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世界艾滋病日
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发表时间:2008-12-01
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河南艾滋病人绝食一天以唤起关注 记者: 海涛
香港
2008年12月1日




北京纪念世界艾滋病日
星期一是世界艾滋病日。中国河南的艾滋病毒感染者王秋云打算绝食一天,希望唤起政府和民间对艾滋病患者更多的关注。中国总理温家宝在安徽探视了艾滋病患者。

*以绝食纪念世界艾滋病日*

河南鹤壁市艾滋病患者王秋云计划在世界艾滋病日(星期一)绝食一天,希望政府能更多地关注艾滋病患者。

王秋云说:“我们这些病人倡导,要求政府关注我们。因为我们政府到现在2005年,我们上访次数多,他关注的多。我们不上访,他就不管我们了。而且,现在用药的情况是,该用的也不用了。”

王秋云是离鹤壁市50里的鹤壁集乡王马庄村的民办教师。90年代在鹤壁第一人民医院住院动手术,输血感染艾滋病。多年来,她一直要求医院赔偿不果,到法院告状被驳回,上诉中级法院不予受理,多次到市和省政府上访,还遭到保安暴力对待。

就在记者和王秋云通话的时候,她就站在鹤壁市第一人民医院院长张鹤的办公室外。她说,张鹤故意躲着她不见面。张鹤接到记者的电话说,他不方便谈:“有啥事,你和我办公室联系吧。”
张鹤说完就挂断了电话。

*与医院就赔偿问题僵持不下*

王秋云认为自己身体状况每况愈下,来日无多,希望鹤壁第一人民医院能赔偿她30万元。不过,鹤壁市卫生局纪检书记裴树祥对记者说,事情比较复杂,不是一两句话就能说清楚的:“这一句话、两句话说不清楚。我就说一条:鹤壁市政府也好,卫生局也好,都十分重视这个事情。昨天下午和晚上,都在召开会议,解决她的问题。”

裴树祥希望记者能亲自到鹤壁市调查采访,实地考察一下当地的艾滋病患者的现状。他说,王秋云采用绝食的方法表达不满,这种心情他理解。但是,这种方法“解决不了问题”。他说,政府对艾滋病群体是非常关心的,而艾滋病患者住院,很多费用都是免费的。

裴树祥说,王秋云要求得到的赔偿金额,同医院方面答应的数字有些差距。王秋云坚持一分钱不能少,这样,双方就僵在那里,问题也就无法解决了。

而王秋云认为,她身患绝症,肯定没多少时间了。这些年,她上访和打官司还有被打伤住院等,花费了十几万,她希望能得到30万元的赔偿,实在是已经低得不能再低了。

*温家宝赴安徽探视艾滋病人*

星期一是世界艾滋日。中国总理温家宝日前到了安徽阜阳市,探视艾滋病人,并表示中国要继续加大在防治艾滋病方面的投入。中国媒体报道,近5年来,温家宝每到这一天前夕,都要探视艾滋病患者和去世患者的家属。

新华社星期天报道,中国卫生部通报说,截至9月底,中国有艾滋病例报告26万4千3百零2例,其中艾滋病人7万7千753例,报告死亡3万4千864例。去年艾滋日前新华社报道,中国当时的艾滋病病毒感染者和病人约70万,其中艾滋病病人8.5万。




中国有70万艾滋感染者 6成不知染病
京华时报 2008-11-30 18:48:25


  今天是第21个世界艾滋病日。昨天,中国卫生部通报,截至9月30日,中国累计报告艾滋病病例264302例,而据卫生部等单位对中国艾滋病疫情的估计,中国现存艾滋病病毒感染者和病人约70万,这其中可能有44万人不知晓自己已经被感染。

  调查数据 65%受访者不愿与染艾者同室

  最新的调查数据显示,中国部分公众依然歧视艾滋病病人。30%的受访者认为感染了艾滋病的儿童不应该与其他孩子在同所学校学习;接近65%的受访者不愿意与艾滋病感染者同室生活。卫生部疾控局艾滋病防治处副处长王维真介绍,根据卫生部门的估计,可能有44万人还不知晓自己已经被感染。出现这种情况是因为害怕被歧视而不敢接受检查、不敢暴露自己。

  86.3%县市区报告艾滋病病例

  王维真介绍,目前中国艾滋病疫情处于总体低流行、特定人群和局部地区高流行的态势。虽然艾滋病疫情上升速度有所减缓,但性传播已成为主要传播途径。男男同性性行为传播在2005年仅占0.4%,在2007年约占3.3%,感染比例有明显上升趋势。同时,中国艾滋病疫情的地区分布差异较大,今年1至9月,共有86.3%的县市区报告了艾滋病病例,报告病例数排行前六位的省份,总病例数约占全国的80%,分别是云南、河南、广西、新疆、广东、四川。

  举措 领导干部将上防治艾滋病课

  王维真表示,下一步,政府会加大对疫情较重、边远和农村等重点地区和流动人口、青少年等重点人群的艾滋病宣传教育;继续加强行为干预工作,加大在暗娼和男男性行为人群中的干预力度,扩大干预措施的覆盖面;提高二线药物的可及性,逐步扩大中医药治疗艾滋病的范围。此外,还要进一步加强对各级领导干部的政策倡导和培训,将艾滋病防治课程纳入各级党校和行政学院的培训内容。

  各省均成立艾滋病防治机构

  卫生部疾控局艾防处负责人介绍,2008年中国艾滋病防治工作机制更加健全,全国31个省、自治区、直辖市政府和88%的地州和重点县政府都成立了艾滋病防治领导机构;同时“四免一关怀”政策覆盖面也得到提高,截至2008年9月底,15岁以上艾滋病病人累计接受抗病毒治疗人数达5.3万余人,累计治疗 1144名儿童。


World AIDS Day: major milestone in the long struggle
1 December 2008 -- The 20th anniversary of World AIDS Day this year also marks a major milestone in the long struggle against this disease. More than 3 million people in low- and middle-income countries are now receiving life-prolonging antiretroviral therapy. The response to AIDS changed the face of public health in profound ways, says WHO Director-General Dr Margaret Chan, reflecting on some of the achievements of the past 20 years.



Message for World AIDS Day
Dr Margaret Chan, WHO Director-General
This year, which marks the 20th anniversary of World AIDS Day, also marks a major milestone in the long struggle against this disease. Well over 3 million people in low- and middle-income countries are now receiving life-prolonging antiretroviral therapy. Such an achievement was unthinkable 20 years ago, when the world was just beginning to comprehend the significance of this disease and its catastrophic impact on individuals, families, and societies.

AIDS is the most challenging and probably the most devastating infectious disease humanity has ever had to face. And humanity has faced this disease, in equally unprecedented ways. The international community has rallied at levels ranging from grass-roots movements to heads of state, from faith-based organizations and philanthropists to research institutions, academia, and industry.

On this 20th anniversary of World AIDS Day, I find it appropriate to reflect on some of these achievements. The response to AIDS changed the face of public health in profound ways, opening new options for dealing with multiple other health problems. It showed the power of determination to overcome seemingly insurmountable obstacles.

Civil society brought the disease – and the needs of those affected – to the forefront of world attention. Attitudes changed. Treatments were developed. Clinical schedules were streamlined and standardized. Funds were found. Prices dropped. Partnerships were formed, and presidents and prime ministers launched emergency plans.

The response to AIDS also reaffirmed some of the most important values and principles of public health. The AIDS epidemic showed the relevance of equity and universal access in a substantial way. With the advent of antiretroviral therapy, an ability to access medicines and services became equivalent to an ability to survive for many millions of people. The epidemic focused attention on the broad social determinants of health, the vital role of prevention, and the need for people-centred care. In so doing, it helped pave the way for a renewal of primary health care.

These achievements show the power of determination and global solidarity, but they also remind us of the challenges. I believe that the theme selected for this year’s World AIDS Day captures these challenges well.

Leadership is needed to ensure that vigilance and diligence in responding to the epidemic remain steadfast. Despite the global financial crisis, funding absolutely must remain predictable, sustainable, and substantial. We must ensure that the current unprecedented rollout of treatment reaches more people and is fully sustainable. Stepping back or slowing down on treatment is not an acceptable option on ethical and humanitarian grounds.

Empowerment is critical for an effective response, and most especially so for prevention. We must do much more to empower adolescent girls and women, both to protect themselves and to act as agents of change. We must work much harder to fight stigma and discrimination, which are huge obstacles to all forms of prevention, treatment, care, and support. In many countries, legal as well as social and cultural barriers prevent groups at risk from receiving the interventions and knowledge needed to reduce harmful behaviours.

Finally, we must deliver. In many countries, the weakness of health systems limits the ability to reach those in greatest need with sustainable services. I believe we now have an historic opportunity to align the agenda for responding to AIDS with the agenda for strengthening health systems. As noted in this year’s World Health Report, primary health care is the best way to operationalize a commitment to equity and social justice, to realize a focus on prevention, and to reach marginalized groups. These values and principles are the very foundation for the future of the AIDS response.

On this World AIDS Day, let us redouble our determination to build on past success and to rally our forces against the remaining obstacles – in a spirit of solidarity and for the sake of human dignity.

http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/statements/2008/s13/en/index.html




WHO welcomes the new Executive Director of UNAIDS
Statement by WHO Director-General Dr Margaret Chan
On behalf of WHO, I offer our warmest congratulations to Michel Sidibé on his appointment as Executive Director of UNAIDS, and express our firm commitment and full support to him in his new position.

WHO has a particularly close working relationship with UNAIDS. We strive together to assist countries in rapidly expanding prevention, care and treatment services towards the goal of universal access. We work to overcome stigma and discrimination, and we engage together with people living with and affected by HIV/AIDS. The global response to HIV/AIDS demands visionary leadership. I know that Mr Sidibé will provide this, and I look forward to working closely with him in the coming months and years.

I would also like to express my deep appreciation to Dr Peter Piot. I have had the honour of working closely with Dr Piot over the last two years, and have admired his extraordinary leadership, wisdom, vision and energy. I know that he is leaving UNAIDS in very good hands, and will continue to make a significant contribution to global health in his future role.

Mr Sidibé brings great strengths to this key position. His profound understanding of the epidemic, his experience in many countries of Africa, his detailed knowledge of UNAIDS and the United Nations, and his close working relationships with civil society organizations and other partners stand him in good stead for the responsibilities he is now taking on. I am sure we can all look forward to working closely with Mr Sidibé in the years ahead.


http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/statements/2008/s14/en/index.html

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1   [USMedEdu 于 2008-12-02 16:24:05 提到] [FROM: 10.]
河南爱滋村 官方黑帮狠揍外国记者引发抗议

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

BBC 2008-12-02 08:32:37

河南官员说,该省已初步查明比利时媒体VRT拍摄小组在商丘受到袭击的事件,调查小组正前往当地进一步调查。

河南省外事办相关官员表示,针对11月27日发生的该事件,已经初步了解了发生情况。但是该官员形容双方发生的是"拉扯"。


比利时VRT广播公司的记者范德维根说,他和拍摄小组的成员在商丘的岗王乡拍摄爱滋病患者时,被所谓的"当地居民"包围。

在被迫留下了他的摄影器材以及录像带和存储卡之后,这些人才让他们离去。

打断骨头

范德维根说,爱滋病患者权利人士告诉他,这些人并不是当地居民,而是官方指使的黑帮份子。

范德维根表示,原先约定采访的对象被软禁,不能接受采访。患者也拒不见面。

他说,后来出现了两部没有标记的汽车,出来了几名自称是警察的人审问了他们。

他说"警察"警告他"在河南,我们就是法律,如果你敢留在河南,我们就会打断你身上的每一个骨头!"。

采访待遇

范德维根还指称,在试图逃离现场的时候,"恶徒"挡住去路,把他们拉出车外殴打,并且抢走了笔记本和现金。

此一事件,引起了比利时驻华大使馆的重视,要求中方彻查这个威胁外籍记者人身安全的事件。

在西方媒体眼中,报道艾滋病消息的记者在中国境内采访时受到骚扰、殴打、暴力对待等等情况是"家常便饭",而这种情况在河南更是严重。

一位外国民间组织驻华代表说"似乎每次中国中央政府在打击爱滋病方面迈出一步,河南地方政府就会倒退两步。"



 
2   [USMedEdu 于 2008-12-01 11:25:52 提到] [FROM: 10.]
HIV/AIDS



What is HIV?

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infects cells of the immune system, destroying or impairing their function. Infection with the virus results in the progressive deterioration of the immune system, leading to "immune deficiency." The immune system is considered deficient when it can no longer fulfill its role of fighting infection and disease. Infections associated with severe immunodeficiency are known as "opportunistic infections," because they take advantage of a weakened immune system.

What is AIDS?

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a surveillance term defined by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and by the European Centre for the Epidemiological Monitoring of AIDS (EuroHIV). The term AIDS applies to the most advanced stages of HIV infection, defined by the occurrence of any of more than 20 opportunistic infections or HIV-related cancers.

How is HIV transmitted?

HIV can be transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse (vaginal or anal), and oral sex with an infected person; transfusion of contaminated blood; and the sharing of contaminated needles, syringes or other sharp instruments. It may also be transmitted between a mother and her infant during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding.

How quickly does a person infected with HIV develop AIDS?

The length of time can vary widely between individuals. Left untreated, the majority of people infected with HIV will develop signs of HIV-related illness within 5-10 years. However, the time between HIV infection and an AIDS diagnosis can be 10–15 years, sometimes longer. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can slow the disease progression by decreasing an infected person’s viral load.

What is the most common life-threatening opportunistic infection affecting people living with HIV/AIDS?

Tuberculosis (TB) kills nearly a quarter of a million people living with HIV each year. It is the number one cause of death among HIV-infected people in Africa, and a leading cause of death in this population worldwide. Three core health-care strategies are critical to reverse the course of HIV/TB:

intensified case finding (ICF) for active TB
isoniazid preventive treatment (IPT)
TB infection control (IC).
More about the HIV/TB "dual epidemic"
How many people are living with HIV?

According to estimates by WHO and UNAIDS, 33.2 million people were living with HIV at the end of 2007. That same year, some 2.5 million people became newly infected, and 2.1 million died of AIDS, including 330 000 children. Two thirds of HIV infections are in sub-Saharan Africa.

How can I limit my risk of HIV transmission through sex?

Use male or female condoms correctly each time you have sex.
Practice only non-penetrative sex.
Remain faithful in a relationship with an uninfected equally faithful partner with no other risk behaviour.
Abstain from sex.
Does male circumcision prevent HIV transmission?

Recent studies suggest that male circumcision can reduce the risk of acquiring HIV though sex. However, it is not 100% effective, and circumcised men can still become infected. Circumcision can actually increase the risk of transmission if the wounds have not properly healed following surgery. In addition, HIV-positive men who are circumcised can infect their sexual partners.

While male circumcision is not a replacement for other known methods of HIV prevention, it should be considered as part of a comprehensive prevention strategy.

How effective are condoms in preventing HIV?

Quality-assured male and female condoms are the only products currently available to protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. When used properly during every sexual intercourse, condoms are a proven means of preventing HIV infection in women and men. However, apart from abstinence, no protective method is 100% effective.

What is a female condom?

The female condom is the only female-controlled contraceptive barrier method currently on the market. The female condom is a strong, soft, transparent polyurethane sheath inserted in the vagina before sexual intercourse. It entirely lines the vagina and provides protection against both pregnancy and STIs, including HIV, when used correctly in each act of intercourse.

What is the benefit of an HIV test?

Knowing your HIV status can have two important benefits:

If you learn that you are HIV positive, you can take the necessary steps before symptoms appear to access treatment, care and support, thereby potentially prolonging your life for many years.
If you know that you are infected, you can take precautions to prevent the spread of HIV to others.
What are antiretroviral drugs?

Antiretroviral drugs are used in the treatment and prevention of HIV infection. They fight HIV by stopping or interfering with the reproduction of the virus in the body.

What is the current status of antiretroviral treatment (ART)?

Approximately 3 million people in low- and middle-income countries were receiving HIV antiretroviral therapy at the end of 2007. Until 2003, the high cost of the medicines, weak or inadequate health-care infrastructure, and lack of financing prevented wide use of combination antiretroviral treatment in low- and middle-income countries. But in recent years, increased political and financial commitment has allowed dramatic expansion of access to HIV therapy.

Is there a cure for HIV?

No, there is no cure for HIV. But with good and continued adherence to antiretroviral treatment, the progression of HIV in the body can be slowed to a near halt. Increasingly, people living with HIV are kept well and productive for extended periods of time, even in low-income countries.

What other kinds of care do people living with HIV need?

In addition to antiretroviral treatment, people with HIV often need counselling and psychosocial support. Access to good nutrition, safe water and basic hygiene can also help an HIV-infected person maintain a high quality of life.



Priority interventions
HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector


Related links: http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/priorityinterventions/en/index.html

Download chapters separately

English:

http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/priority_interventions_web.pdf

Produced by the World Health Organization, Priority interventions: HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector is the definitive 'one-stop shop' designed to help countries, donors and other stakeholders expand and improve their response to one of the greatest health-care challenges of our time.

It includes everything from how to expand condom programming to the latest in treatment recommendations, guidelines and standards. Priority interventions is designed to be a 'living' web-based document that will be periodically updated with new recommendations based on the rapidly-evolving experience of health-sector scale up.


Download the complete document
Version 1.1 December 2008


English [pdf 1.97Mb]

French [pdf 2.21Mb]
 
3   [USMedEdu 于 2008-12-01 11:04:45 提到] [FROM: 10.]
艾滋病毒扩散到中国高危人群之外 记者: 齐之丰
华盛顿
2008年10月7日



最新一期的科学杂志“自然”杂志发表的研究报告说,艾滋病病毒在中国已经扩散到最初的高危人群之外。专家呼吁中国采取措施,阻止艾滋病病毒在中国普通人口中扩散。与此同时,中国从事艾滋病教育的非政府组织表示,在预防艾滋病病毒在中国普通人口中扩散的问题上,中国需要妥善应对一系列挑战。

*已经扩散到中国所有省市*

中国最先的艾滋病病毒感染高危人群是南方云南等地的吸毒者,以及河南等内地农村地区的卖血的人。最新一期的“自然”杂志发表的研究报告说,艾滋病病毒已经扩散到中国所有的省份,在男性同性恋者当以及性工作者当中扩散势头明显。

报告说,在云南省,艾滋病病毒通过异性性行为传播的病例在2006年增长了38%。从全国来看,感染病毒的妇女比例呈现大幅度增长,由1996年占感染者比例的7.1%增长到2006年的35%。男性同性恋者感染病毒的人数则增长了7倍。

为了避免艾滋病病毒在中国普通人口中全面扩散,有关专家建议在性工作者当中推广使用保险套,以干净的针具换取吸毒者使用过的针具,向吸毒者提供美沙铜帮助他们戒毒,给病毒感染者提供免费的抗病毒治疗。

*政府应努力防止在普通人中扩散*

在中国从事艾滋病教育的非政府组织北京东珍纳兰文化传播中心主任李丹表示,尽管艾滋病病毒在中国的传播范围扩大,但是,中国还有机会做出最后的努力,制止病毒全面扩散传播;但是,人们应当意识到,中国在这方面面临一系列的挑战。

李丹说,首先是中国的性教育还很不发达,很不完善,不要说中小学的性教育十分稀少,近乎没有,就是在大学生当中,性知识也是十分匮乏,导致许多人只是通过色情的音像材料获得一些支离破碎的性知识,而这样的不完整的性知识只是刺激年轻人的欲望,没有责任和安全的教育。

另外,李丹说,尽管中国人在性的问题上已经相当开放,但是中国社会整体依然是传统而保守的,因此,在规定性工作者使用安全套以及用干净的针具换取吸毒者使用过的针具以避免艾滋病病毒扩散的问题上,中国政府面临一些现在还无法克服的困难,因为这牵涉卖淫和吸毒合法化或非犯罪化的问题。他说,即使是美国这样的发达国家到目前也没有克服这些问题。

另外一个问题是预防艾滋病的政府投资是否能得到中国公众认同。李丹说,他在艾滋病教育和救助的实际工作中遇到许多人质疑政府在这方面的投资,他们认为政府的公共卫生投资应当投资于癌症病人这样的病人,而不是卖淫、吸毒者。

李丹说,他完全理解中国政府所面临的这些艰巨挑战。他认为,中国解决问题的办法应当是政府放宽政策,让民间组织能够充分发展,应对中国的艾滋病问题所造成的挑战:“无论是卖淫的人也好,还是吸毒的人也好,他们都属于社会的边缘人群。政府不可能堂堂正正,很公开地把这些边缘人群纳入到自己的政策里来,把他们纳入法制化轨道,这是很难的。因为主体的人群还是很保守的。要在中国这样的一个发展中的文化保守的国家实现这些合法化,实现这些投入,由政府来做是不太现实的,会受到很多的阻力。这些我先前讲过了。那么,唯一的途径就只能是把这些事情交给民间组织去摸索,由民间自发地去解决这些问题,消除这些问题。”

科学家们通过分析鉴别病毒基因,认为艾滋病病毒是在1980年代通过贩毒的人从东南亚出产大量鸦片的“金三角”地区最初传入中国的。艾滋病病毒后来在中国河南等内地地区扩散,原因是非法的卖血站把感染病毒的血液输给卖血的农民。


 
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