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口腔护理与保健(中)
作者:home99
发表时间:2015-12-25
更新时间:2015-12-25
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真是时光飞逝,不敢相信一眨眼又一年圣诞!首先恭祝所有朋友们圣诞快乐!Have a holly jolly Christmas!

大宝本来盼着White Christmas,但圣诞夜感觉夏天一样,我们不得不改开空调,呵呵。今天也是70多度,小宝穿着一件新的Christmas dress就陪妈妈去Walmart转转,因为网上说是24小时开,虽然圣诞应该everything is closed。一路上果然没见几辆车,店前几乎没有车,所以没开近,只是加了油便回家。看来还是没有Black Friday提前到Thanksgiving Day的那种疯狂啊,呵呵。

下面还是继续完成这个话题的有关资料,仅供JMs需要时参考啊!只是今年实在过得飞快,飞马加鞭,猴年马上就要到来了,呵呵。


●Oral Diseases口腔疾病
●Oral Problems口腔问题

―――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――――
Oral Diseases口腔疾病

★Oral Diseases─Periodontal Disease口腔疾病─牙周病
★Oral Diseases─Dental Caries口腔疾病─蛀牙
★Oral Diseases─Aphthous Ulcer口腔疾病─复发性口疮(飞滋)
★Oral Diseases─Recurrent Herpetic Labialis口腔疾病─复发性唇疱疹(唇疮)
★Oral Diseases─Oral Tumour口腔疾病─口腔肿瘤(口腔癌)
★Oral Diseases─Angular Cheilitis口腔疾病─口角炎
★Oral Diseases─Denture induced Stomatitis口腔疾病─牙托性口炎

**************************************
Oral Diseases─Periodontal Disease口腔疾病─牙周病

A. Who is prone to having Periodontal Disease? 那些人会容易患上牙周病?

The toxins released by the bacteria in dental plaque which has accumulated along the gum margin for a period of time irritate the periodontal tissues (tooth supporting tissues) and lead to Periodontal Disease. 牙周病是牙齿周围组织的疾病。由积聚在牙龈(牙肉)边缘的牙菌膜分泌毒素令牙周组织发炎所引致。

Under the following situations, you are prone to having Periodontal Disease如果有以下情况,就会容易患上牙周病:

1. Accumulation of dental plaque牙菌膜积聚
●Wearing dentures that are not thoroughly cleaned戴上没有彻底清洁的假牙
──Dental plaque and food debris easily accumulate in the space between the denture and the gingivae (gum). 牙菌膜和食物渣滓容易积藏在假牙与牙龈之间的罅隙
●Accumulation of calculus牙石积聚
──The rough surface of calculus allows dental plaque to build up more easily. 牙石粗糙的表面令牙菌膜更易积聚
●Irregular teeth牙齿排列不整齐
──The irregular alignment of teeth makes it difficult to clean these teeth. 牙齿排列不整齐令牙齿难於清洁

2. Smoking吸烟
Smokers have five times greater chance to suffer from Periodontal Disease than non-smokers because吸烟的人患牙周病的机会比非吸烟者高出五倍以上。原因是:
●Early symptoms of Periodontal Disease is less noticeable in smokers吸烟令轻微牙周病徵状不明显
──Smoking makes early symptoms of Periodontal Disease such as swollen gums and bleeding while brushing less noticeable because chemicals in cigarettes such as nicotine cause blood vessel constriction. As the bleeding symptom is not obvious, it is not easy to discover that the gingivae have been inflamed. As a result, the Periodontal Disease will aggravate unnoticed. 香烟中的化学成分如尼古丁会令血管收缩。牙周病初期徵状是牙龈发炎,刷牙时容易出血,但由於血管收缩,出血现象不明显,患者容易察觉牙龈已经发炎,牙周病便不知不觉地恶化起来。
●Smoking lowers the body resistance and therefore lowers the healing capability of patients with Periodontal Disease吸烟降低身体的抵抗力,令牙周病患者的康复能力降低
──Nicotine in cigarettes lowers the healing capability of oral tissues, retards the healing process and causes the Periodontal Disease to worsen. 香烟中的尼古丁会削弱牙周组织的愈合的能力,使组织复原缓慢,导致牙周病愈趋严重。

3. Stress压力
Stress lowers the body resistance towards illnesses including Periodontal Disease. 压力减低身体抵抗疾病包括牙周病的能力。

4. Hormonal changes during pregnancy怀孕期贺尔蒙分泌改变
Because of the hormonal changes during pregnancy, the periodontal tissue of an expectant mother is more susceptible to the irritation of toxins released by the dental plaque, resulting in red, swollen and bleeding gums. This is called “Pregnancy Gingivitis”. 怀孕期间,由於荷尔蒙分泌改变,孕妇的牙龈容易受牙菌膜分泌的毒素刺激而红肿和出血,这现象称为「妊娠期牙龈炎」。

5. Systemic diseases患系统性疾病如糖尿病、白血病、爱滋病
Systemic diseases such as Diabetes Mellitus, Leukaemia, and AIDS, lower the resistance of the periodontal tissues towards bacterial infection. Bacteria inside the dental plaque will intrude and cause Periodontal Disease if the oral cavity isn't thoroughly cleaned. Furthermore, the healing capability is also lowered in patients suffering from these diseases, and it is more difficult for them to recover from Periodontal Disease. Therefore, Periodontal Disease is more progressive and severe in these patients. 这些疾病会减低牙齿周围组织抵抗细菌的能力,如果患者没有彻底清洁口腔,牙菌膜的细菌就容易入侵,导致牙周病。另一方面,病患者的复原能力亦较低,他们患上牙周病後亦较一般人难於痊愈,因此牙周病病情会迅速恶化,变成严重的牙周病。

6. Intake of medications服食某些药物如降血压药、抗癫痫症药
Intake of medications such as anti-hypertensive and anti-convulsant drugs stimulates the multiplication and activity of fibroblasts (a type of cells) in the gingivae and causes gingival swelling. Dental plaque that accumulates in the swollen gingivae is difficult to be cleaned, which leads to more gingival inflammation and further swelling. 这类药物令牙龈的纤维细胞增生,导致牙龈肿胀,以致在肿胀了的牙龈与牙齿之间的牙菌膜难於清除,使牙龈容易红肿发炎。

B. Consequences of Periodontal Disease牙周病引致的後果
●Besides red, swollen gums and bad breath, people with periodontal disease will suffer from gum recession, widening of space between teeth (interdental space), mobile and drifting teeth, or even loss of affected teeth. On top of the adverse effect on the person's appearance, it also greatly lowers his/her self-esteem. It will interfere with his/her normal social life. 患上牙周病的人,除了牙龈红肿、有口臭外,严重的还会有牙龈萎缩、牙缝增阔、牙齿松动移位,甚至整颗牙齿会松脱。这样不但有损牙周病患者的仪容,大大削弱了他们的自信心,而且还会妨碍他们的正常社交生活。
●Furthermore, gum recession will lead to exposed root surfaces, which makes the teeth sensitive when taking hot, cold, sweet, or sour food. Severe periodontal disease will also cause loosening, drifting or even loss of affected teeth, which makes chewing difficult and inefficient. It adversely affects the general health and the quality of life. 此外,牙龈萎缩後会令牙齿变得敏感,当进食冷热甜酸的食物时便会感到疼痛。不但如此,严重的牙周病会令牙齿松动、移位甚至脱落,亦会令患者咀嚼食物时感到困难及无力,影响患者的生活素质及身体健康。
●If a person who wears a denture suffers from Periodontal Disease, the denture may become unfit because of the destruction of periodontal tissues. A new denture may need to be made. 假如患者镶配了假牙,大量的牙周组织萎缩,会使假牙托最终变得不合戴,那麽便需要重新镶配一副合适的假牙了。


C. How do I know if I have Periodontal Disease? 怎样知道自己有没有患上牙周病?

The early signs of Periodontal Disease are redness and swelling of the gingivae which also bleed easily. However, it should better be confirmed by the dentist's diagnosis. 牙龈红肿及出血是牙周病最早期的病徵,要确知自己是否患上牙周病,最妥当还是找牙科医生详细检查。

1. Mild Periodontal Disease轻微牙周病

Symptoms徵状:
●Gingival margin is red and swollen牙龈边缘红肿
●Gingivae (gum) bleed easily upon toothbrushing刷牙时牙龈容易出血
●Calculus may be accumulated可能有牙石积聚
●The teeth or gingivae may be painful可能有牙龈疼痛
●Bad breath有口臭

Management处理方法:
●Use oral care products such as toothbrush, dental floss, etc. to remove the dental plaque everyday in the morning and before bed at night. 每天早晚用牙刷、牙线等口腔护理用品,彻底清除牙菌膜。
●If calculus is present, have it removed by scaling by the dentist in order to facilitate your daily removal of dental plaque. 如果有牙石,便需要洗牙。牙石清除後,要清除牙菌膜便会更容易、更彻底。

Then, the area with mild Periodontal Disease will heal by itself. 这样,轻微牙周病是可以自然痊愈的!

2. Moderate Periodontal Disease中度牙周病

Symptoms徵状:
●Gingival margin shows marked redness and swelling牙龈边缘严重红肿
●Gingivae always bleeds upon toothbrushing刷牙时经常出血
●Gingival margin recedes, leading to the exposure of the root of the tooth and the tooth looks longer牙龈萎缩,部分牙根露出,使牙齿看来长了
●Periodontal pocket is formed (The inflammation of periodontal tissues leads to the destruction of periodontal membrane. The periodontal tissues and the root of the tooth become detached and a periodontal pocket is formed in between.) 牙周袋出现 (牙周组织发炎令牙周膜受破坏,导致牙周组织和牙根分离,形成牙周袋。)
●Calculus is accumulated牙石积聚
●Bad breath有口臭
●The teeth or gingivae may be painful可能有牙龈疼痛

Management处理方法:
●Go and see a dentist immediately for scaling to remove the calculus and the dental plaque in the periodontal pocket. After the removal of calculus, it will be easier to thoroughly remove the dental plaque. 尽快约见牙科医生,让他为你洗牙,藉此清除牙石及牙周袋内的牙菌膜。牙石清除後,要清除牙菌膜便会更容易、更彻底。
●Use oral care products such as toothbrush, dental floss, etc., to remove the dental plaque everyday in the morning and before bed at night in order to prevent Periodontal Disease from progressing or recurring. 治疗期间,每天早晚用牙刷、牙线等口腔护理用品彻底清除牙菌膜,防止病情恶化。
●After treated by a dentist, you must maintain good oral care habits and visit the dentist regularly for oral check-up. 经牙科医生治疗後,要保持良好的口腔护理习惯及定期往见牙科医生,接受口腔检查。

3. Severe Periodontal Disease严重牙周病

Symptoms徵状:
●Gingival margin shows marked redness and swelling牙龈边缘严重红肿
●Gingivae always bleed during tooth brushing刷牙时经常出血
●Periodontal tissues recede markedly and the tooth looks longer and longer牙周组织萎缩加剧,牙齿看起来愈来愈长
●Periodontal pocket is formed, pus exudes from the gingival margins and periodontal abscess may be formed牙周袋出现,牙龈边缘有脓液渗出,甚至有牙疮
●Calculus is accumulated牙石积聚
●Bad breath有口臭
●The teeth or gingivae may be painful可能有牙龈疼痛
●The affected tooth becomes loose and drifts away from its original position牙齿变松或移位
●The affected tooth may even fall out牙齿甚至脱落

Management处理方法:
●See a dentist immediately for尽快约见牙科医生,寻求适当的治疗,例如:
──Scaling to remove the calculus洗牙以清除牙石
──Root planing or periodontal surgery to remove the dental plaque and calculus on the roots of the teeth and in the periodontal pockets. 进行牙根刮治或牙周手术(清除牙周袋及牙根上的牙菌膜和牙石)
──Receive antibiotic therapy as needed牙科医生可能会视乎情况处方抗生素供患者服用
●Use oral care products such as toothbrush, dental floss, etc. to thoroughly remove dental plaque everyday in the morning and before bed at night so as to control the progression of the disease. 治疗期间每天早晚用牙刷、牙线等口腔护理用品彻底清除牙菌膜,以控制病情。
●After treated by a dentist, you must maintain good oral care habits and visit the dentist regularly for oral check-up. 经牙科医生治疗後,要保持良好的口腔护理习惯及定期往见牙科医生,接受口腔检查。

D. What can I do if I have Periodontal Disease? 患上牙周病怎麽办?

1. Clean your teeth thoroughly everyday in the morning and before bed at night to remove dental plaque. 每天早、晚清洁牙齿,彻底清除牙菌膜

2. Receive appropriate treatment for your condition按病况接受适切的牙科治疗:
●Scaling洗牙
●Root planing or Periodontal surgery牙根刮治或牙周手术
The aim of root planing is to eliminate the periodontal pocket by removing the dental plaque and calculus in the periodontal pocket and on the root surface of the tooth so that the periodontal tissues may re-attach onto the root surface. 这种治疗的目的是清除牙周袋及牙根上的牙菌膜及牙石,好让牙周组织和牙根再次愈合,使牙周袋消失。
──Root planing牙根刮治
──Deep scaling of the root surface of a tooth by appropriate dental instruments. 利用牙科仪器清刮牙根。
──Periodontal surgery牙周手术
──A gingival flap is raised to expose the root of a tooth so that root planing is possible. This treatment is appropriate for managing very deep periodontal pockets. 利用手术翻开牙龈,使牙科仪器清刮牙根。这手术适合治疗深长的牙周袋。

E. Can I prevent Periodontal Disease? 我不想患牙周病,可以吗?

Of course you can. You only need to可以的,你只要:

1. Thoroughly remove dental plaque彻底清除牙菌膜
●Clean your teeth thoroughly everyday in the morning and before bed at night especially along the gum margin. 每天早晚刷牙清洁牙齿尤其清洁牙龈边缘的位置。
●Toothbrushing alone cannot effectively clean the adjacent surfaces of teeth. Therefore, it is necessary to use the dental floss to clean the teeth once daily. 单靠刷牙是不能有效地清洁牙齿邻面的,因此还需每天使用牙线清洁牙齿一次。
●People with fixed bridge should also thoroughly clean their teeth; especially clean the areas underneath the fixed bridge with superfloss. 配固定假牙(牙挢)人士都应彻底清洁牙齿,尤其注意牙挢底部的位置,要使用特效牙线来清洁。
●People with removable denture must clean their teeth every night before bed, and then immerse the denture into a glass of water overnight. 配戴活动假牙托的人士须每晚睡前把活动假牙托除下清洗及刷干净牙齿,然后把假牙托于清水中浸过夜。

2. Have an oral check-up at least once a year. 每年最少检查口腔一次
The dentist will give you oral health instructions and suggestions on toothbrushing and flossing techniques to improve your oral health. Because toothbrushing cannot remove calculus, you can also have a scaling during the same appointment. After calculus removal, it will be much easier to clean the teeth. Initial stage periodontal disease can also be discovered and treated. 牙科医生会给予个别的口腔护理指导,提出改善清洁牙齿技巧的建议。由於刷牙是不能清除牙石的,因此往见牙医作定期检查时,可顺道接受洗牙治疗。清除牙石後,牙齿便更容易清洁。如有牙周病,也可以及早发现和接受治疗。

To avoid "Pregnancy Gingivitis", expectant mothers should receive a dental check-up during the forth to sixth month of pregnancy because the infant is more stable at this time and it is more convenient for expectant mothers to receive treatment. 为了避免患上「妊娠期牙龈炎」,准妈妈应在怀孕期四至六个月,往见牙医接受口腔检查及治疗,因为在这段期间,胎儿的情况比较稳定,而准妈妈接受治疗时亦比较方便。

3. To maintain good physical and mental health. 保持身心健康

4. Do not try the first puff of cigarette切勿尝试第一口烟
If you are already a smoker, you should quit smoking as soon as possible. 如果已是吸烟者,便应尽快戒掉吸烟的习惯。

**************************************
Oral Diseases─Dental Caries口腔疾病─蛀牙

Dental caries refers to a condition where the structure of a tooth is damaged. The damage starts from the enamel at the surface and gradually spreads into the inner structures of the tooth. 蛀牙是指牙齿受到破坏,由牙齿表面的珐琅质开始,逐渐蔓延至牙齿的深层组织。

A. Why does a tooth become decayed? 牙齿为甚麽会蛀坏?
The tooth surfaces are normally covered with dental plaque. Every time food or drinks are consumed, the bacteria in the dental plaque will metabolise the sugars in your food to produce acids, which will cause the loss of minerals from tooth surfaces.牙齿表面经常黏附着一层牙菌膜。每次吃喝时,牙菌膜的细菌会利用食物中的碳水化合物 (糖分和淀粉) 产生酸素,令珐琅质的矿物质流失。

Although saliva can neutralize the acids and slow down the standardize process, it takes a long period of time to do so. If we eat and drink frequently, the acid cannot be adequately neutralise by the saliva, and the continuous demineralization will eventually result in formation of Dental Caries. 虽然唾液有中和酸素的作用,能够阻止矿物质持续流失,可是需要一段颇长的时间中和酸素。如果吃喝次数频密,唾液便不能有效发挥作用,牙齿表面的矿物质便会持续流失,形成蛀牙。

B. Symptoms and treatment of Dental Caries蛀牙的徵状和治疗方法

★Early Dental Caries蛀牙刚开始:
The early stage of dental caries occurs in the enamel of a tooth. Early Dental Caries is usually painless and the tooth surface seems intact when examined by the naked eye. Caries at the adjacent tooth surfaces are even more difficult to be detected, and they often need to be confirmed by X-ray. 患初期蛀牙的部位发生在牙齿的珐琅质,不会有痛的感觉,而且牙齿表面通常是完整的,肉眼看不见有蛀洞。牙齿邻面这部位的蛀牙就更难察觉。有时需照X-光片才能确定。

Treatment治疗方法:
The early caries lesions can be repaired by highly concentrated topical fluoride applied by dentist. 牙科医生可以在患有初期蛀牙的部位涂上高浓度的氟化物,令初期蛀坏的部分还原。

★Dental Caries spreads into dentine蛀牙蔓延至象牙质:
A cavity appears on the tooth, and pain is felt when eating. 牙齿出现蛀洞,进食时会感到牙齿疼痛。

Treatment治疗方法:
●A filling can be placed if the caries lesion is relatively small and the structure of the tooth remains strong. 如果蛀坏部分不大,牙齿还很坚固时进行补牙
●A crown has to be made when caries lesion is wide-spread and the remaining tooth structure is weak. 如果蛀坏的范围变得广泛,牙齿已很脆弱时进行镶制人造牙冠

★Dental Caries spreads into pulp蛀牙蔓延至牙髓:
At this stage, the caries lesion is very obvious and causes severe pain. The pulp tissues are infected by the bacteria and may become necrotic. The bacteria may even spread from the pulp to the surrounding periodontal tissues via the apex of the tooth, cause inflammation and lead to the formation of abscess. 牙齿出现明显蛀洞,产生剧痛。牙髓有机会受细菌感染而坏死,细菌甚至会从牙髓经牙根部分扩散至附近的牙周组织,引致发炎或脓肿。

Treatment治疗方法:
●Endodontic treatment followed by filling or crown, depending on the condition of the remaining tooth structure. 牙髓治疗(杜牙根),如有需要,会镶配人造牙冠
●If pulp treatment is not applicable, an extraction will be necessary. 如果牙科医生认为不适合进行牙髓治疗便需要脱牙

C. People who are more prone to having dental Caries特别容易患上蛀牙的人士

People with dry mouth口部乾涸的人士
Seniors tend to have dry mouth because their salivary glands have degenerated over the years. Chances of having dental caries increase because there isn't enough saliva to neutralize the acid produced by dental plaque. Some of them also take anti-hypertensive and anti-depressant drugs which will cause dryness in the mouth. 口部乾涸的人士如长者,由於唾液腺衰退,因而没有足够唾液中和酸素,以致蛀牙的机会增加。服用某些药物,如某些降血压药、抗抑郁药等,亦会引致口部乾涸。

People receiving Radiotherapy接受放射治疗後的人士
Amount of salivary production will significantly decrease for those who had received radiotherapy in the head and neck area. Therefore, chances of having dental caries will greatly increase because there isn't enough saliva to neutralize the acid produced by dental plaque after they eat and drink. 由於头颈部有肿瘤的人士接受放射治疗後,唾液分泌会大大减少,因此他们吃喝时,便没有足够唾液中和细菌所产生的酸素,蛀牙的机会便会大大提高。

Pregnant women孕妇
Dietary habits of pregnant women may change and they tend to prefer sweet and sour food. The frequency of meals may also increase during pregnancy, which results in a higher risk of getting dental caries. 妇女怀孕时,胃口会改变,喜欢吃甜酸的食物,吃喝的次数亦变得频密,因此患上蛀牙的机会便增加。

D. Consequences of dental caries蛀牙引致的後果
●The cavity emits unpleasant odour and causes bad breath. This directly affects the normal social life. 蛀坏的部分会发出异味,导致口臭,直接影响日常的社交生活。
●Dental caries may lead to persistent pain, which affects one's appetite, studies, work, sleep, or even general health. 蛀牙可能会带来持续不断的疼痛,影响食欲、学业、工作、睡眠,甚至身体健康。
●When there is severe dental caries, the bacteria may spread from the pulp to the surrounding periodontal tissues via the apex of the tooth, cause inflammation and lead to the formation of dental abscess. 蛀牙严重时,细菌甚至可能从牙髓经牙根部分扩散到附近的牙周组织,引致发炎或脓肿 。
●If a tooth is severely damaged that even pulp treatment cannot be done, an extraction is necessary. After the extraction, the neighbouring teeth will shift toward the empty space and cause bad alignment of teeth. 若牙齿受到严重破坏,进行牙髓治疗可能亦无法把牙齿修复,这样,就必须拨除牙齿。拨除牙齿後,附近的牙齿就会向空位移位,造成牙齿移位。
●If the teeth which support a denture had been extracted due to dental caries, a new denture has to be made. 如果配戴假牙的人士因蛀牙而令牙齿脱落,便需改配另一副假牙。

E. Methods to prevent Dental Caries预防患上蛀牙的方法
●Keep a good dietary habit培养良好的饮食习惯
Every time when we eat or drink, demineralization occurs at the surface of our teeth and creates a chance for getting dental caries. The more often we eat or drink, the greater the chances for us to have dental caries. Therefore, having regular meals three times a day with sufficient amount of food during each meal will reduce the frequency of meals we have, and thus reduce the chance of getting dental caries. Avoid snacking in between meals. If you feel hungry in between meals, you may snack once. When you feel thirsty, just drink plain water to quench thirst. 每次吃喝时,牙齿表面的矿物质便会流失,造成一次蛀牙的机会,而吃喝的次数越多,蛀牙的机会越大。因此早、午、晚三餐要定时,并且分量要足够,避免在正餐以外的时间进食,以减少吃喝次数,口渴时只喝清水,这样便可以减少蛀牙的机会。如果两餐之间真的感到饿,可以吃一次茶点。
●Brush your teeth with fluoride toothpaste in the morning and before bed at night早晚用含氟化物牙膏刷牙
Fluoride strengthens the teeth by increasing their resistance to acid attack. Fluoride also facilitates mineral to re-enter the teeth (remineralization) and helps repair early caries lesions. Therefore, you should brush twice daily with fluoride toothpaste. 氟化物可以巩固牙齿,使牙齿不易受酸素侵袭,氟化物亦有助流失的矿物质返回牙齿,使初期蛀牙复原。所以,应每天早上起床及晚上睡前用含氟化物的牙膏刷牙。
●Have annual regular dental check-up每年定期检查口腔
Have regular dental check-up at least once a year so that early dental caries can be diagnosed at an early stage. Preventive dental treatments such as fissure sealants can be applied when appropriate. 每年最少接受一次口腔检查,及早发现蛀牙,并按需要接受预防蛀牙的治疗,如涂上窝沟封闭剂(牙纹防蛀剂)治疗。

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Oral Diseases─Aphthous Ulcer (Canker Sores) 口腔疾病─复发性口疮(飞滋)

Aphthous Ulcer is a form of mouth ulcer that is non-infectious but tends to recur. It is commonly present on the oral mucosa of the cheeks, lips, tongue and throat. 飞滋是一种复发性口疮,是出现在口腔软组织上的溃疡。这些软组织包括面颊、口唇和喉咙的黏膜及舌面。飞滋是不会传染的。

A. Symptoms徵状

Aphthous Ulcer begins with a localised swelling of the affected oral mucosa to form a small round or oval shaped blister. After a day, the blister bursts and becomes a whitish or yellowish ulcer with a red margin. When irritated by spicy, salty or sour food with strong taste, pain will be felt and saliva secretion will be increased. 飞滋会令口腔黏膜肿胀。开始时是椭圆形或圆形的小泡。过了一天後飞滋边缘变成红色,中央则呈微黄或灰白色、微凹的溃疡。受到辛辣、咸、酸等味道浓郁的食物刺激,会更感疼痛和唾液增多。

B. Causes of Aphthous Ulcer飞滋的诱因

To date, the aetiology of Aphthous Ulcer has not been confirmed. However, the predisposing factors are known as follows飞滋没有明确的成因,但可能与以下诱因有关:
●Oral tissue trauma口部创伤
●Stress精神压力
●Problem in endocrine system, i.e. hormonal disturbance内分泌失调,例如荷尔蒙分泌不平衡
●Immune system disorder身体免疫系统失调
●Gut problems肠胃失调
●Malnutrition (especially the deficiency of Vitamin B12, folic acid, iron, etc.) 维他命B12、叶酸、铁质不足
●Wearing an unfit denture配戴不合适的假牙

C. Treatment处理方法

Aphthous Ulcer usually heals within 7 to 14 days. If the situation persists for more than 3 weeks or there is recurrent formation of new aphthous ulcers, you should consult a doctor for a body check-up to see if other treatments are necessary. 飞滋一般会在7至14天内痊愈,若情况持续多过三周或经常长出飞滋,便要约见医生作身体检查,看看是否需要接受其他治疗。

Aphthous Ulcer usually heals up within 2 weeks. To avoid pain, you can: 飞滋会在两星期内自行愈合。为免引致痛楚,可叁考以下方法:
●Avoid contacting the area when brushing刷牙时避免碰触患处
●Avoid eating hard, coarse, hot or spicy food避免进食粗硬、太热或辛辣食物
●Apply ointment prescribed by the doctor or dentist onto the area to relief pain在患处涂搽医生或牙科医生处方的药膏以纾缓痛楚
●If you are wearing an unfit denture, you should consult your dentist to make a new denture如因配戴不合适的假牙,便应找牙科医生改配另一副假牙。

D. Method to prevent recurrent Aphthous Ulcer预防「生飞滋」的方法

Since the aetiology of Aphthous Ulcer has not been confirmed, the only way to prevent recurrence is by eliminating the predisposing factors. 由於「生飞滋」的成因还未确定,预防的方法只有尽量避免可能诱发飞滋产生的因素。

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Oral Diseases─Recurrent Herpetic Labialis (Cold Sore) 口腔疾病─复发性唇疱疹(唇疮)

Recurrent Herpetic Labialis is a sign of infection caused by Herpes Simplex I virus. The infection usually occurs on the lips and the edge of the nostril. The exudates contain Herpes Simplex I virus which is highly infectious. 唇疮是受到疱疹一型病毒感染后所引致的征状,通常出现在嘴唇和鼻孔边缘,唇疮的分泌物含有疱疹一型病毒,具有传染性。

1. Symptoms徵状

When the symptoms start to appear, there is an itchy and burning sensation in the affected area where blisters will later be formed. When the blisters burst, they become shallow ulcers of varying shapes. 当唇疮开始出现时,患者会感到患处痕痒和灼热,然後会发现患处出现一撮小水泡。当水泡破裂後,便变为形状不一的溃疡。

2. Why is there Recurrent Herpetic Labialis? 为甚麽会长唇疮?

After recovery from Primary Herpetic Stomatitis, the Herpes Simplex I virus becomes dormant in the body. The virus will become active again whenever the body resistance is low, causing Recurrent Herpetic Labialis. Factors leading to low body resistance include曾经受过疱疹一型病毒感染者,病毒会潜伏在身体内。当身体的抵抗力下降时,这些病毒便会再次活跃起来造成感染。导致抵抗力下降的因素包括:
●Mental stress精神压力
●Physical fatigue疲劳过度
●Influenza or other diseases感冒或其他疾病
●Menstruation月经周期
●Sun bathing/Ultraviolet(UV) radiation from lamps晒太阳/紫外光灯
●AIDS艾滋病
●Cancer癌病

3. Treatment处理方法
Recurrent Herpetic Labialis will usually heal within 2 weeks. To avoid pain or passing the virus to others, you can try the following methods: 唇疮一般会在两星期内自动痊愈,为免引致痛楚或把病毒传染他人,可叁考以下方法:
●Keep the affected area clean and dry to avoid bacterial infection. 患者应尽量保持患处清洁及乾爽,以免细菌感染
●Avoid eating hard or spicy food which will irritate the affected area. 避免进食辛辣及硬的食物,以免刺激患处
●Avoid touching the affected area with your hands. Wash your hands immediately after touching the affected area. This could prevent the spread of the infection to other people or to other parts of your body such as the eyes or the genital organs, leading to keratitis or other skin infection respectively. 避免用手碰触患处,如碰触後应立即洗手,以免身体其他部分,例如眼睛、性器官等受到病毒感染而引致角膜炎或其他皮肤病
●Avoid intimate contact with others, such as kissing. 避免亲密接触,例如接吻
●You may consult your doctor's or dentist's opinion for applying medicated ointment onto the affected area to relieve discomfort. 可徵询医生或牙科医生的意见,使用药膏涂在患处以舒缓不适
●In severe cases, doctors will prescribe medication to reduce pain. 如果病徵严重,医生会建议服用药物以减低痛楚

4. Prevention预防方法

Herpes Simplex I virus remains dormant in the nerve cells of the body. There is neither medication therapy nor treatment modality that can completely destroy the virus. Therefore, the only thing we can do to prevent its recurrence is to increase our body resistance. For example: 引起唇疮的疱疹一型病毒会潜伏在身体的神经结内。目前,还没有药物或治疗方法可以把这病毒彻底消灭。要避免唇疮复发,我们只有增加身体的抵抗力,例如:
●Maintaining a healthy lifestyle保持身心愉快
●Having enough rest充分休息
●Having balanced diet均衡饮食
●Having sufficient exercise适量运动

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Oral Diseases─Oral Tumour (Oral Cancer) 口腔疾病─口腔肿瘤(口腔癌)

Oral tumour is the irregular growth or mutation of hard or soft oral tissues in the mouth. It mostly occurs in elderly person. Oral tumour can be classified as benign or malignant tumours. Malignant tumour is commonly known as oral cancer, which can spread to other parts of the body and can be fatal. Therefore, if there is any uncommon manifestation appearing in the oral tissue, consult your doctor or dentist immediately for a detailed examination and seek appropriate treatment. 口腔肿瘤是口腔内的硬或软组织出现不正常的增生或病变,多发生在长者身上。口腔肿瘤可分为良性肿瘤和恶性肿瘤。恶性肿瘤亦即是口腔癌,恶性肿瘤是会蔓延的,会对生命构成威胁,因此一旦发现口腔组织出现异常现象,便应立即找牙科医生作详细检查,寻求适当的治疗,切勿延误。

1. Causes成因

Up to date, we are still unsure of the causes of oral tumour but it is closely related to the following factors至今还未能确定口腔肿瘤的成因,但以下的因素和它则有密切的关系:
●Physical factors物理因素
──Taking overly-hot food or drinks for an extended period of time, wearing unfit dentures that damage oral tissues for a long period of time, long term exposure to strong sunlight, or radiation can all cause mutation of oral tissues. 长期吃喝过热的食物,配戴不合适的假牙托以致口腔组织长期受损、长期受猛烈阳光照射或受到放射性物质伤害等都有可能令口腔内的组织出现病变。
●Chemical factors化学因素
──Chemicals such as nicotine and tar inside cigarettes, alcohol or betel nut juice will slowly destroy oral tissue. Therefore, smoking, tobacco chewing, excessive intake of alcohol, or chewing betel nut for a long period of time may lead to oral tumour. 化学物质例如烟草中的尼古丁和焦油、酒精、或槟榔的汁液等会慢慢地破坏口腔组织,所以长期地吸烟、咀嚼烟草、过量喝酒或咀嚼槟榔都有机会引致口腔肿瘤。
● Infected by virus or bacteria受病毒或细菌感染
──Virus such as EB Virus and bacteria such as syphilis are closely related to oral tumour. 病毒如 EB virus、细菌如梅毒和口腔肿瘤都有密切的关系。
●Health problems健康问题
──Problems in endocrine system, immune system or metabolism are possible factors leading to oral tumours. 内分泌、免疫系统或新陈代谢出现问题都可能导致口腔肿瘤。

2. Symptoms徵状
●An ulcer that doesn't heal after a long period of time, with a necrotic surface that is gangrenous which starts to spread to surrounding areas forming a depressed centre, or a lump with an uneven surface. 溃疡长期不愈,表面坏死脱落而向周围扩展形成中间凹陷,或出现表面凹凸不平的肿块
●Pain or bleeding in the mouth without a cause. 口腔疼痛且无故或容易出血
●Sudden numbness on parts of the face. 面部忽然局部麻痹
●Swelling of jaw bones; loosening of teeth without a cause. 颌骨突然肿胀,牙齿无故松脱
●Swelling of lymph nodes in the head and neck area without a cause. 颌下或颈部淋巴无故肿胀。

3. Treatment处理方法
●Identify the type and stage of tumour according to its size, location, and determine from whether it has spread through the lymphatic system or blood vessels. 按肿瘤的大小、部位、有没有经淋巴或血管转移等确定肿瘤所属的性质和阶段
●When necessary, treatment such as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery could be done according to the type and stage of the tumour. 有需要时,按不同的性质和阶段作出相应治疗,例如化疗,电疗或进行切除手术

4. Prevention预防方法
●Avoid cancer causing factors要避免致癌的因素:
──Do not smoke不要吸烟
──Do not take overly-hot food or drinks不要进食过热的食物
──Avoid exposure to strong sunlight避免暴晒
──Do not drink alcohol excessively for an extended period of time不要长期过量喝酒
──If the denture is unfit, you should have it adjusted or get a new denture made by your dentist. 如假牙不合戴,便要找牙科医生调校或改配另一副合适的假牙
●Increase your body resistance by :增加身体的抵抗力,例如:
──Maintain good physical and mental health保持身心愉快
──Have sufficient rest有充分休息
──Have a balanced diet有均衡饮食
──Exercise regularly有适当运动

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Oral Diseases─Angular Cheilitis口腔疾病─口角炎

Angular Cheilitis is found at the corner of the mouth. It mostly occurs on people who wear dentures or people who have a compromised immune system. 口角炎是口角位置发炎,多发生在戴假牙或身体虚弱的人士身上。

1. Cause成因

When skin folding is formed at the corner of the mouth because of improper occlusion of the teeth, the accumulation of saliva at the corner of the mouth causes micro-organisms such as Staphylococcus and fungus to proliferate and leads to Angular Cheilitis. 由於牙齿咬合不当,令口角部分的皮肤摺叠起来,口水积聚在口角处,营造了让葡萄球菌及真菌滋生的环境,引致口角皮肤发炎。

2. Symptoms徵状

Redness or ulceration around the corner of the mouth, with the affected area being itchy or painful. Therefore, discomfort will be felt when eating and speaking. 口角皮肤出现红疹或溃疡,患处痕痒甚至赤痛。 因此患者进食或说话时会觉痛楚及不自然。

3. Management处理方法
●Correct the occlusion. For example, adjust the height of the denture so that saliva will not accumulate at the corner of mouth. 矫正咬合位置,例如调校假牙的咬合高度,令口水不再积聚在口角处
●Apply antibiotic and antifungal ointment. 涂搽含抗生素及抗真菌药膏
●Minimize movement of the corner of mouth so that affect area can heal. 减少口角移动的动作,让患处康复

4. Prevention预防方法
●Wear a denture that fits. 镶配咬合位置正确的假牙
●Keep corner of mouth dry. 经常保持口角乾爽

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Oral Diseases─Denture induced Stomatitis口腔疾病─牙托性口炎

Denture induced Stomatitis is an infection of oral mucosa caused by fungus in the area covered by a denture. It usually occurs in the upper jaw. 牙托性口炎是假牙托附近的口腔黏膜受到真菌感染而产生的炎症,通常发生在上颌位置。

1. Causes原因
●Wearing an unfit denture which traumatizes the oral tissue配戴不合适的假牙托,以致口腔黏膜受损
●Wearing a denture that is not thoroughly cleaned配戴没有彻底清洁乾净的假牙托
●Not taking the denture off at night before bed which creates a favourable environment that allows fungus to grow. 没有每晚将假牙托除下让口腔黏膜得到休息,及形成真菌滋生的环境

2. Symptoms徵状
●Rashes will appear at the early stage初时会出现红点
●Rashes will then enlarge, sometimes even desquamate其後红点扩大,有时会出现脱屑现象
●Swelling of the affected area受影响的部分会胀大
●Feeling of pain患者会感到痛楚

3. Management处理方法
●Immerse the denture in water overnight约见牙科医生并按指示,使用漱口水漱口。
●Consult a dentist and rinse with medicated mouthwash as instructed. Remove the denture every night before bed so that the mucosa gets rest. 每晚睡前将假牙托除下,让口腔黏膜得到休息。
●You must clean the denture thoroughly with toothbrush and detergent, rinse the denture and then soak it in a glass of water overnight. 清洁假牙托时,必须使用牙刷和洗洁精将它彻底清洁乾净,然後将它放於清水内浸过夜。

If the denture doesn't fit well, you should go to a dentist for replacement. 若是配戴了不合适的假牙,便需找牙科医生改配另一副假牙了。

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Oral Problems口腔问题

★Oral Problems─Impacted Wisdom Teeth口腔问题─智慧齿阻生
★Oral Problems─Discoloration of Teeth口腔问题─牙齿变色
★Oral Problems─Oral Trauma口腔问题─口腔组织及牙齿碰伤
★Oral Problems─Sensitive teeth口腔问题─牙齿敏感
★Oral Problems─Toothache and Painful Gingivae口腔问题─牙齿刺痛、牙龈疼痛
★Oral Problems─Painful temporo-mandibular joint口腔问题─牙骹疼痛
★Oral Problems─Bad Breath口腔问题─口臭
★Oral Problems─Irregular Teeth口腔问题─牙齿排列不整齐及咬合异常
★Oral Problems─Mobile Teeth口腔问题─牙齿松动
★Oral Problems─Acidic erosion of teeth口腔问题─牙齿被酸蚀
★Oral Problems─Bruxism口腔问题─磨牙
★Oral Problems─Dry Mouth口腔问题─唾液分泌减少

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Oral Problems─Impacted Wisdom Teeth口腔问题─智慧齿阻生

Wisdom teeth usually erupt between the ages of 17 to 25. It's the third molar of permanent teeth. There are altogether 4 wisdom teeth, and they erupt at the end of the upper and lower jaws. It is very common that one or more wisdom teeth are missing. For some people, their wisdom teeth can normally erupt, while for some others, their wisdom teeth may not successfully erupt and may become impacted. 智慧齿一般在17至25岁长出,是恒齿的第三大臼齿,共有四只,分别生长在口腔上下颌的末端。天生缺少一只或多只智慧齿的情况很普遍。有些人的智慧齿能正常生长出来,但智慧齿亦有机会不能顺利长出,形成了阻生的情况。

A. Cause of impacted wisdom teeth智慧齿阻生的原因

Wisdom teeth often don't have enough room to erupt because modern human beings have a shorter jawbone. This causes wisdom teeth to grow slanted, horizontally, or even to be completely buried inside the jawbone. 现代人颌骨较短,智慧齿通常没有足够空间正常长出,以致智慧齿斜生或横生,甚至完全埋藏在颌骨内。

B. Consequences of impacted wisdom teeth智慧齿阻生带来的後果

1. Pericoronitis智慧齿冠周炎
Usually seen in the lower jaw. 通常发生在下颌的智慧齿

Food debris and bacteria are easily trapped in the space between the crown of the wisdom tooth and the overlying gingiva (gum), resulting in the infection of the periodontal tissues (Pericoronitis). Furthermore, the infected, swollen overlying gingiva is often bitten by the opposing tooth making it difficult to recover. 由於智慧齿的牙冠与覆盖它的牙龈之间容易积藏食物渣滓和细菌,导致牙周组织发炎。如牙齿咬合时令发炎的牙龈受到创伤,冠周炎便难以痊愈。

Pericoronitis has the following signs and symptoms冠周炎的徵状有:
●Pain and swelling of the cheek面颊肿胀
●Difficulty in opening the mouth张口困难
●Pain when swallowing吞咽时感到疼痛
●Swollen lymph nodes in the neck颌下淋巴肿胀
●Fever发烧
●Bad breath口臭

2. Dental Caries蛀牙
Since it is difficult to clean the surfaces between the impacted tooth and the adjacent tooth in front, dental plaque will accumulate there and cause Dental Caries on these tooth surfaces. 阻生智慧齿与相邻牙齿之间的地方难以清洁,令牙菌膜积聚,引致智慧齿及相邻的牙齿蛀坏。

3. Root resorption of the neighbouring tooth令邻牙的牙根萎缩
The inflammation of the periodontal tissues caused by the dental plaque, together with the pressure of the wisdom tooth pushing on the adjacent tooth in front, may cause the root of the adjacent tooth to resorb. 牙周组织发炎及阻生智慧齿对相邻的牙齿造成压力,都会令这相邻牙齿的牙根出现萎缩情况。

4. Causes pathological changes, such as cysts. 引起病变如囊肿

C. Treatment处理方法

1. If wisdom tooth is completely buried inside the jawbone, nothing needs to be done given that there is no symptom. You would keep it under observation at regular dental check-up in case of any disease changes. 如果智慧齿完全埋在颌骨内,没有任何征状,可以观察情况及定期检查牙齿以防病变。

2. If Consider removal of impacted wisdom tooth考虑拔除『阻生智慧齿』
●Wisdom tooth problems智慧齿出现问题
──Frequent inflammation of gingivae covering the wisdom tooth causing recurrent Pericoronitis覆盖智慧齿周围的牙龈经常发炎,引致复发性『智慧齿冠周炎』
──Suffered from severe Pericoronitis曾患严重性『智慧齿冠周炎』
──Severe caries, periodontal disease, pulpitis or periapical infections of wisdom tooth智慧齿严重蛀坏、有牙周病、牙髓炎或牙根尖周围有病征出现
──Impacted wisdom tooth causing root resorption of adjacent teeth阻生智慧齿引致邻牙的牙根萎缩
──Cyst around the wisdom tooth can damage the structure of jawbone. If there is a cyst formation, the cyst together with the impacted wisdom tooth must be extracted包裹着智慧齿的牙囊肿胀,会有可能破坏颌骨组织。如发现有这些征状,必须将肿囊及阻生智慧齿一并除去
●Prior to the following treatments接受以下治疗之前
──Extraction of mal-positioned wisdom tooth prior to orthodontic treatment接受牙齿矫正治疗前,拔除在不正常位置生长的智能齿
──Radiotherapy放射性治疗
──Jawbone reconstruction surgery颌骨修复手术
●The decision to remove an impacted wisdom tooth or not depends on the clinical situation, the diagnosis of dentist and the preference of patient. 拔除智慧齿必须按临床情况、牙科医生的治疗及患者的意愿,决定是否须拔除或何时拔除 。

3. To avoid bleeding of the wound after the surgical extraction of the wisdom tooth, you should pay attention to the following拔除『阻生智慧齿』手术后,为免伤口再次流血,要注意以下事项:
●On the day of surgery手术后当天
──Do not disturb the wound, rinse and brush the teeth避免触踫伤口及漱口,亦不宜刷牙
──Take soft diet for a few days and use the teeth of the opposite side of the jaw for chewing宜进食较软的食物及用另一边牙齿咀嚼
──Do not perform heavy work or strenuous exercise避免从事粗重工作或进行剧烈运动
──Do not smoke or drink alcoholic beverages切勿吸烟或喝含酒精的饮料
●On the day following the surgery, resume gentle toothbrushing and normal chew. 手术后第二天可如常刷牙及使用两边牙齿咀嚼。

4. Reduce discomfort after surgical extraction of wisdom tooth减少拔除『阻生智慧齿』手术后的不适
●Wound pain, facial swelling and difficulty on mouth opening are common after surgery手术后伤口痛、面部肿胀和张口困难等,都是常见的现象
──On the day of surgery, apply ice pack to minimize facial swelling to the affected side of your face. 手术后当天可用冰敷减轻面部肿胀
──On the day 2, apply a warm towel to the swollen area to reduce discomfort第二天可用暖毛巾热敷肿胀的位置,以舒缓不适
Maintain good oral hygiene to prevent wound infection保持良好口腔卫生,以防伤口受感染
──On day 3 or 4, take soft diet. If there is pain from these wound, take painkiller as prescribed by the dentist手术后三、四天可进食较软的食物,如果伤口痛,可按医生指示服用止痛药
●Normally, any discomfort will slowly subside in a week after surgery. Meanwhile, consult your dentist if you have any queries. 在正常情况下,有关的不适,都会于手术一星期后慢慢消退,期间如有问题,可询问牙科医生。

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Oral Problems─Discoloration of Teeth  口腔问题─牙齿变色

A. Colour of teeth 牙齿的颜色

Since the enamel of permanent teeth is slightly transparent, the yellowish colour of dentine is shown through it. Therefore, permanent teeth will appear slightly yellowish. As we get older, the dentine increasingly grows thicker, and it is normal that our teeth become more yellowish. 由於恒齿的珐琅质是微透明的,令黄色的象牙质透了出来,所以恒齿会呈微黄色。年纪渐长,象牙质不断增厚,牙齿亦会变得比较黄,这情况是正常的。

The enamel of deciduous teeth is not as transparent as our permanent teeth and the dentine of deciduous teeth is relatively thinner. That is why deciduous teeth look milky white. 乳齿的珐琅质不及恒齿的珐琅质那般透明,象牙质亦较恒齿的薄,因此乳齿呈乳白色。

B. Factors causing tooth discoloration  导致牙齿变色的因素

There are two factors causing tooth discoloration—internal factor and external factor 导致牙齿变色的因素有两种 外在因素和内在因素

1. External factors causing tooth discoloration 由外在因素引致的牙齿变色

★Brown and black stains on the surface of teeth 牙齿表面有啡黑色渍

Cause 原因
Habitual smoking or drinking of dark-coloured beverages, such as tea or coffee, result in the food colours being adsorbed onto the tooth surfaces. 经常吸烟或饮用深色的饮品如茶、咖啡等,色素便沉积在牙齿表面。

Treatment  治疗方法
The dentist will use: 牙科医生会使用:
●Dental pumice to remove the stain, and then prophylaxis paste to smoothen the tooth surfaces; or 牙科用浮石粉清除啡黑色渍,然後用清洁膏磨滑牙齿表面。
●Prophyjet — utilizing air to spray a mixture of fine baking soda powder and water onto the surfaces of teeth to remove stains. 喷粉洁牙 利用空气将细小的苏打粉末(碳酸氢钠)混合物与水混合後,由喷嘴高速喷向牙齿表面,将牙渍清除。

Prevention  预防方法
Do not smoke and avoid drinking dark-coloured beverages to minimize food colours being adsorbed. 不要吸烟及减少饮用深色的饮品以减少色素积聚。

★Green and orange stains at the surface of teeth  牙齿表面有绿色或橙色渍

Cause 原因
Teeth has not been cleaned thoroughly, and the accumulated dental plaque has adsorbed food colours and has formed green and orange stains. 牙齿没有清洁乾净,积聚在表面的牙菌膜吸收了食物色素,便形成绿色或橙色渍。

Treatment 治疗方法
Dentist will perform scaling to remove accumulated dental plaque and stains. 牙科医生会进行洗牙治疗以清除积聚的牙菌膜及色素。

Prevention 预防方法
Brush every morning and before bed at night, and use dental floss to remove dental plaque to keep the teeth white. 每天早晚刷牙和使用牙线彻底清除牙菌膜,以保持牙齿洁白。

2. Internal factors causing tooth discoloration 由内在因素引致的牙齿变色

★Teeth appear to be greyish-blue to brownish-yellow  牙齿呈灰蓝色至啡黄色

Cause 原因
If tetracycline, a kind of antibiotics, is taken during the development of teeth, the dentine forming cells will absorb the tetracycline. The dentine thus formed will be yellowish-brown to bluish-grey which will show through as the colour of the teeth. 在牙齿发育期间长期服用四环素,构造牙齿的细胞会吸收四环素,令牙齿变成啡黄甚至灰蓝色。

Treatment  治疗方法
●Bleaching 漂白治疗
●Laminate Veneer 贴面修复治疗

★Teeth appear to be greyish-black 牙齿呈灰黑色

Cause 1  原因一
Dental Caries 牙齿蛀坏

Treatment 治疗方法
The dentist removes the tooth decay, and then puts on a filling. 牙科医生将牙齿蛀坏的部分清除,然後填上补牙物料。

Cause 2 原因二
●Pulp necrosis 牙齿坏死
●The pulp becomes necrotic because of tooth trauma or dental caries, and the tooth will appear greyish-black. 因碰撞或蛀牙导致牙齿坏死,坏死的牙髓释放物质渗入象牙质,牙齿渐变成灰黑色。

Treatment 治疗方法
Root canal therapy (Endodontic treatment) must be done to treat the discolored tooth which has pulp necrosis. If teeth still appear greyish-black, dentist can treat the discolored teeth by bleaching, laminate veneer or crown. 处理这类因牙髓坏死引致的牙齿变色,必须接受根管治疗(牙髓治疗)。若牙齿仍然呈灰黑色,牙科医生可为你进行:牙齿漂白、贴面修复治疗或人造牙冠 配

★Yellowish-brown or white patches at the surface of a tooth  牙齿表面有啡黄或白斑

Cause 原因
●Early dental caries 初期蛀牙
●Disturbance during the development of a tooth 牙齿发育时受感染
If a deciduous tooth is so decayed that the pulp is exposed, the bacteria, via the apex of the tooth, will cause an infection in the vicinity of the developing permanent successor. This will disturb the development of the enamel of the permanent tooth, resulting in the formation of yellowish-brown patches. 如果乳齿严重蛀坏波及牙髓,牙髓便会受到感染。细菌经乳齿的牙根感染下方未长出的恒齿,影响恒齿形成中的珐琅质,产生啡黄或白斑。
●Fluorosis 氟斑牙
Long term excessive fluoride ingestion will alter the development of the enamel of the teeth. This disturbance will show as white patches on the teeth. 长期吸收过量氟化物,导致形成牙齿珐琅质的过程受阻,而出现啡黄或白斑。

Treatment 治疗方法
●Early dental caries 初期蛀牙
Dentist can apply topical fluoride onto the surfaces of teeth so that the early caries lesion can be remineralised. 牙科医生可於牙齿表面涂上牙面氟化物剂,令初期蛀牙还原。
●Disturbance during the development of a tooth or Fluorosis 牙齿发育时受感染或氟斑牙
Filling, Laminate veneer or Crown. 复合树脂补牙、贴面修复治疗、人造牙冠

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Oral Problems─Oral Trauma  口腔问题─口腔组织及牙齿碰伤

Oral structure or teeth may be damaged due to an accident. Very often, the front teeth get traumatized. After the impact, there might not be any apparent damage to the teeth, or they might be slightly loose, dislocated, fractured, or even avulsed (the entire tooth knocked off). The chances for the injured oral structure to be healed and the damaged teeth to be saved often depend on whether treatment is done correctly and timely. 意外发生时,口腔组织或牙齿可能会碰伤。受碰撞的牙齿多半是门牙。碰撞後,牙齿表面可能没有任何损伤,亦可能有松动、移位、折断甚至整颗牙齿飞脱的情况。受伤的口腔组织能否痊愈及碰撞後的牙齿能否保存,往往要视乎处理的方法是否正确及医治是否及时而定。

A. Oral structure injury  口腔组织碰伤

Injury of oral tissues or oral structures such as lips, gingivae, oral mucosa, alveolar bone, or even upper or lower jawbones may be resulted. 碰撞时,口腔组织如咀唇、牙龈、口腔黏膜、牙槽骨,甚至上、下颌骨都可能会碰伤,产生出血现象。

Treatment 处理方法
Bleeding can be stopped by pressing on the injured area using a piece of gauze or towel, and a dentist should be consulted immediately. 伤者可用清洁的纱布或手帕按在流血的地方止血,然後立即往见牙科医生接受检查。

B. Trauma to Teeth  牙齿碰伤

After a tooth is traumatized, the following situations can occur:  牙齿碰伤後,可能出现以下几种情况:
●No apparent damage to the tooth 牙齿表面没有任何伤痕
●The tooth becomes loose 牙齿变得松动
●Crown fracture 牙冠折断
●Root fracture 牙根折断
●Tooth dislocation 牙齿移位
●Intrusion of the tooth 牙齿嵌入
●Avulsion of the tooth (the entire tooth being knocked off) 整颗牙齿飞脱

Management after injury: 牙齿碰伤後的处理方法:
●Go for a detailed check-up at the dental clinic immediately after the injury. The dentist will give the following treatment according to the situation: smoothen sharp edges of the fractured tooth and apply topical fluoride, filling, pulp(Endodontic) treatment , crown, extraction or denture. 牙齿碰伤後,应立即往见牙科医生,作详细检查,牙科医生会因应情况作出以下这些治疗:磨平受碰撞後牙齿的锐角及涂上高浓度氟化物、补牙、牙髓治疗、镶制人造牙冠、脱牙或镶配假牙托。
●Although there might not be any apparent damage to the teeth after the injury, pulp necrosis may occur. Even if the tooth is vital right after the injury, it is possible that necrosis can happen within 5 years. Therefore, it is necessary to have follow-up reviews regularly as advised by the dentist. 即使牙齿受碰撞後表面没有任何伤痕,牙髓亦可能会坏死。即使牙髓没有即时坏死,受碰撞的牙齿在五年内仍有颇大机会坏死。因此,伤者应往见牙科医生作详细检查,看看牙齿是否受损,并遵照牙医的指示定期到牙科诊所覆诊。
●If the crown of tooth has been fractured, you should try your best to find and pick up the fractured portion of the tooth and go to a dentist immediately. If the whole permanent tooth has been knocked off after the injury, you should keep calm and take the following actions: 假若牙齿的牙冠折断,应尽量捡回折断的部分,立即往见牙科医生。如恒齿受碰撞後整颗飞脱,要保持镇定,依照以下的方法处理:
──Pick up the knocked-off tooth. Holding the crown without touching the root 拾回碰掉的牙齿,拾起时只拿着牙冠部分,不要碰触牙根。
──Use half a glass of plain water or milk to gently rinse off the dirt at the surface of tooth. Do not wash or scrub the root of tooth to avoid damaging the soft tissues around the root. 只用半杯清水或鲜奶轻轻除去牙根的表面污物,切勿洗擦牙根,以免破坏牙根周围的软组织。
──Use the adjacent teeth as a reference, put the tooth back into the socket and gently bite your teeth to hold the tooth in place. The sooner the tooth is put pack, the greater the chance of it being preserved. 叁考邻牙的形状及排列,立刻将牙齿塞回牙槽窝内,轻轻咬合固定牙的位置。如能及早把牙齿塞回,成功保存牙齿的机会就极大。
──If there is any difficulty in inserting the tooth into the socket, immerse the tooth in a container filled with either milk or saliva of the injured person. 如果对把牙齿塞回牙槽窝真的有疑问,可用有盖的容器盛载一些鲜奶或伤者的口水,把牙齿放入容器内。
──Seek treatment from dentist immediately 立刻找牙科医生接受治疗

You should seek help immediately after oral structure or tooth injury because the sooner the treatment is received, the greater the chance of preserving the teeth. Afterwards, the replanted tooth should be reviewed by the dentist regularly to ensure the success of the treatment. 口腔组织或牙齿碰伤後需抓紧时间接受治疗,因为越早接受治疗,成功保存牙齿的机会就越大。碰伤的口腔组织或牙齿需要接受定期的检查及跟进,以确保治疗的成效。

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Oral Problems─Sensitive Teeth 口腔问题─牙齿敏感

A. Cause of sensitive teeth 牙齿敏感的原因

Sensitive teeth are mainly caused by exposed dentine. If enamel has been worn off or damaged, then it will lose its protective function and the dentine will be exposed. The dentine has many fine dentinal tubules connecting to the pulp. When it is stimulated by eating or drinking hot, cold, sour, or sweet food and beverages, or when it is contacted by a toothbrush or dental floss, sharp pain will be felt. 牙齿敏感主要由於象牙质外露所引致。如果珐琅质耗损,便失去保护功能,令内层的象牙质外露。象牙质内满布微细管道,当直接受到外来刺激时,比如吃喝冷热酸甜食物和饮品,或者刷牙和用牙线碰触到牙齿,便会感到一阵刺痛。

B. Causes for exposed dentine:  导致象牙质外露的原因:
●Brushing with a toothbrush with bristles that are too hard, or brushing with excessive force can abrade the enamel of teeth. 使用刷毛太硬的牙刷或使用太大的力度刷牙而刷蚀珐琅质。
●Frequently eat or drink highly acidic food or beverages will lead to acidic erosion of the enamel. 经常吃喝高酸性的食物和饮品令珐琅质受酸蚀。
●Frequent grinding of teeth (bruxism) causing enamel to wear off. 经常磨牙而磨蚀珐琅质。
●Suffering from Periodontal Disease which causes gum recession and exposed root surface. 患牙周病,令牙龈萎缩,导致牙根外露。

C. Management  处理方法
●Dentist will apply topical fluoride on the tooth surface or perform a filling according to the condition. 牙科医生会按情况选用高浓度的氟化物涂在牙齿表面或替患者补牙。
●Use a "mouth guard" made by the dentist to avoid further attrition of teeth. 由牙科医生配制「护牙胶托」给患者使用,以免牙齿因磨牙而继续耗损。
●Use desensitizing toothpaste to relieve tooth sensitivity. You should consult your dentist before purchasing or using this type of toothpaste. 使用防敏感牙膏刷牙有助纾缓牙齿敏感。但在购买或使用这类牙膏前,应先徵询牙科医生的意见。

D. Prevention 预防方法
●Use a toothbrush with soft bristles. 选用刷毛柔软的牙刷刷牙 。
●Brush with a gentle force. 刷牙时用轻轻的力度去刷 。
●Avoid frequent intake of highly acidic food or beverages such as fruit juice, sports drink, soft drink, yogurt, red wine, white wine, etc., to avoid acidic attack. 避免频密吃喝高酸性的食物和饮料如果汁、补充体力饮品、汽水、酸乳酪、红酒及白酒等,以免牙齿受到严重酸蚀。
●Avoid biting on hard food such as bone or nut to prevent enamel from fracturing. 避免咀嚼坚硬的食物如骨头、硬壳类等以免珐琅质受损 。
●Sufficient sleep and exercise to relieve stress to avoid bruxism (grinding teeth) 要有充足的睡眠及适量的运动以纾缓紧张的生活和压力,减少磨牙的情况。

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Oral Problems─Toothache and Painful Gingivae 口腔问题─牙齿刺痛、牙龈疼痛

A. Causes of toothache  牙齿刺痛的原因

Toothache is elicited by stimulation of the nerves in the pulp of a tooth. Common causes are:  牙齿刺痛是牙髓的神经线受到刺激所引致。常见原因:
●Dental Caries 蛀牙
The bacteria in the cavity of a carious tooth cause inflammation of the pulp tissues, stimulating the nerves in the pulp. 蛀牙洞内的细菌引起牙髓发炎,刺激牙髓神经。
●Exposure of Dentine (tooth sensitivity) 象牙质外露(牙齿敏感)
There are numerous microscopic tubules in the dentine which connect to the pulp. If these tubules are exposed because of the gum recession or severe tooth wear (e.g. abraded by toothbrushing or eroded by acidic food and beverages), pain will be elicited in the nerves of the pulp through these tubules when the tooth is stimulated by cold, hot, sweet or sour food. 象牙质内满布管道,如果这些管道因牙龈萎缩或因牙齿表面受损(例如:被牙刷刷蚀又或被酸性食物侵蚀)而外露,冷、热、甜、酸的食物便会透过这些管道刺激牙髓神经。
At the same time, the toxins released by the dental plaque may also stimulate the nerves in the pulp through the exposed dentine. 与此同时,牙齿表面的牙菌膜的毒素亦有可能透过外露的象牙质,刺激牙髓神经。
●Fractured Tooth  牙齿崩裂
The exposed dentine and/or pulp tissues resulting from fractured tooth are susceptible to any external stimuli. 牙齿崩裂导致象牙质或牙髓外露令牙髓神经受到外界刺激。

B. Causes for painful gingivae  牙龈疼痛的原因

Painful gingivae are caused by the inflammation of the periodontal tissues. Common causes are:  牙龈疼痛是牙周组织发炎所引致,常见原因:
●Dental Caries 蛀牙
In a severely decayed tooth, the pulp tissues may become necrotic. The bacteria of the necrotic pulp cause infection of the periodontal tissues via the root canal, leading to inflammation and formation of abscess. 严重的蛀牙令牙髓坏死,细菌在牙髓内滋生,并经由牙根管感染牙周组织,引致发炎及出现脓疮 。
●Periodontal Disease 牙周病
The toxins released by the dental plaque cause inflammation of the periodontal tissues. 牙菌膜的毒素引致牙周组织发炎。
●Pericoronitis 智慧齿冠周炎
Food debris and bacteria are easily trapped in the space between the crown of the wisdom tooth and the overlying gingiva (gum), resulting in the infection of the periodontal tissues (Pericoronitis). 由於智慧齿的牙冠与覆盖它的牙龈之间容易积藏食物渣滓和细菌,导致牙周组织发炎。

C. Treatment 处理方法

Go to see a dentist to receive appropriate treatment as soon as possible: 应尽快见牙科医生,找出原因,对症下药:
●Dental Caries: 蛀牙
Treatment: pulp(Endodontic) treatment, filling, crown 治疗方法:牙髓治疗、补牙、人造牙冠
●Periodontal Disease: 牙周病
Treatment: Scaling, root planing, periodontal surgery 治疗方法:洗牙、牙根刮治、牙周手术
●Pericoronitis: 智慧齿冠周炎
Treatment: Scaling, antibiotic therapy, extraction 治疗方法:洗牙、 服用抗生素、脱牙
●Dentine Exposure: 象牙质外露
Treatment: Apply topical fluoride, filling, crown 治疗方法:涂搽高浓度氟化物、补牙、人造牙冠
●Tooth Fracture: 牙齿崩裂
Treatment: Extraction, filling, crown, pulp(Endodontic) treatment 治疗方法:脱牙、补牙、人造牙冠、牙髓治疗

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Oral Problems─Painful temporo-mandibular joint 口腔问题─牙骹疼痛

A. Causes A. 原因

A human masticatory (chewing) system includes teeth, masticatory muscles and temporomandibular joint (jaw joint). If problem occurs in any one of these components, you may get cramps in masticatory muscles, causing stress and damages to the temporomandibular joint. Pain will be felt. Very often, the cartilage in the jaw joints of those who are suffering from painful jaw joints may be dislocated during jaw movement, which results in cracking sounds in the jaw joints. 人体的咀嚼系统包括牙齿、负责咀嚼功能的咀嚼肌及颞下颌关节(牙骹 )。任何一个部分出现问题都有机会令咀嚼肌痉挛及颞下颌关节受压和损伤,产生牙骹痛的情况。很多时,牙骹疼痛患者的颞下颌关节内软骨在关节移动时移位,导致这些病人在开合牙骹时发出「啪」「啪」的声音。

B. Factors causing painful jaws  导致牙骹疼痛的因素
●Malocclusion 牙齿咬合不正
●An over-filled tooth 牙齿补得过高
●An unfit denture. 造了不合适的假牙
●Habitual grinding of teeth. 磨牙
●Chewing on only one side of the mouth. 偏用一边牙齿咀嚼
●Traumatic injury—jaw joints being traumatized by external force. 意外创伤 牙骹受到外力撞击

C. Treatment 处理方法

If you have painful jaw joints, consult a dentist for a detailed check-up and treatment. 如果有牙骹疼痛,应约见牙科医生,让他详细检查及给予适切的治疗和建议。

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Oral Problems─Bad Breath口腔问题─口臭

A. Causes of bad breath导致口臭的原因

1. Oral hygiene problem口腔护理问题
●Bad oral hygiene accompanied by putrefied food debris口腔不清洁,食物渣滓在口腔内腐化
●Failed to thoroughly clean the denture, leaving food debris and plaque on the denture which cause bad breath. 没有彻底清洁假牙托,积聚在假牙托上的食物渣滓和污垢便会造成口臭。

2. Oral Diseases or Oral Problems口腔疾病或口腔问题
●Oral Diseases such as口腔疾病例如:
──Dental Caries —if dental caries has extended into the pulp, the necrotic pulp will emit foul odour. 蛀牙─若牙齿蛀坏部分蔓延至牙髓,令牙髓坏死,便会发出臭味。
──Periodontal Disease —the accumulation of dental plaque and calculus irritates the gum, which leads to periodontal disease and causes bad breath. 牙周病─患有牙周病,牙菌膜和牙石积聚,刺激牙周组织而形成牙周病,带来口臭
●Oral Problem口腔问题:
──Insufficient saliva secretion (dry mouth)—if saliva secretion is insufficient, the oral cleaning effect of saliva will be reduced. 唾液分泌不足 如果唾液分泌不足,便会减低唾液清洁口腔的作用。

3. General health problems such as身体出现其他健康问题如:
●Respiratory system problems呼吸系统问题
──Allergic Rhinitis (nose allergy) 鼻敏感
──Sinusitis (infection of sinus) 鼻窦炎
●Alimentary tract problem (digestive system) 肠胃问题
Digestive problem消化不良
●Diabetes糖尿病
●Nasopharyngeal Cancer (cancer of the nose and throat) 鼻咽癌

4. Smoking吸烟

B. Prevention and treatment预防及解决方法
1. Avoid eating strong flavoured food to prevent bad breath. If you have just had strong flavoured food, you can try避免进食味道浓烈的食物,以防口臭;如果刚吃过味道浓烈的食物,可尝试:
●Brush your teeth with toothpaste用牙膏刷牙
●Use chewing gum咀嚼香口胶
●Rinse with mouthwash用漱口水漱口
●Use breath freshener使用口腔清新剂

2. Visit a dentist for regular dental check-up定期约见牙科医生检查口腔
To ensure whether the bad breath is caused by oral diseases such as periodontal disease or dental caries, or whether it is caused by insufficient saliva production; so that appropriate treatment can be given. 确定口臭是否因口腔疾病如牙周病或蛀牙所引致,又或因唾液分泌不足而产生,以便接受妥善的治理。

3. Pay attention to your regular oral hygiene practices to prevent oral problems注意日常的口腔护理,预防牙患
●Brush your teeth with fluoride toothpaste every morning and before bed at night and floss your teeth daily. 每天早、晚用含氟化物牙膏刷牙和使用牙线清洁牙齿邻面
●Reduce the frequency of taking food or drinks减少吃喝次数
●Keep the denture clean by thoroughly cleaning them every night and soaking it in a glass of water overnight. 保持活动矫齿器的卫生, 每晚睡前把活动矫齿器除下清洗乾净,在不戴活动矫齿器时,把它浸於清水中。

4. Quit smoking戒烟

5. If you don't have any oral problem, nor have you eaten anything with a strong flavour, your bad breath may be caused by other medical problems. In that case, you should see a physician to find out the cause and receive appropriate treatment. 如果并非因吃过味道浓烈的食物或口腔出问题,口臭便可能是由於其他身体毛病所引致,你必须见医生找出原因, 接受适当治疗。

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Oral Problems─Irregular Teeth口腔问题─牙齿排列不整齐及咬合异常

A. Cause原因
1. Hereditary factor先天因素:
●Mismatch in the sizes of upper and lower jaws上、下颌骨大小比例不相称
──"Projected upper teeth" results if the upper jaw is much longer than the lower jaw. "Reversed bite" results if the upper jaw is smaller than the lower jaw. 上颌骨比例过大会导致 "哨牙"。上颌骨比下颌骨小会导致"倒牙"
●Abnormal number of teeth牙齿数目异常
──Normally one should have 28 permanent teeth (excluding the third molars). If the number of teeth is more than that, the jaw may not have enough space for all the teeth to align properly. If there are too few teeth, there may be spaces between the teeth and the teeth may look irregular. 正常来说,人有28颗恒齿(智慧齿不计算在内)。如果牙齿数目比正常多,颌骨便可能没有足够位置让牙齿排列整齐。假如牙齿数目比正常少,牙齿之间便会出现空隙,让人觉得牙齿排列不整齐。
●Mismatch in the tooth and the jaw sizes牙齿体积与颌骨比例不相称
──If the tooth size is too big, the jaw size is too small, the jaw may not have enough space for all the teeth to align. If the tooth size is too small or the jaw size is too large, there will be spaces between the teeth and the teeth will look irregular. 如果牙齿体积太大或颌骨太小,颌骨便可能没有足够位置让牙齿排列整齐。如果牙齿体积太小或颌骨太大,牙齿之间便会出现空隙,让人觉得牙齿排列不整齐。

2. Environmental factor後天因素:
●Early loss of deciduous teeth乳齿过早脱落,没有足够的位置给恒齿长出
──If a deciduous tooth is lost prematurely, the adjacent teeth on either side will migrate towards the space of the lost tooth, closing up the space. The reduced space will not allow the succeeding permanent tooth to erupt into good alignment. 由於乳齿过早失去,邻近的牙齿有可能移至这颗乳齿预留给恒齿的空间,恒齿便不能整齐地长出。
●Bad habits不良习惯
──Bad habits such as digit sucking and biting on a pen can induce pressure on the teeth and push them into an abnormal position. 吮手指、咬笔头等习惯, 会令牙齿长期受到压力,把牙齿推至一个异常位置。
●Development of oral disease due to lack of proper oral care and treatment欠缺适当的口腔护理及治疗而患上口腔疾病:
──Dental caries蛀牙
──Severe dental caries in the adjacent tooth surface will cause the neighbouring tooth to tip over and take up the space, and the teeth will become irregular. 牙齿邻面患蛀牙会导致邻面受破坏,令隔邻的牙齿移位,造成排列不整齐。
──Periodontal disease牙周病
──Severe periodontal disease will result in the loss of bone support to the teeth. The teeth will then drift to abnormal positions. 严重的牙周病会令牙周组织严重受损,牙齿失去足够的支撑,便可能会移动至一个异常位置。
●Lost of teeth due to oral diseases (such as dental caries and periodontal disease) or traumatic injury can cause drifting of adjacent teeth. 因口腔疾病 (如蛀牙和牙周病)或意外而失去牙齿,令两旁的牙齿移位

B. How to avoid irregular teeth如何避免牙齿排列不整齐
●Irregular teeth caused by hereditary factor are unavoidable. 因先天因素而导致牙齿排列不整齐是没有方法避免的。
●To prevent irregular teeth caused by environmental factors, you should因後天因素而导致牙齿排列不整齐则应:
──refrain from bad habits such as digit sucking, pen biting. 戒除不良习惯,例如吮手指、咬笔头
──receive proper oral care and treatment to prevent tooth loss and drifting of teeth. 接受适当的口腔护理及治疗,避免失去牙齿及牙齿移位

C. Management处理方法
●Clean the teeth thoroughly, especially at areas with irregular teeth. You can clean the areas with an interdental brush or toothbrush with a small head. 彻底清洁牙齿,尤其是牙齿排列不整齐的地方。如有需要,可使用单头或细头的牙刷刷牙。
●Seek professional advice from an orthodontist to see whether an orthodontic treatment is necessary. 寻求牙齿矫正科医生的专业意见,看是否需要接受牙齿矫正治疗

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Oral Problems─Mobile Teeth口腔问题─牙齿松动

A. Cause原因
●Resorption of root牙根收缩
──There is a “succeeding permanent tooth” underneath the root of every deciduous tooth. When the permanent tooth erupts, the root of the deciduous tooth will resorb and the tooth will become loose and will eventually fall off. This natural phenomenon occurs between the age of six and thirteen. 每颗乳齿牙根下面都有一颗正在生长中的「继承恒齿」。继承恒齿长出时,乳齿牙根便会萎缩,乳齿变得松动,最後脱落。这种情况在六至十三岁时会出现,是一种自然现象。
●Receding dental alveolar bone牙槽骨萎缩
──When a person is suffering from severe periodontal disease, the dental alveolar bone will recede and the teeth will lose support and become loose. 患上严重的牙周病时,牙槽骨便会萎缩,牙齿因失去支撑,会变得松动。
●Inflammation of periodontal tissues around teeth牙齿周围组织发炎
──When dental caries or periodontal disease causes inflammation of the periodontal tissues, or causes an abscess, the teeth will become loose. 如果因蛀牙或牙周病引致牙齿周围的组织发炎,即生牙疮,牙齿便会变得松动。
●Traumatic injury to teeth牙齿碰伤
──After traumatic injury to a tooth, the tooth supporting tissues may be damaged and the tooth involved will become loose. 牙齿受碰撞後,有可能因支撑牙齿的组织受损而变得松动

B. Management处理方法
●There is no need to worry if a deciduous tooth becomes loose because of tooth transition. You can let the deciduous tooth naturally exfoliate and there is no need to extract it. Even though the tooth is loose, you must still pay attention to oral hygiene around it. 如果乳齿因换牙而变得松动便不需担心,可让乳齿自然脱落,无需把它拨除。即使牙齿松动,仍需注意口腔卫生。
●If teeth are mobile because of periodontal disease, you should go to a dentist as soon as possible and seek proper treatment to prevent the situation from worsening. 如果患上牙周病而令牙齿松动,便要尽快找牙科医生,作出适当的治疗,以免病情恶化。
●You should see a dentist when there is inflammation in the periodontal tissues and seek proper treatment to completely cure the inflammation. According to the situation, treatments such as root planing or endodontic (root canal) treatment can be done to keep the inflammation from spreading to adjacent periodontal tissues. 当牙齿周围组织有发炎的现象,便应找牙科医生诊断,对症下药,根治炎症,例如进行牙根刮治或牙髓治疗,避免炎症蔓延以致牙齿周围组织继续受破坏。
●You should go to a dentist as soon as possible to have your teeth checked if a tooth becomes mobile after a traumatic injury. 如牙齿因受碰撞而变得松动,应尽快往见牙科医生检查一下口腔情况。

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Oral Problems─Acidic erosion of teeth口腔问题─牙齿被酸蚀

A. Cause原因
●Frequent intake of acidic food or beverages such as fruit juice, sports drink, soft drink, yogurt, red wine, white wine and etc will erode the enamel surface of teeth. 经常吃喝高酸性的食物或饮品例如果汁、补充体力饮品、汽水、酸乳酪、红酒、白酒等,牙齿表层的珐琅质会溶解。
●Acids in vomit will erode the teeth if a person frequently throws up. 经常呕吐,呕吐物多带酸性,酸蚀牙齿。
●Pregnant women who frequently eat pickles, dried plums, and etc will put their teeth under acidic attack. 孕妇偏吃甜酸食物如酸荞头、话梅等,这类食物容易令牙齿被酸蚀。

B. Consequences of acidic erosion of teeth酸蚀牙齿带来的後果
●After enamel is eroded, dentine will be exposed. This will cause tooth sensitivity, which lead to sharp pain when drinking or eating hot, cold, sour, and sweet food or beverages, or when the tooth is touched when brushing or flossing. 珐琅质被酸蚀令象牙质外露,会引致牙齿敏感 ,当吃喝冷热甜酸食物和饮品时,或者刷牙和使用牙线碰触牙齿时,便会感到刺痛。
●If the acidic erosion is severe, the pulp will be affected and it will cause severe pain. 酸蚀情况严重时,牙髓会受影响,引致剧痛。

C. Mangaement处理方法
●If the condition is mild, the dentist will apply topical fluoride on the surface of the tooth. If the condition is severe, the dentist will place a filling or a crown to cover the entire tooth. 如情况轻微,牙科医生会按情况选用高浓度的氟化物涂在牙齿表面。但若情况严重,牙科医生会为患者进行补牙或镶造人造牙冠覆盖整颗牙齿。
●Using desensitizing toothpaste can help relieve tooth sensitivity. You should first consult your dentist before using this kind of toothpaste. 使用防敏感牙膏刷牙有助纾缓牙齿敏感。但在购买或使用这类牙膏前,应先徵询牙科医生的意见。

D. Prevention预防方法
●Avoid frequent intake of acidic food or beverages. 避免频密吃喝高酸性的食物和饮料。
●Do not intentionally induce vomiting to lose weight. There are a lot of other slimming methods, such as slimming exercising. 切勿扣喉令自己呕吐以达到减肥的目的,其实要纤体可选择其他方法如运动等。

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Oral Problems─Bruxism口腔问题─磨牙

A. Cause原因

Teeth grinding is generally caused by psychological factors such as emotional stress or pressure. Extended period of teeth grinding will damage the enamel and expose the dentine causing sensitivity teeth. 磨牙多由於心理因素所致,如心理压力或精神紧张等。如果长时间有磨牙的习惯,珐琅质就会被磨蚀,导致象牙质外露,造成牙齿敏感。

B. Treatment处理方法

To stop teeth grinding, the cause must be identified. If teeth grinding is severe, you should go to a dentist as soon as possible. The dentist will give appropriate treatment such as fabricating a “mouth guard” to keep the teeth from further attrition. 要根治磨牙,便需找出原因。如果磨牙的情况严重,应尽快约见牙科医生,他会因应需要提供合适的处理方法,或为患者配制「护牙胶托」,避免牙齿继续受磨损。

C. Prevention预防方法

To avoid teeth grinding, one should try to be relaxed by having sufficient sleep and exercise to relieve stress from everyday life. Parents should not put too much pressure on their children to prevent them from teeth grinding. 保持心境开朗,有充足的睡眠及适量的运动以纾缓紧张的生活和压力,以减少磨牙的情况。家长不应给予孩子太大压力,避免孩子因受压力而出现磨牙的情况

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Oral Problems─Dry Mouth口腔问题 唾液分泌减少

A. Causes原因
●Salivary glands degenerate due to aging. 因年纪大,唾液腺开始退化。
●Salivary glands are damaged after radio therapy. 接受放射治疗後,唾液腺受破坏。
●Taking medications such as anti-hypertensives and anti-convulsants. 服用某些降血压药、抗抑郁药等药物。

B. Consequences of reduction in saliva secretion唾液分泌减少带来的後果
●Higher risk of having dental caries. 容易患蛀牙
●Oral tissues are more prone to infection. 口腔黏膜易受感染
●Bad breath口臭

C. Management处理方法

Drink water frequently to keep the mouth moist. 频密喝水,令口腔保持湿润。

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