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08医学诺奖
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发表时间:2008-10-06
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德法科学家分享2008年度诺贝尔医学奖

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BBC 2008-10-06 08:47:00



德法科学家分享诺贝尔医学奖


2008年诺贝尔医学奖由一名德国科学家和两名法国科学家分享,以表彰他们在研究子宫颈癌和爱滋病方面取得的成就。


瑞典卡罗林斯卡医学院周一(6日)宣布,将2008年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖授予德国科学家哈拉尔德·楚尔·豪森及两名法国科学家弗朗索瓦丝·巴尔-西诺西和吕克·蒙塔尼。

豪森的获奖成就是发现了人乳头状瘤病毒(HPV),这种病毒是导致女性第二常见癌症--宫颈癌的罪魁祸首。

豪森将获得这一奖项的一半奖金,即500万瑞典克朗(约合70万美元)。

巴尔-西诺西和蒙塔尼的获奖成就是发现了人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV),也就是人们常说的爱滋病病毒。

两人将分别获得这一奖项的四分之一奖金,即250万瑞典克朗(约合35万美元)。

医学奖是每年诺贝尔奖项中第一个颁发的奖项。本周还将相继颁发物理学奖、化学奖、文学奖、和平奖以及经济学奖。


The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2008

Press Release
6 October 2008

The Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet has today decided to award
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for 2008 with one half to

Harald zur Hausen

for his discovery of \"human papilloma viruses causing cervical cancer\"

and the other half jointly to

Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier

for their discovery of \"human immunodeficiency virus\"

Summary
This year\'s Nobel Prize awards discoveries of two viruses causing severe human diseases.

Harald zur Hausen went against current dogma and postulated that oncogenic human papilloma virus (HPV) caused cervical cancer, the second most common cancer among women. He realized that HPV-DNA could exist in a non-productive state in the tumours, and should be detectable by specific searches for viral DNA. He found HPV to be a heterogeneous family of viruses. Only some HPV types cause cancer. His discovery has led to characterization of the natural history of HPV infection, an understanding of mechanisms of HPV-induced carcinogenesis and the development of prophylactic vaccines against HPV acquisition.

Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier discovered human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Virus production was identified in lymphocytes from patients with enlarged lymph nodes in early stages of acquired immunodeficiency, and in blood from patients with late stage disease. They characterized this retrovirus as the first known human lentivirus based on its morphological, biochemical and immunological properties. HIV impaired the immune system because of massive virus replication and cell damage to lymphocytes. The discovery was one prerequisite for the current understanding of the biology of the disease and its antiretroviral treatment.

Discovery of human papilloma virus causing cervical cancer
Against the prevailing view during the 1970s, Harald zur Hausen postulated a role for human papilloma virus (HPV) in cervical cancer. He assumed that the tumour cells, if they contained an oncogenic virus, should harbour viral DNA integrated into their genomes. The HPV genes promoting cell proliferation should therefore be detectable by specifically searching tumour cells for such viral DNA. Harald zur Hausen pursued this idea for over 10 years by searching for different HPV types, a search made difficult by the fact that only parts of the viral DNA were integrated into the host genome. He found novel HPV-DNA in cervix cancer biopsies, and thus discovered the new, tumourigenic HPV16 type in 1983. In 1984, he cloned HPV16 and 18 from patients with cervical cancer. The HPV types 16 and 18 were consistently found in about 70% of cervical cancer biopsies throughout the world.

Importance of the HPV discovery
The global public health burden attributable to human papilloma viruses is considerable. More than 5% of all cancers worldwide are caused by persistent infection with this virus. Infection by the human papilloma virus is the most common sexually transmitted agent, afflicting 50-80% of the population. Of the more than 100 HPV types known, about 40 infect the genital tract, and 15 of these put women at high risk for cervical cancer. In addition, HPV is found in some vulval, penile, oral and other cancers. Human papilloma virus can be detected in 99.7% of women with histologically confirmed cervical cancer, affecting some 500,000 women per year.

Harald zur Hausen demonstrated novel properties of HPV that have led to an understanding of mechanisms for papilloma virus-induced carcinogenesis and the predisposing factors for viral persistence and cellular transformation. He made HPV16 and 18 available to the scientific community. Vaccines were ultimately developed that provide ≥95 % protection from infection by the high risk HPV16 and 18 types. The vaccines may also reduce the need for surgery and the global burden of cervical cancer.

Discovery of HIV
Following medical reports of a novel immunodeficiency syndrome in 1981, the search for a causative agent was on. Françoise Barré-Sinoussi and Luc Montagnier isolated and cultured lymph node cells from patients that had swollen lymph nodes characteristic of the early stage of acquired immune deficiency. They detected activity of the retroviral enzyme reverse transcriptase, a direct sign of retrovirus replication. They also found retroviral particles budding from the infected cells. Isolated virus infected and killed lymphocytes from both diseased and healthy donors, and reacted with antibodies from infected patients. In contrast to previously characterized human oncogenic retroviruses, the novel retrovirus they had discovered, now known as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), did not induce uncontrolled cell growth. Instead, the virus required cell activation for replication and mediated cell fusion of T lymphocytes. This partly explained how HIV impairs the immune system since the T cells are essential for immune defence. By 1984, Barré-Sinoussi and Montagnier had obtained several isolates of the novel human retrovirus, which they identified as a lentivirus, from sexually infected individuals, haemophiliacs, mother to infant transmissions and transfused patients. The significance of their achievements should be viewed in the context of a global ubiquitous epidemic affecting close to 1% of the population.

Importance of the HIV discovery
Soon after the discovery of the virus, several groups contributed to the definitive demonstration of HIV as the cause of acquired human immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Barré-Sinoussi and Montagnier\'s discovery made rapid cloning of the HIV-1 genome possible. This has allowed identification of important details in its replication cycle and how the virus interacts with its host. Furthermore, it led to development of methods to diagnose infected patients and to screen blood
products, which has limited the spread of the pandemic. The unprecedented development of several classes of new antiviral drugs is also a result of knowledge of the details of the viral replication cycle. The combination of prevention and treatment has substantially decreased spread of the disease and dramatically increased life expectancy among treated patients. The cloning of HIV enabled studies of its origin and evolution. The virus was probably passed to humans from chimpanzees in West Africa early in the 20th century, but it is still unclear why the epidemic spread so dramatically from 1970 and onwards.

Identification of virus−host interactions has provided information on how HIV evades the host’s immune system by impairing lymphocyte function, by constantly changing and by hiding its genome in the host lymphocyte DNA, making its eradication in the infected host difficult even after long-term antiviral treatment. Extensive knowledge about these unique viral host interactions has, however, generated results that can provide ideas for future vaccine development as well as for therapeutic approaches targeting viral latency.

HIV has generated a novel pandemic. Never before has science and medicine been so quick to discover, identify the origin and provide treatment for a new disease entity. Successful anti-retroviral therapy results in life expectancies for persons with HIV infection now reaching levels similar to those of uninfected people.



Harald zur Hausen, born 1936 in Germany, German citizen, MD at University of Düsseldorf, Germany. Professor emeritus and former Chairman and Scientific Director, German Cancer Research Centre, Heidelberg, Germany.

Françoise Barré-Sinoussi, born 1947 in France, French citizen, PhD in virology, Institut Pasteur, Garches, France. Professor and Director, Regulation of Retroviral Infections Unit, Virology Department, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.

Luc Montagnier, born 1932 in France, French citizen, PhD in virology, University of Paris, Paris, France. Professor emeritus and Director, World Foundation for AIDS Research and Prevention, Paris, France.

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1   [USMedEdu 于 2008-10-07 05:49:23 提到] [FROM: 10.]
新华网北京10月6日电
以下为2000年至2007年诺贝尔生理学或医学奖获奖者名单及其主要成就:

2007年,美国科学家马里奥·卡佩基、奥利弗·史密斯和英国科学家马丁·埃文斯。他们的一系列突破性发现为“基因靶向”技术的发展奠定了基础,使深入研究单个基因在动物体内的功能并提供相关药物试验的动物模型成为可能。

2006年,美国科学家安德鲁·法尔和克雷格·梅洛。他们发现了核糖核酸(RNA)干扰机制,这一机制已被广泛用作研究基因功能的一种手段,并有望在未来帮助科学家开发出治疗疾病的新疗法。

2005年,澳大利亚科学家巴里·马歇尔和罗宾·沃伦。他们发现了导致人类罹患胃炎、胃溃疡和十二指肠溃疡的罪魁——幽门螺杆菌,革命性地改变了世人对这些疾病的认识。

2004年,美国科学家理查德·阿克塞尔和琳达·巴克。他们在气味受体和嗅觉系统组织方式研究中做出贡献,揭示了人类嗅觉系统的奥秘。

2003年,美国科学家保罗·劳特布尔和英国科学家彼得·曼斯菲尔德。他们在核磁共振成像技术上获得关键性发现,这些发现最终导致核磁共振成像仪的出现。

2002年,英国科学家悉尼·布雷内、约翰·苏尔斯顿和美国科学家罗伯特·霍维茨。他们为研究器官发育和程序性细胞死亡过程中的基因调节作用做出了重大贡献。

2001年,美国科学家利兰·哈特韦尔、英国科学家保罗·纳斯和蒂莫西·亨特。他们发现了导致细胞分裂的关键性调节机制,这一发现为研究治疗癌症的新方法开辟了途径。

2000年,瑞典科学家阿尔维德·卡尔松、美国科学家保罗·格林加德和埃里克·坎德尔。他们在研究脑细胞间信号的相互传递方面获得了重要发现。
 
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