河南艾滋病人绝食一天以唤起关注 记者： 海涛
京华时报 2008-11-30 18:48:25
World AIDS Day: major milestone in the long struggle
1 December 2008 -- The 20th anniversary of World AIDS Day this year also marks a major milestone in the long struggle against this disease. More than 3 million people in low- and middle-income countries are now receiving life-prolonging antiretroviral therapy. The response to AIDS changed the face of public health in profound ways, says WHO Director-General Dr Margaret Chan, reflecting on some of the achievements of the past 20 years.
Message for World AIDS Day
Dr Margaret Chan, WHO Director-General
This year, which marks the 20th anniversary of World AIDS Day, also marks a major milestone in the long struggle against this disease. Well over 3 million people in low- and middle-income countries are now receiving life-prolonging antiretroviral therapy. Such an achievement was unthinkable 20 years ago, when the world was just beginning to comprehend the significance of this disease and its catastrophic impact on individuals, families, and societies.
AIDS is the most challenging and probably the most devastating infectious disease humanity has ever had to face. And humanity has faced this disease, in equally unprecedented ways. The international community has rallied at levels ranging from grass-roots movements to heads of state, from faith-based organizations and philanthropists to research institutions, academia, and industry.
On this 20th anniversary of World AIDS Day, I find it appropriate to reflect on some of these achievements. The response to AIDS changed the face of public health in profound ways, opening new options for dealing with multiple other health problems. It showed the power of determination to overcome seemingly insurmountable obstacles.
Civil society brought the disease – and the needs of those affected – to the forefront of world attention. Attitudes changed. Treatments were developed. Clinical schedules were streamlined and standardized. Funds were found. Prices dropped. Partnerships were formed, and presidents and prime ministers launched emergency plans.
The response to AIDS also reaffirmed some of the most important values and principles of public health. The AIDS epidemic showed the relevance of equity and universal access in a substantial way. With the advent of antiretroviral therapy, an ability to access medicines and services became equivalent to an ability to survive for many millions of people. The epidemic focused attention on the broad social determinants of health, the vital role of prevention, and the need for people-centred care. In so doing, it helped pave the way for a renewal of primary health care.
These achievements show the power of determination and global solidarity, but they also remind us of the challenges. I believe that the theme selected for this year’s World AIDS Day captures these challenges well.
Leadership is needed to ensure that vigilance and diligence in responding to the epidemic remain steadfast. Despite the global financial crisis, funding absolutely must remain predictable, sustainable, and substantial. We must ensure that the current unprecedented rollout of treatment reaches more people and is fully sustainable. Stepping back or slowing down on treatment is not an acceptable option on ethical and humanitarian grounds.
Empowerment is critical for an effective response, and most especially so for prevention. We must do much more to empower adolescent girls and women, both to protect themselves and to act as agents of change. We must work much harder to fight stigma and discrimination, which are huge obstacles to all forms of prevention, treatment, care, and support. In many countries, legal as well as social and cultural barriers prevent groups at risk from receiving the interventions and knowledge needed to reduce harmful behaviours.
Finally, we must deliver. In many countries, the weakness of health systems limits the ability to reach those in greatest need with sustainable services. I believe we now have an historic opportunity to align the agenda for responding to AIDS with the agenda for strengthening health systems. As noted in this year’s World Health Report, primary health care is the best way to operationalize a commitment to equity and social justice, to realize a focus on prevention, and to reach marginalized groups. These values and principles are the very foundation for the future of the AIDS response.
On this World AIDS Day, let us redouble our determination to build on past success and to rally our forces against the remaining obstacles – in a spirit of solidarity and for the sake of human dignity.
WHO welcomes the new Executive Director of UNAIDS
Statement by WHO Director-General Dr Margaret Chan
On behalf of WHO, I offer our warmest congratulations to Michel Sidibé on his appointment as Executive Director of UNAIDS, and express our firm commitment and full support to him in his new position.
WHO has a particularly close working relationship with UNAIDS. We strive together to assist countries in rapidly expanding prevention, care and treatment services towards the goal of universal access. We work to overcome stigma and discrimination, and we engage together with people living with and affected by HIV/AIDS. The global response to HIV/AIDS demands visionary leadership. I know that Mr Sidibé will provide this, and I look forward to working closely with him in the coming months and years.
I would also like to express my deep appreciation to Dr Peter Piot. I have had the honour of working closely with Dr Piot over the last two years, and have admired his extraordinary leadership, wisdom, vision and energy. I know that he is leaving UNAIDS in very good hands, and will continue to make a significant contribution to global health in his future role.
Mr Sidibé brings great strengths to this key position. His profound understanding of the epidemic, his experience in many countries of Africa, his detailed knowledge of UNAIDS and the United Nations, and his close working relationships with civil society organizations and other partners stand him in good stead for the responsibilities he is now taking on. I am sure we can all look forward to working closely with Mr Sidibé in the years ahead.
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[USMedEdu 于 2008-12-02 16:24:05 提到] [FROM: 10.]|
BBC 2008-12-02 08:32:37
[USMedEdu 于 2008-12-01 11:25:52 提到] [FROM: 10.]|
What is HIV?
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infects cells of the immune system, destroying or impairing their function. Infection with the virus results in the progressive deterioration of the immune system, leading to "immune deficiency." The immune system is considered deficient when it can no longer fulfill its role of fighting infection and disease. Infections associated with severe immunodeficiency are known as "opportunistic infections," because they take advantage of a weakened immune system.
What is AIDS?
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a surveillance term defined by the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and by the European Centre for the Epidemiological Monitoring of AIDS (EuroHIV). The term AIDS applies to the most advanced stages of HIV infection, defined by the occurrence of any of more than 20 opportunistic infections or HIV-related cancers.
How is HIV transmitted?
HIV can be transmitted through unprotected sexual intercourse (vaginal or anal), and oral sex with an infected person; transfusion of contaminated blood; and the sharing of contaminated needles, syringes or other sharp instruments. It may also be transmitted between a mother and her infant during pregnancy, childbirth and breastfeeding.
How quickly does a person infected with HIV develop AIDS?
The length of time can vary widely between individuals. Left untreated, the majority of people infected with HIV will develop signs of HIV-related illness within 5-10 years. However, the time between HIV infection and an AIDS diagnosis can be 10–15 years, sometimes longer. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can slow the disease progression by decreasing an infected person’s viral load.
What is the most common life-threatening opportunistic infection affecting people living with HIV/AIDS?
Tuberculosis (TB) kills nearly a quarter of a million people living with HIV each year. It is the number one cause of death among HIV-infected people in Africa, and a leading cause of death in this population worldwide. Three core health-care strategies are critical to reverse the course of HIV/TB:
intensified case finding (ICF) for active TB
isoniazid preventive treatment (IPT)
TB infection control (IC).
More about the HIV/TB "dual epidemic"
How many people are living with HIV?
According to estimates by WHO and UNAIDS, 33.2 million people were living with HIV at the end of 2007. That same year, some 2.5 million people became newly infected, and 2.1 million died of AIDS, including 330 000 children. Two thirds of HIV infections are in sub-Saharan Africa.
How can I limit my risk of HIV transmission through sex?
Use male or female condoms correctly each time you have sex.
Practice only non-penetrative sex.
Remain faithful in a relationship with an uninfected equally faithful partner with no other risk behaviour.
Abstain from sex.
Does male circumcision prevent HIV transmission?
Recent studies suggest that male circumcision can reduce the risk of acquiring HIV though sex. However, it is not 100% effective, and circumcised men can still become infected. Circumcision can actually increase the risk of transmission if the wounds have not properly healed following surgery. In addition, HIV-positive men who are circumcised can infect their sexual partners.
While male circumcision is not a replacement for other known methods of HIV prevention, it should be considered as part of a comprehensive prevention strategy.
How effective are condoms in preventing HIV?
Quality-assured male and female condoms are the only products currently available to protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV. When used properly during every sexual intercourse, condoms are a proven means of preventing HIV infection in women and men. However, apart from abstinence, no protective method is 100% effective.
What is a female condom?
The female condom is the only female-controlled contraceptive barrier method currently on the market. The female condom is a strong, soft, transparent polyurethane sheath inserted in the vagina before sexual intercourse. It entirely lines the vagina and provides protection against both pregnancy and STIs, including HIV, when used correctly in each act of intercourse.
What is the benefit of an HIV test?
Knowing your HIV status can have two important benefits:
If you learn that you are HIV positive, you can take the necessary steps before symptoms appear to access treatment, care and support, thereby potentially prolonging your life for many years.
If you know that you are infected, you can take precautions to prevent the spread of HIV to others.
What are antiretroviral drugs?
Antiretroviral drugs are used in the treatment and prevention of HIV infection. They fight HIV by stopping or interfering with the reproduction of the virus in the body.
What is the current status of antiretroviral treatment (ART)?
Approximately 3 million people in low- and middle-income countries were receiving HIV antiretroviral therapy at the end of 2007. Until 2003, the high cost of the medicines, weak or inadequate health-care infrastructure, and lack of financing prevented wide use of combination antiretroviral treatment in low- and middle-income countries. But in recent years, increased political and financial commitment has allowed dramatic expansion of access to HIV therapy.
Is there a cure for HIV?
No, there is no cure for HIV. But with good and continued adherence to antiretroviral treatment, the progression of HIV in the body can be slowed to a near halt. Increasingly, people living with HIV are kept well and productive for extended periods of time, even in low-income countries.
What other kinds of care do people living with HIV need?
In addition to antiretroviral treatment, people with HIV often need counselling and psychosocial support. Access to good nutrition, safe water and basic hygiene can also help an HIV-infected person maintain a high quality of life.
HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector
Related links: http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/priorityinterventions/en/index.html
Download chapters separately
Produced by the World Health Organization, Priority interventions: HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment and care in the health sector is the definitive 'one-stop shop' designed to help countries, donors and other stakeholders expand and improve their response to one of the greatest health-care challenges of our time.
It includes everything from how to expand condom programming to the latest in treatment recommendations, guidelines and standards. Priority interventions is designed to be a 'living' web-based document that will be periodically updated with new recommendations based on the rapidly-evolving experience of health-sector scale up.
Download the complete document
Version 1.1 December 2008
English [pdf 1.97Mb]
French [pdf 2.21Mb]
[USMedEdu 于 2008-12-01 11:04:45 提到] [FROM: 10.]|
艾滋病毒扩散到中国高危人群之外 记者： 齐之丰