for healthy and at-risk persons aged 65 to 74 years.
Pharmacoeconomics. 1999;16 Suppl 1:63-71.

Nichol KL, Margolis KL, Wouremna J, von Sternberg T. Effectiveness of
influenza vaccine in the elderly. Gerontology. 1996;42(5):274-9.

Krieger JW, Castorina JS, Walls ML, Weaver MR, Ciske S. Increasing influenza
and pneumococcal immunization rates: a randomized controlled study of a
senior center-based intervention. Am J Prev Med. 2000 Feb;18(2):123-31.

Who Should Get a Flu Shot (Influenza). Recommendations of the Advisory
Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). Centers for Disease Control and
Prevention, April 12, 2002.

Centers for Disease Control. Key Facts About Influenza and the Influenza
Vaccine. September 2005. http://www.cdc.gov/flu/keyfacts.htm

American Cancer Society. Cancer Statistics 2007. http://www.cancer.org/docroot/PRO/content/PRO_1_1_Cancer_Statistics_2007_Presentation.asp

Centers for Disease Control. Questions and Answers: Flu Shot. July 2006. http://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/qa/flushot.htm

Centers for Disease Control. Key Facts about Influenza and the Influenza
Vaccine. August 2006. http://www.cdc.gov/flu/keyfacts.htm

Centers for Disease Control. Fight Flu and Pneumonia. January 2007. http://www.medicare.gov/health/fludetails.asp

Centers for Disease Control. Pneumococcal Disease In-Short. April 2007. http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd-vac/pneumo/in-short-both.htm

Centers for Disease Control. Questions and Answers: Seasonal Flu Shot. July
2008. http://www.cdc.gov/FLU/about/qa/flushot.htm

Centers for Disease Control. Prevention and Control of Influenza. MMWR 57(
RR07); 1-60. August 8, 2008. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/pdf/rr/rr5707.pdf

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★ Flu FAQs:
1. What is seasonal flu?
2. Who should receive a seasonal flu vaccine?
3. Some people should talk with their prescriber before receiving a seasonal
flu vaccine?
4. When should I get vaccinated?
5. How does the seasonal flu vaccine work?
6. Does the seasonal flu vaccine work right away?
7. Why do I need to get vaccinated against the seasonal flu every year?
8. What should you do if you get the flu?
9. Vaccine Side Effects (What to Expect)
10. How can I learn more?

1. What is seasonal flu?
Influenza (“flu”) is a contagious disease. It is a respiratory infection
caused by various strains of influenza viruses and can be spread by coughing
, sneezing, or nasal secretions.

Anyone can get influenza, but rates of infection are highest among children.
For most people, it lasts only a few days. It can cause:
● Fever
● Fatigue
● Headache
● Body aches
● Cough
● Nasal congestion
● Sore throat

Some people, such as infants, elderly, and those with certain health
conditions, can get much sicker. Flu can cause high fever and pneumonia, and
make existing medical conditions worse. It can cause diarrhea and seizures
in children.

On average, 226,000 people are hospitalized every year because of influenza
and 36,000 die!! mostly elderly. The seasonal flu vaccine can prevent
influenza.

The seasonal influenza vaccines are formulated to prevent annual flu. They
do not protect against pandemic H1N1 influenza.

2. Who should receive the flu vaccine?
Anyone who wants to reduce the likelihood of becoming ill with influenza or
spreading influenza to others.

All children 6 months and older and all older adults:
● All children from 6 months through 18 years of age.
● Anyone 50 years of age or older.

Anyone who is at risk of complications from influenza, or more likely to
require medical care:
● Women who will be pregnant during influenza season.
● Anyone with long-term health problems such as:
 * heart disease
 * kidney disease
 * liver disease
 * lung disease
 * metabolic disease, such as diabetes
 * asthma
 * anemia, and other blood disorders
● Anyone with a weakened immune system due to:
 * HIV/AIDS or other diseases affecting the immune system
 * Long-term treatment with drugs such as steroids -cancer treatment with x
-rays or drugs
● Anyone with certain muscle or nerve disorders (such as seizure disorders
or cerebral palsy) that can lead to breathing or swallowing problems.
● Anyone 6 months through 18 years of age on long-term aspirin treatment (
they could develop Reye Syndrome if they got influenza).
● Residents of nursing homes and other chronic-care facilities.

Anyone who lives with or cares for people at high risk for influenza-related
complications:
● Health care providers.
● Household contacts and caregivers of children from birth up to 5 years of
age.
● Household contacts and caregivers of
 *people 50 years and older, or
 *Anyone with medical conditions that put them at higher risk for severe
complications from influenza.

Health care providers may also recommend a yearly influenza vaccination for:
● People who provide essential community services.
● People living in dormitories, correctional facilities, or under other
crowded conditions, to prevent outbreaks.
● People at high risk of influenza complications who travel to the Southern
hemisphere between April and September, or to the tropics or in organized
tourist groups at any time.

3. Some people should talk with their provider before getting a flu shot.
There are some people who should not be vaccinated without first consulting
a physician. These include:
● People who have a severe allergy to chicken eggs.
● People who have had a severe reaction to an influenza vaccination in the
past.
● People who developed Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) within 6 weeks of
getting an influenza vaccine previously.
● People who are moderately or severely ill should usually wait until they
recover before getting fl u vaccine. If you are ill, talk to your doctor or
nurse about whether to reschedule the vaccination. People with a mild
illness can usually get the vaccine.

4. When should I get vaccinated?
You can get the vaccine as soon as it is available, usually in the fall, and
for as long as illness is occurring in your community. Influenza can occur
any time from November through May, but it most often peaks in January or
February. Getting vaccinated in December, or even later, will still be
beneficial in most years.

Most people need one dose of influenza vaccine each year. Children younger
than 9 years of age getting influenza vaccine for the first time or who
got influenza vaccine for the first time last season but got only one dose
should get 2 doses, at least 4 weeks apart, to be protected.

Influenza vaccine may be given at the same time as other vaccines, including
pneumonia shots (pneumococcal vaccine).

5. How does the seasonal flu vaccine work?
The flu vaccine works by making the body produce substances, called
antibodies, that attack the influenza virus. These antibodies are what help
to protect against infection.

6. Does the seasonal flu vaccine work right away?
No. It takes about two weeks after getting the vaccine for antibodies to
develop and provide protection against influenza virus infection. During
those two weeks you are still at risk for getting the flu. Getting your shot
early in the fall will make sure you are protected when flu season hits its
peak.

7. Why do I need to get vaccinated against the seasonal flu every year?
Flu viruses change from year to year. A vaccine made against last year’s
flu viruses may not protect against this year’s most common viruses.

8. What should you do if you get the flu?
There are some prescription medications available that will help to prevent
or treat influenza infection. Consult your doctor or pharmacist to learn
more about these options. Over the counter products can also be used to help
reduce symptoms that may appear.

In addition to vaccination or medication, it is always helpful to practice
good hygiene. Covering your nose and mouth when you sneeze or cough, and
washing your hands will help prevent contaminating surfaces and passing the
flu virus on to others.

9. Vaccine Side Effects (What to Expect)
Different side effects can be associated with the flu shot and LAIV.

The flu shot: The viruses in the flu shot are killed (inactivated), so you
cannot get the flu from a flu shot. Some minor side effects that could occur
are:
* Soreness, redness, or swelling where the shot was given
* Fever (low grade)
* Aches

If these problems occur, they begin soon after the shot and usually last 1
to 2 days. Almost all people who receive influenza vaccine have no serious
problems from it. However, on rare occasions, flu vaccination can cause
serious problems, such as severe allergic reactions. As of July 1, 2005,
people who think that they have been injured by the flu shot can file a
claim for compensation from the National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program
(VICP).

The nasal spray (also called LAIV or FluMist®): The viruses in the nasal
-spray vaccine are weakened and do not cause severe symptoms often
associated with influenza illness. (In clinical studies, transmission of
vaccine viruses to close contacts has occurred only rarely.)

In children, side effects from LAIV (FluMist®) can include:
* runny nose
* wheezing
* headache
* vomiting
* muscle aches
* fever

In adults, side effects from LAIV (FluMist®) can include
* runny nose
* headache
* sore throat
* cough

10. How can I learn more?
● Ask your provider. They can give you the vaccine package insert or
suggest other sources of information.
● Call your local or state health department
● Contact the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): -Call 1-800
-232-4636 (1-800-CDC-INFO) or
● Visit CDC's website at www.cdc.gov/flu
● Seasonal Flu Information for Parents
http://www.cdc.gov/flu/parents/
● Seasonal Flu Information for Schools & Childcare Providers
http://www.cdc.gov/flu/school/

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★ Seasonal Flu Shot (FAQs)

There are two types of Seasonal Flu vaccines:
* The "flu shot" — an inactivated vaccine (containing killed virus) that is
given with a needle, usually in the arm. The flu shot is approved for use
in people older than 6 months, including healthy people and people with
chronic medical conditions.
* The nasal-spray flu vaccine — a vaccine made with live, weakened flu
viruses that do not cause the flu (sometimes called LAIV for "live
attenuated influenza vaccine" or FluMist®). LAIV (FluMist®) is
approved for use in healthy* people 2-49 years of age who are not pregnant.

● What is the flu shot?

The flu shot is an inactivated vaccine (containing killed virus) that is
given with a needle, usually in the arm. It contains three seasonal
influenza viruses. The three seasonal vaccine viruses – one A (H3N2) virus,
one regular seasonal influenza A (H1N1) virus (not the 2009 H1N1 virus),
and one B virus – are representative of the seasonal influenza vaccine
strains recommended for that year. Viruses for the flu shot are grown in
eggs. A seasonal flu shot will not protect against 2009 H1N1 flu.

● Who should get a seasonal flu shot?

In general, anyone who wants to reduce their chances of getting seasonal flu
can get vaccinated. However, certain people should get vaccinated each year
. They are either people who are at high risk of having serious seasonal flu
-related complications or people who live with or care for those at high
risk for serious complications. During flu seasons when vaccine supplies are
limited or delayed, the ACIP makes recommendations regarding priority
groups for vaccination.

People who should get vaccinated each year are:
1. Children aged 6 months up to their 19th birthday
2. Pregnant women
3. People 50 years of age and older
4. People of any age with certain chronic medical conditions
5. People who live in nursing homes and other long-term care facilities
6. People who live with or care for those at high risk for complications
from flu, including:
a. Health care workers
b. Household contacts of persons at high risk for complications from the flu
c. Household contacts and out of home caregivers of children less than 6
months of age (these children are too young to be vaccinated)
ACIP has issued separate recommendations on who should get the 2009 H1N1
vaccine.

Use of the Nasal Spray Flu Vaccine
It should be noted that vaccination with the nasal-spray flu vaccine is
always an option for healthy* persons aged 2-49 years who are not pregnant.

● Who should not get a flu shot?

Talk with a doctor before getting a flu shot if you:
1. Have ever had a severe allergic reaction to eggs or to a previous flu
shot or
2. Have a history of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS).
If you are sick with a fever when you go to get your flu shot, you should
talk to your doctor or nurse about getting your shot at a later date.
However, you can get a flu shot at the same time you have a respiratory
illness without fever or if you have another mild illness.

● When to Get Vaccinated

Yearly flu vaccination should begin in September or as soon as vaccine is
available and continue throughout the influenza season, into December,
January, and beyond. This is because the timing and duration of influenza
seasons vary. While influenza outbreaks can happen as early as October, most
of the time influenza activity peaks in January or later.

● How effective is the flu shot?

In studies of the seasonal flu shot, when the "match" between vaccine
viruses and circulating viruses is close, the vaccine has been shown to
prevent influenza in about 70%-90% of healthy persons younger than age 65
years. Among elderly persons living outside chronic-care facilities (such as
nursing homes) and those persons with long-term (chronic) medical
conditions (such as asthma, diabetes, or heart disease), the flu shot has
been shown to be between 30% and 70% effective in preventing hospitalization
for pneumonia and influenza. Among elderly nursing home residents, the flu
shot has been shown to be most effective in preventing severe illness,
secondary complications, and deaths related to the flu. In this population,
the shot has been shown to be between 50% and 60% effective in preventing
hospitalization or pneumonia and 80% effective in preventing death from the
flu.

● What are the risks from getting a flu shot?

The viruses in the flu shot are killed (inactivated), so you cannot get the
flu from a flu shot. The risk of a flu shot causing serious harm, or death,
is extremely small. However, a vaccine, like any medicine, may rarely cause
serious problems, such as severe allergic reactions. Almost all people who
get influenza vaccine have no serious problems from it.

● What are the side effects that could occur?

* Soreness, redness, or swelling where the shot was given
* Fever (low grade)
* Aches

If these problems occur, they begin soon after the shot and usually last one
to two days.

● Can severe problems occur?

* Life-threatening allergic reactions are very rare. Signs of serious
allergic reaction can include breathing problems, hoarseness or wheezing,
hives, paleness, weakness, a fast heartbeat, or dizziness. If they do occur,
it is within a few minutes to a few hours after the shot. These reactions
are more likely to occur among persons with a severe allergy to eggs,
because the viruses used in the influenza vaccine are grown in hens' eggs.
People who have had a severe reaction to eggs or to a flu shot in the past
should not get a flu shot before seeing a physician.

* Guillain-Barré syndrome: Normally, about one person per 100,000 people
per year will develop Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), an illness
characterized by fever, nerve damage, and muscle weakness. In 1976,
vaccination with the swine flu vaccine was associated with getting GBS.
Several studies have been done to evaluate if other flu vaccines since 1976
were associated with GBS. Only one of the studies showed an association.
That study suggested that one person out of 1 million vaccinated persons may
be at risk of GBS associated with the vaccine.

* More facts about potential side effects of the seasonal influenza vaccine
can be found in Prevention & Control of Influenza - Recommendations of the
Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP).

● What should I do if I have had a serious reaction to seasonal influenza
vaccine?

* Call a doctor, or get to a doctor right away.
* Tell your doctor what happened, the date and time it happened, and when
you got the flu shot.
* Ask your doctor, nurse, or health department to file a Vaccine Adverse
Event Reporting System (VAERS) form, or call VAERS at 1-800-822-7967.

● Can the flu shot give me the flu?

No, a flu shot cannot cause flu illness. The viruses contained in flu shots
are inactivated (killed), which means they cannot cause infection. Flu
vaccine manufacturers kill the viruses used in the vaccine during the
process of making vaccine, and batches of flu vaccine are tested to make
sure they are safe. In randomized, blinded studies, where some people got
flu shots and others got saltwater shots, the only differences in symptoms
was increased soreness in the arm and redness at the injection site among
people who got the flu shot. There were no differences in terms of body
aches, fever, cough, runny nose or sore throat.

● Should pregnant women or women who are breastfeeding be given the flu
shot?

Yes, women who are or will be pregnant during the influenza season should be
vaccinated with the flu shot; however, pregnant women should not receive
live attenuated influenza vaccine (nasal spray). The flu shot and nasal
spray are safe for mothers who are breastfeeding and will not harm their
infants.

More information about these studies is available at:
* Carolyn Bridges et al. (2000). Effectiveness and cost-benefit of influenza
vaccination of healthy working adults: A randomized controlled trial. JAMA.
284(13):1655–1663.
* Kristin Nichol et al. (1995). The effectiveness of vaccination against
influenza in healthy working adults. New England Journal of Medicine. 333(14
): 889-893.

● Why do some people not feel well after getting the flu shot?

The most common side effect of the flu vaccine in adults is soreness at the
spot where the shot was given, which usually lasts less than two days. The
soreness is often caused by a person’s immune system making protective
antibodies to the killed viruses in the vaccine. These antibodies are what
allow the body to fight against flu. The needle stick may also cause some
soreness at the injection site. According to the Advisory Committee on
Immunization Practices (ACIP), rare symptoms include fever, muscle pain, and
feelings of discomfort or weakness. If these problems occur, they are very
uncommon and usually begin soon after the shot and last 1-2 days.

● What about people who get a seasonal flu vaccine and still get sick with
flu-like symptoms?

There are several reasons why someone might get flu-like symptoms even after
they have been vaccinated against the flu.

1. People may be exposed to an influenza virus shortly before getting
vaccinated or during the two-week period that it takes the body to gain
protection after getting vaccinated. This exposure may result in a person
becoming ill with flu before the vaccine begins to protect them.

2. People may become ill from other (non-flu) viruses that circulate during
the flu season, which can also cause flu-like symptoms (such as rhinovirus).

3. A person may be exposed to an influenza virus that is not included in the
seasonal flu vaccine. There are many different influenza viruses and this
year there is a new and very different flu virus spreading worldwide among
people called 2009 H1N1 flu. The seasonal flu vaccine will not provide
protection against 2009 H1N1 flu. This year there is also a 2009 H1N1 flu
vaccine. The 2009 H1N1 vaccine is not intended to replace the seasonal flu
vaccine – it is intended to be used along-side seasonal flu vaccine.

4. Unfortunately, some people can remain unprotected from flu despite
getting the vaccine. This is more likely to occur among people that have
weakened immune systems. However, even among people with weakened immune
systems, the flu vaccine can still help prevent influenza complications. For
more information about the effectiveness of the flu vaccine, see How Well Does the Seasonal Flu Vaccine Work?
Seasonal influenza vaccine provides the best protection available from
seasonal flu – even when the vaccine does not closely match circulating flu
strains, and even when the person getting the vaccine has a weakened immune
system. Vaccination can lessen illness severity and is particularly
important for people at high risk for serious flu-related complications and
for close contacts of high-risk people.

*"Healthy" indicates persons who do not have an underlying medical condition
that predisposes them to influenza.

This document includes questions and answers about the seasonal flu shot.
For information about the 2009 H1N1 flu vaccine, see http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu/vaccination/

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从这些资料来看,我们打的Flu Shot只是对Seasonal Flu有作用,而对准妈妈,他们建
议在打常规Seasonal Flu Vaccine的同时,还要打2009 H1N1 Flu Vaccine,并且认为对准妈妈这些疫苗是安全的。

祝JMs和宝宝们都健健康康,远离FLU的困扰!

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