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宝宝的第一年(Baby First Year)之四: 常见问题汇集之吃睡篇(网上资料)
作者:home99
发表时间:2008-07-23
更新时间:2008-07-24
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地址:10.
::: 栏目 :::
写给准妈妈1
宝宝护理与成长3
写给准妈妈3
为人父母3
英语学习
为人处世
休闲娱乐
理财话题
为人父母2
写给准妈妈2
实用资料
宝宝护理与成长2
为人父母1
其它
医药健康话题
写给新妈妈
宝宝护理与成长1
异国他乡

宝宝的第一年是最需要呵护的一年,也可以说是变化最多的一年,对初为父母的宝爸宝
妈来说既是养育宝宝也是认识宝宝的过程,看着自己的宝宝一天天长大,越长越可爱,不
断学会各种本领,真是一种幸福啊;不过从一个NEWBORN到TODDLER会遇到各种问题,因
此也是一个挑战啊。从网上看到的有关宝宝第一年常见问题的一些资料,觉得比较齐全,
不少都是自己一直以来比较关心的,贴出来供JMs参考啊。

因为内容比较多,分几次贴出来,希望更方便大家浏览啊。先贴吃睡篇。


一、宝宝的喂养

1.新生儿

● Breast or Bottle?

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and other professional groups
concerned with the care of newborns advocate breastfeeding as best for your
baby. Specifically, the AAP recommends that babies be breastfed exclusively
for about the first 6 months. Following the introduction of solid foods,
breastfeeding should continue through the first year of life and beyond, if
desired.

Breastfeeding may not be possible or preferable for all women. Deciding to
breastfeed or bottle-feed a baby is usually based on the mother\'s comfort
level with breastfeeding as well as her lifestyle, but breastfeeding may not
be recommended for some mothers and babies. If you have any questions about
whether to breastfeed your child, talk to your pediatrician.

Remember, your baby's nutritional and emotional needs will be met whether
you choose to breastfeed or formula-feed.

● Breastfeeding Advantages

Breastfeeding your newborn has many advantages. Perhaps most important,
breast milk is the perfect food for a human baby\'s digestive system. It
contains the vitamins and minerals that a newborn requires, and all of its
components — lactose, protein (whey and casein), and fat — are easily
digested by a newborn\'s immature system. Commercial formulas try to imitate
breast milk, and come close, but the exact composition cannot be duplicated.

Also, breast milk contains antibodies that help protect infants from a wide
variety of infectious diseases, including diarrhea. Studies suggest that
breastfed babies are less likely to develop certain medical problems,
including diabetes, high cholesterol, asthma, and allergies. Breastfeeding
may also decrease the chances that the child will become overweight or obese.

Breastfeeding is great for moms, too. It burns calories and helps shrink the
uterus, so nursing moms get back into shape quicker. Breastfeeding may also
protect mom from breast and ovarian cancer.

Some moms find breastfeeding easier and quicker than formula-feeding; it
needs no preparation, and you don\'t run out of breast milk in the middle of
the night. Also, breastfeeding costs little. Nursing mothers do need to eat
more and may want to buy nursing bras and pads, a breast pump, or other
equipment. But these expenses are generally less than the cost of formula.

Breastfeeding meets a variety of emotional needs for both moms and babies —
the skin-to-skin contact can enhance the emotional connection, and
providing complete nourishment can help a new mother feel confident in her
ability to care for her newborn.

● Formula-feeding Advantages

Commercially prepared infant formula is a nutritious alternative to breast
milk. Bottle-feeding can offer more freedom and flexibility for the mother,
and it makes it easier to know how much the baby is getting. Because babies
digest formula more slowly than breast milk, a baby who is getting formula
may need fewer feedings than one who breastfeeds. Formula-feeding also can
make it easier to feed the baby in public, and allows the father and other
family members to help feed the baby, which can enhance bonding.

● Considering the Limitations――Breastfeeding

With all the good things known about breastfeeding, why doesn\'t every mother
choose to breastfeed?

Breastfeeding requires a substantial commitment from a mother. Some mothers
feel tied down by the constant demands of a nursing newborn. Since breast
milk is easily digested, breastfed babies tend to eat more often than babies
who are fed formula. This means mom may find herself in demand as
frequently as every 2 or 3 hours in the first few weeks. This can be tiring,
but it\'s not long before babies feed less frequently and sleep longer at
night.

Some new mothers need to get back to work outside the home or separate from
their babies from time to time for other reasons. Some of these moms opt for
formula-feeding so other caregivers can give the baby a bottle. Mothers who
want to continue breastfeeding can use a breast pump to collect breast milk
to be given in a bottle so their babies still get its benefits even when
mom isn\'t available to breastfeed.

Other family members (dads most of all) may want to share in this most
fundamental of baby care routines and participate in feeding the baby. When
mom is breastfeeding, dad or siblings may want to stay close by. Helping mom
get comfortable, or providing a burp cloth when needed, will let them be
part of the experience. Once breastfeeding is established, other family
members can help out by giving the baby pumped breast milk in a bottle when
mom needs a break.

Sometimes a woman may feel embarrassed or apprehensive about the prospect of
breastfeeding. These feelings usually disappear once a successful
breastfeeding process is set. It\'s often helpful to seek advice and
perspective from those who\'ve gone through the experience. Most hospitals
and birthing centers can provide in-depth instruction on breastfeeding
techniques to new mothers. Your pediatrician, nurse practitioner, or nurse
can answer questions or put you in touch with a lactation consultant or a
breastfeeding support group.

In some cases, a mother\'s health may interfere with her ability to
breastfeed. For example, mothers who are undergoing chemotherapy for cancer
and moms who are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, the virus
that causes AIDS) should not breastfeed. If you have a medical condition or
take any medications regularly, or if you or your baby get sick, talk with
your doctor about whether it\'s OK to breastfeed. If you have to stop nursing
temporarily, it\'s important to continue to pump breast milk to maintain
milk production.

In some situations, it may not possible to breastfeed, such as when a baby
is sick or born prematurely. Mothers should speak with their baby\'s doctor
about expressing and storing milk. Even if the infant cannot breastfeed,
breast milk may be given via a feeding tube or bottle.

Sometimes mothers who have inverted nipples may have difficulty
breastfeeding, but with the help of a lactation consultant this usually can
be overcome. Likewise, women who have had plastic surgery on their breasts
should be able to successfully breastfeed. Be sure to speak to your doctor
if you have any concerns.

Avoid using pacifiers or bottles until after the first month of life.
Introducing them before breastfeeding is known to cause \"nipple confusion,\"
and can lead to an infant giving up the breast.

● Considering the Limitations――Formula-feeding

Just as breastfeeding has its unique demands, so does bottle-feeding. Bottle
-feeding can require a great deal of organization and preparation,
especially if you want to take your baby out. Also, formula costs can be
considerable.

It\'s important to make sure that you have enough formula on hand, and
bottles that are clean and ready to be used. Here are a few key guidelines
for formula feeding:

――Be sure to carefully follow directions on the label when preparing
formula.

――Bottles left out of the refrigerator longer than 1 hour and any formula
left in the bottle that a baby doesn\'t finish should be discarded.

――Prepared bottles of formula should be stored in the refrigerator for no
longer than 24 hours and should be carefully warmed just before feeding.

――A bottle of formula (or breast milk) should not be warmed in a microwave.
The bottle can heat unevenly and leave \"hot spots\" that can burn a baby\'s
mouth.

● Is My Newborn Getting Enough to Eat?

Your newborn should be nursing eight to 12 times per day during about the
first month. In the beginning, mothers may want to try nursing 10 to 15
minutes on each breast, then vary the time as necessary.

Once your milk supply is established, breastfeeding should be \"on demand\"
(when your baby is hungry), which is generally every 1 to 3 hours. As
newborns get older, they\'ll need to nurse less frequently — some may feed
every hour and a half, whereas others may go 2 or 3 hours between feedings.
For babies who are getting formula, they\'ll likely take about 2 to 3 ounces
every 2 to 4 hours. Newborns should not go more than about 4 hours without
feeding.

Call your baby\'s doctor if you need to awaken your newborn frequently or
continually urge your baby to suck.

Most experts suggest you nurse or feed your baby whenever he or she seems
hungry. Signs that babies are hungry include:

――moving their heads from side to side

――opening their mouths

――sticking out their tongues

――placing their hands and fists to their mouths

――puckering their lips as if to suck

――nuzzling again their mothers\' breasts

――showing the rooting reflex (when a baby moves its mouth in the direction
of something that\'s stroking or touching its cheek)

A rigid feeding schedule is not necessary; you and your baby will eventually
establish your unique feeding pattern. Babies know (and will let their
parents know) when they\'re hungry and when they\'ve had enough. Watch for
signs that your baby is full (slow, uninterested sucking; turning away from
the breast or bottle), and stop the feeding once these signs appear.

As your baby gains weight, he or she should begin to eat more at each
feeding and go longer between feedings. There may be other times when your
infant seems hungrier than usual. Continue to nurse or feed on demand.
Nursing mothers need not worry — breastfeeding stimulates milk production,
and your supply of breast milk will automatically adjust to your baby\'s
demand for it.

New mothers, especially breastfeeding moms, are often concerned that their
infants may not be getting enough to eat. It\'s important for breastfed
infants to be seen by their pediatrician 48 to 72 hours after a mother and
newborn leave the hospital. During this visit, the baby will be weighed and
examined, and the mother\'s breastfeeding technique can be evaluated. It\'s
also an opportunity for nursing mothers to ask questions. If a breastfed
baby is doing well, the doctor will probably schedule another visit for
around 2 weeks of age. Formula-fed babies are usually checked between 2 and
4 weeks of age, unless parents have specific concerns.

You can be assured that your baby is getting enough to eat if he or she
seems satisfied, produces about four to six wet diapers a day, has regular
bowel movements, sleeps well, is alert when awake, and is gaining weight. A
baby who is fussing, crying, seems hungry, and does not appear satisfied
after feeding may not be getting enough to eat. If you are concerned that
your baby is not getting enough to eat, call your baby\'s doctor.

Many infants \"spit up\" a small amount after eating or during burping, but a
baby should not vomit after feeding. This can be due to overfeeding, but
vomiting after every feeding may be a sign of an allergy, digestive problem,
or other problem that needs medical attention. If you have concerns that
your baby is spitting up too much, call your child\'s doctor.

Although your baby will probably start on some solid foods between 4 and 6
months, breast milk or formula will remain the most important source of
nutrition through the first year of life.

● Nutritional Supplements

Breast milk contains the right combination of vitamins and easily absorbed
iron that will be sufficient until your baby begins eating iron-rich cereals
around 6 months of age. A healthy infant being nursed by a healthy mother
does not need any additional vitamins or nutritional supplements, with the
exception of vitamin D. Breast milk does contain some vitamin D, and vitamin
D is produced by the body when the skin is exposed to sunlight. However,
sun exposure increases the risk of skin damage, so parents are advised to
minimize exposure. The AAP recommends that all breastfed babies begin
receiving vitamin D supplements during the first 2 months and continuing
until the infant consumes enough vitamin D-fortified formula or milk (after
1 year of age).

Formula contains the right blend of vitamins, including vitamin D, for a
baby, so supplements are usually not necessary. Iron-fortified formula is
recommended for a baby\'s first year and should contain up to 12 milligrams
of iron per liter.

Water, juice, and other foods are usually unnecessary during a baby\'s first
6 months. Breast milk or formula provides everything babies need
nutritionally until they start eating solid foods. Talk to your doctor if
you have any questions about feeding your newborn.


2.宝宝1-3个月

During your baby\'s first 3 months, breast milk or formula will continue to
provide all the nutrition needed.

But as your infant develops physically and mentally, the feeding process
will evolve. In general, your child will move toward consuming more milk
during each feeding, so won\'t need to feed as often and will sleep longer at
night. But there will be times during the next year — and, especially, in
the first 3 months of life — when a growth spurt increases your baby\'s
appetite. Continue to feed on demand and increase the number of feedings as
needed.

Your infant also will become more alert as the weeks progress, starting to
coo and developing a social smile. So there will probably be more
interaction between you and your baby during the feeding process.

● Breastfeeding: How Much and How Often?

During these months, breastfed infants start to feed less frequently and
sleep for longer periods at night. You can be reassured that your breastfed
infant probably is eating enough if he or she:

――seems alert, content, and active

――is steadily gaining weight, growing, and developing

――feeds six to eight times per day

――is wetting and soiling diapers on a regular basis
Your baby might not be eating enough if he or she doesn\'t appear satisfied,
even after feeding, and cries constantly or is irritable. Call your baby\'s
doctor if notice any of these signs.

Remember that after about a month, breastfed babies tend to have fewer bowel
movements than they did before. When your child is around 2 months old, he
or she may not have a bowel movement after each feeding, or even every day.
If your infant still hasn\'t had a bowel movement after 3 days, call your
child\'s doctor.

During periods of rapid growth, you may notice that your infant wants to
feed more frequently. This frequent nursing prompts the mother\'s body to
increase the milk supply, and in a couple of days, supply and demand will
get into balance.

Exclusively breastfed infants should get vitamin D supplements by 2 months
of age, but additional supplements, water, juice, and solid foods aren\'t
usually necessary.

● Formula Feeding: How Much and How Often?

Babies digest formula more slowly, so if you\'re bottle-feeding your baby,
you may have feedings less frequently than someone who is breastfeeding.

As your baby grows, he or she will be able to eat more and may allow
increasingly more time between feeding. You will also notice that your baby
is starting to sleep longer at night.

During the second month of life, infants may take about 4 or 5 ounces at
each feeding. By the end of 3 months, your baby will probably need an
additional ounce at each feeding.
These are general guidelines, and your baby may be hungrier more or less
often than this. That\'s why it\'s important to pay attention to your infant\'s
signals of being hungry or full. A baby who is getting enough might slow
down, stop, or turn away from the breast or bottle.

One note about formula feeding: It\'s easier to overfeed when you\'re using
formula because it takes less effort to drink from a bottle than from a
breast. You can help avoid overfeeding by making sure that the hole on the
bottle\'s nipple is the right size. The liquid should drip slowly from the
hole and not pour out. Also, resist the urge to finish feeding the bottle
when your baby shows those signs of being full.

Never use a bottle prop — it\'s a choking hazard. It also can encourage your
child to sleep with a bottle in the mouth, which can lead to tooth decay.

● A Word About Spitting Up

Many infants \"spit up\" small amounts after eating or during burping. This
gradually gets less frequent by the time a baby is 6 months old, and is
nearly gone by the time the baby is about 10 months old. Spitting up a small
amount — less than 1 ounce (30 ml) — shouldn\'t be a concern as long as it
happens within an hour of feeding and doesn\'t bother the baby.

You can reduce spitting up in these early months by:

――feeding before the baby gets very hungry

――keeping the baby in a semi-upright position during the feeding and for
an hour afterwards

――burping the baby regularly

――avoiding overfeeding

――not jostling or playing vigorously with the baby right after a feeding

If your baby seems to be spitting up large amounts, spitting up forcefully,
is irritable during or after feedings, or seems to be losing weight or not
gaining weight as expected, call your child\'s doctor. And if your child has
a fever, or shows any signs of dehydration (such as not wetting diapers),
call the doctor right away.

Contact your doctor if you have any questions or concerns about feeding your
infant.

3.宝宝4-7个月

This is the time when most infants are introduced to solid foods. The
American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) currently recommends gradually
introducing solid foods when a baby is about 6 months old. Your doctor,
however, may recommend starting as early as 4 months depending on your baby\'
s readiness and nutritional needs. Be sure to check with your doctor before
starting any solid foods.

Your baby may take a little while to \"learn\" how to eat solids. During these
months you\'ll still be providing the usual feedings of breast milk or
formula, so don\'t be concerned if your baby refuses certain foods at first,
or doesn\'t seem very interested in food. It may just take some time.

● Is My Child Is Ready to Eat Solids?

How can you tell if your baby is ready for solids? Here are a few hints:

――Is your baby\'s tongue-thrust reflex gone or diminished? This reflex,
which prevents infants from choking on foreign objects, also causes them to
push food out of their mouths.

――Can your baby support his or her own head? To eat solid food, an infant
needs good head and neck control and should be able to sit up.

――Is your baby interested in food? A 6-month-old baby who stares and grabs
at your food at dinnertime is clearly ready for some variety in the food
department.

If your doctor gives the go-ahead but your baby seems frustrated or
uninterested as you\'re introducing solid foods, try waiting a few days or
even weeks before trying again. Since solids are only a supplement at this
point, breast milk and formula will still fill your baby\'s basic nutritional
needs.

● How Should I Start Feeding My Baby Solids?

When your baby is ready and the doctor has given you the OK to try solid
foods, pick a time of day when your baby is not tired or cranky. You want
your baby to be a little hungry, but not all-out starving; you might want to
let your baby breastfeed a while, or provide part of the usual bottle. Have
your baby sit supported in your lap or in an upright infant seat. Infants
who sit well, usually around 6 months, can be placed in a high chair with a
safety strap.

Typically, a baby\'s first food is a little iron-fortified infant rice cereal
mixed with breast milk or formula. The first feeding may be nothing more
than a little cereal mixed in a whole lot of liquid. Place the spoon near
your baby\'s lips, and let the baby smell and taste. Don\'t be surprised if
this first spoonful is rejected. Wait a minute and try again. Most food
offered to your baby at this age will end up on the baby\'s chin, bib, or
high-chair tray. Again, this is just an introduction.

Do not add cereal to your baby\'s bottle unless your child\'s doctor instructs
you to do so, as this can cause babies to become overweight and doesn\'t
help the baby learn how to eat solid foods.

Once your infant gets the hang of eating cereal off a spoon, it may be time
to introduce a fruit or vegetable. When introducing new foods, go slow.
Introduce one food at a time and wait several days before trying something
else new. This will allow you to identify foods that your baby may be
allergic to.

● Foods to Avoid for Now

Some foods are generally withheld until later. Do not give eggs, cow\'s milk,
citrus fruits and juices, and honey until after a baby\'s first birthday.

Eggs (especially the whites) may cause an allergic reaction, especially if
given too early. Citrus is highly acidic and can cause painful diaper rashes
for a baby. Honey may contain certain spores that, while harmless to adults,
can cause botulism in babies. Regular cow\'s milk does not have the
nutrition that infants need.

Fish and seafood, peanuts and peanut butter, and tree nuts are also
considered allergenic for infants, and shouldn\'t be given until after the
child is 2 or 3 years old, depending on whether the child is at higher risk
for developing food allergies. A child is at higher risk for food allergies
if one or more close family members have allergies or allergy-related
conditions, like food allergies, eczema, or asthma.

Some possible signs of food allergy or allergic reactions include:

――rash

――bloating or an increase in intestinal gas

――diarrhea

――fussiness after eating

For more severe allergic reactions, like hives or breathing difficulty, get
medical attention right away. If your child has any type of reaction to a
food, don\'t offer that food until you talk with your child\'s doctor.

● Tips for Introducing Solids

With the hectic pace of family life, most parents opt for commercially
prepared baby foods at first. They come in small, convenient containers, and
manufacturers must meet strict safety and nutrition guidelines. It\'s a good
idea to avoid brands with added fillers and sugars.

If you do plan to prepare your own baby foods at home, pureeing them with a
food processor or blender, here are some things to keep in mind:

――Protect your baby and the rest of your family from foodborne illness by
following the rules for food safety (including frequent hand washing).

――Try to preserve the nutrients in your baby\'s food by using cooking
methods that retain the most vitamins and minerals. Try steaming or baking
fruits and vegetables instead of boiling, which washes away the nutrients.

――Freeze portions that you aren\'t going to use right away rather than
canning them.

――Avoid home-prepared beets, collard greens, spinach, and turnips. They
can contain high levels of nitrates, which can cause anemia in infants.
Serve jarred varieties of those vegetables.

Whether you buy the baby food or make it yourself, remember that texture and
consistency are important. At first, babies should have finely pureed
single foods. (Just applesauce, for example, not apples and pears mixed
together.) After you\'ve successfully tried individual foods, it\'s OK to
offer a pureed mix of two foods. When your child is about 9 months old,
coarser, chunkier textures are going to be tolerated as he or she begins
transitioning to a diet that includes more table foods.

If you are using commercially prepared baby food in jars, spoon some of the
food into a bowl to feed your baby. Do not feed your baby directly from the
jar, because bacteria from the baby\'s mouth can contaminate the remaining
food. It\'s also smart to throw away opened jars of baby food within a day or
two.

Juice can be given after 6 months of age, which is also a good age to
introduce your baby to a cup. Buy one with large handles and a lid (a \"sippy
cup\"), and teach your baby how to maneuver and drink from it. You might
need to try a few different cups to find one that works for your child. Use
water at first to avoid messy clean-ups. Serve only 100% fruit juice, not
juice drinks or powdered drink mixes. Do not give juice in a bottle and
remember to limit the amount of juice your baby drinks to less than 4 total
ounces (120 ml) a day. Too much juice adds extra calories without the
nutrition of breast milk or formula. Drinking too much juice can contribute
to overweight and can cause diarrhea.

Infants usually like fruits and sweeter vegetables, such as carrots and
sweet potatoes, but don\'t neglect other vegetables. Your goal over the next
few months is to introduce a wide variety of foods. If your baby doesn\'t
seem to like a particular food, reintroduce it at subsequent meals. It may
take quite a few tries before your child warms up to certain foods.

4.宝宝8-12个月

By about 8 months old, most babies are pros at handling the iron-fortified
infant cereals and pureed vegetables and fruits that have been introduced as
part of their diet along with breast milk or formula. Over the next few
months, your child will start to explore table foods.

● How Will My Child\'s Eating Habits Change?

As you expand your child\'s palate, continue to give new foods a trial run (a
few days to a week) to look for any allergic reactions. Do not feed your
child whole eggs, citrus fruits, fish and seafood, nuts (including peanuts
and peanut butter), or honey.

During this transition, you may want to introduce meats and offer your child
new, coarser textures that require a little more chewing.

You can purchase baby foods that offer your infant new tastes and textures,
or you can fork-mash, cut up, or grind whatever foods you may be serving the
rest of the family. You should cook it a little longer, until it\'s very
soft, and cut it into small pieces that your baby can handle to decrease the
risk of choking.

By the time babies are around 9 months old, they usually have the dexterity
and coordination to take food between forefinger and thumb so that they can
try feeding themselves with their fingers. (You may want to provide a safe
baby spoon as well.)

If you haven\'t already, have your baby join the rest of the family at meals.
At this age, he or she should enjoy being at the table.

By the first birthday, babies usually are ready to go from formula to cow\\\'s
milk. If you\'re breastfeeding, you can continue or you may decide to stop
now.

You\'ve probably already introduced your baby to a sippy cup, so let him or
her keep working on it. (Juice should always be given in a cup, not a bottle.)
After 12 months, you can serve whole milk in a cup, which will help with
the transition from the bottle.

● Feeding Safety

Never leave your baby unattended while eating in case he or she chokes.
Avoid foods that could present a choking hazard such as whole grapes, raw
vegetables, hard fruits, raisins, white bread, pieces of hard cheese, hot
dogs, popcorn, and hard candies.

If you\\\'re unsure about whether a finger food is safe, ask yourself the
following questions:

――Does it melt in the mouth? Some dry cereals will melt in the mouth, and
so will light and flaky crackers.

――Is it cooked enough so that it mashes easily? Well-cooked vegetables and
fruits will mash easily. So will canned fruits and vegetables. (Make sure
to choose canned foods that don\'t have added sugar or salt.)

――Is it naturally soft? Cottage cheese, shredded cheese, and small pieces
of tofu are soft.

――Can it be gummed? Pieces of ripe banana and well-cooked pasta can be
gummed.

● Making Meals Work

Keep your child\'s temperament in mind when you\'re trying to introduce new
foods. If you encounter resistance to new textures, serve them in small
portions and mix them with food you know your child likes. A child who likes
a lot of stimulation may enjoy it when you \"play airplane\" with the spoon
to get the food into his or her mouth. A more sensitive child, however, may
need the focus kept on eating with minimum distractions.

● How Much Should My Baby Eat?

Infant formula and breast milk continue to provide important nutrients for
growing infants, but babies will start to drink less as they approach the
first birthday. They\'re getting more nutrients now from the variety of foods
they\'ve learned to eat and enjoy.
You may be concerned that you\'re feeding your child too much or not enough.
Pay attention to your child\'s cues that he or she is hungry or full. A child
who is full may suck with less enthusiasm, stop, or turn away from the
breast or the bottle. With solid foods, your baby may turn away, refuse to
open his or her mouth, or spit the food out.

Let your baby finger feed or hold a spoon while you do the actual feeding.
This is good preparation for the toddler years when your child will take
charge of self-feeding. And if you haven\'t already, consider establishing
more regular mealtimes.



二、宝宝的睡眠

1.新生儿

\"Does your baby sleep through the night?\" is one of the questions new
parents hear the most. And the bleary-eyed moms and dads of newborns almost
always answer: \"No.\"

Newborn babies don\'t know the difference between day and night yet — and
their tiny stomachs don\'t hold enough breast milk or formula to keep them
satisfied for very long. They need food every few hours, no matter what time
of day or night it is.

● How Long Will My Baby Sleep?

A newborn may sleep as much as 16 hours a day (or even more), often in
stretches of 3 to 4 hours at a time. And like the sleep all of us experience,
babies have different phases of sleep: drowsiness, REM (rapid eye movement)
sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, and very deep sleep. As babies grow, their
periods of wakefulness increase.

At first, these short stretches of 3 to 4 hours of sleep may be frustrating
for you as they interfere with your sleep pattern. Have patience — this
will change as your baby grows and begins to adapt to the rhythms of life
outside the womb. At first, though, the need to feed will outweigh the need
to sleep. Many pediatricians recommend that a parent not let a newborn sleep
too long without feeding. In practical terms, that means offering a feeding
to your baby every 3 to 4 hours or so, and possibly more often for smaller
or premature babies. Breastfed infants may get hungry more frequently than
bottle-fed babies and need to nurse every 2 hours in the first few weeks.

● Where and How Should My Baby Sleep?

For the first weeks of life, most parents place their child\'s crib or
bassinet in their own bedroom. A separate room just seems too far away at
this early point.

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the U.S. Consumer Product
Safety Commission recommend against bringing your infant to sleep in the bed
with you for safety reasons. Although many cultures endorse cosleeping,
there is a risk that the baby can suffocate or strangle, and studies have
shown that there\\\'s a higher incidence of SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome)
in households where the baby slept in the bed with the parents.

Establishing a routine right from the beginning can be helpful. How we sleep
is based in large part on habit and what our bodies use as the signals that
it is time to sleep. Always putting your baby in the crib for sleeping will
help signal to the infant that this is the place for sleep. Keep in mind,
though, it may take a few weeks for your baby\\\'s brain to signal the
difference between night and day. Unfortunately, there are no tricks to
speed this up except to be as consistent in your routine as possible.

Always keep sleep safety in mind. Do not place anything in the crib or
bassinet that may interfere with your baby\'s breathing; this includes plush
toys, pillows, and blankets. Avoid objects with cords or ties, and those
with any kind of sharp edge or corner. Make sure the crib you are using
meets current safety standards.

The AAP recommends that healthy infants be placed on their backs to sleep,
not on their stomachs. The incidence of SIDS has decreased by more than 50%
since that recommendation was first made in 1992. It is now also recommended
that premature infants sleep only on their backs.

It is thought that some babies sleeping on their stomachs may have a greater
tendency toward sleep obstruction and rebreathing their own carbon dioxide
because they are less likely to rouse themselves to change head positions.
Another possibility is that they may suffocate on softer bedding if they are
lying face-down.

If your baby has a medical condition, there may be an exception to these
recommendations. Your baby\\\'s doctor can best advise you on the right sleep
position for your little one.

● How Can I Encourage My Newborn\\\'s Sleep?

You can help adjust your baby\\\'s body clock toward sleeping at night by
avoiding stimulation during nighttime feedings and diaper changes. Try to
keep the lights low, and resist the urge to play or talk with your baby.
This will reinforce the message that nighttime is for sleeping. Overly tired
infants often have more trouble sleeping than those who\'ve had an
appropriate amount of sleep during the day. So, keeping your baby up in
hopes that he or she will sleep better at night will not necessarily work.

Consider establishing some sort of bedtime routine (bathing, reading,
singing) to help get your baby to relax in the coming months. Even though
your newborn may be too young to get the signals yet, setting up the bedtime
drill now can keep you on the right track later.

What if your baby is fussy? It\\\'s OK to rock, cuddle, and sing as your baby
is settling down. For the first months of your baby\\\'s life, \"spoiling\" is
definitely not a problem. In fact, studies have shown that babies who are
carried around during the day have less colic and fussiness.

The first months of a baby\\\'s life can be the hardest for the parents because
you are potentially getting up every few hours to tend to the baby. Each
baby is different in terms of when he or she will sleep through the night,
and parents differ regarding when they are comfortable with encouraging
their newborn to do so. By 2 months most babies are sleeping 6 to 8 hours
through the night. If your baby isn\\\'t sleeping through the night by 4 months,
talk with your baby\\\'s doctor about how you can help this to happen.

● When to Call the Doctor

While most parents can expect newborns to sleep or catnap most of the day,
the range of what is normal is quite wide. Check with your child\'s doctor if
you have questions about how much (or how little) your baby is sleeping.

You may want to talk with the doctor if your baby seems overly irritable and
cannot be adequately soothed. In addition, if your baby is difficult to
rouse from sleep and generally seems uninterested in feeding efforts, speak
to the doctor immediately for reassurance or further medical guidance.


2.宝宝1-3个月

Congratulations! Now your baby will probably begin to stay awake longer
during the day and sleep more at night than when he or she was a newborn.
Probably - but the range of normal is still very wide.

Your baby\\\'s sleep phases are much the same as your own: drowsiness, REM (
rapid eye movement) sleep, light sleep, deep sleep, and very deep sleep.
Your baby might start sleeping through the night now - but be aware that the
definition of \\\"sleeping through the night\\\" at this age is a stretch of only
5 hours!

● How Long Will My Baby Sleep?

Since your baby is more alert and aware of immediate surroundings during the
daylight hours, he or she will be more inclined to sleep during the night,
especially if you fight the urge to play or talk to your baby during
nighttime feedings or diaper changes.

Your baby is adapting to the sleep-wake cycle that parents favor, and the
baby\\\'s stomach is growing and holding more breast milk or formula. At 3
months of age your baby will likely sleep about 15 hours out of each 24-hour
period, and two thirds of that sleep will take place during the night. Most
babies will have settled into a daily sleep routine of two or three sleep
periods during the day, followed by \"sleeping through the night\" for 6 to 7
hours after a late-night feeding.

If your baby is sleeping a lot when you want him or her awake - or vice
versa - encourage wakefulness during the day while also allowing your baby
to have distinct sleeping periods. You also can rouse your baby for the late
-night feeding at a time that suits your sleep schedule. For instance, if
your baby gets sleepy after the 7 p.m. feeding and sleeps until 2 a.m.
before feeding again, wake the baby to feed at 11 p.m. and then put him or
her down to sleep until an early-morning feeding at 5 or 6 a.m. It may take
a few nights to establish this routine, but it will happen if you are
consistent.

If your baby wakes during the period that you want him or her to be sleeping,
keep activity to a minimum. Change or feed your baby in the dark, and don\\\'t
play with the baby. Your little one will start to get the message that you\\\'re
a bore during the night, so he or she might as well just go back to
sleep.

Again, not all infants keep to the same timetable. If you have questions or
concerns, check with your baby\'s doctor.

● Where and How Should My Baby Sleep?

Always keep sleep safety in mind. Make sure the crib you are using meets
current safety standards. Don\\\'t put anything in the crib that can interfere
with your baby\\\'s breathing - stuffed animals, blankets, or soft pillows can
fall on a baby\\\'s face and become a problem. Avoid items with ties or ribbons
that can wrap around a baby\'s neck, and objects with any kind of sharp edge
or corner.

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that healthy infants be
placed on their backs to sleep, not on their stomachs. The incidence of
sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has decreased by more than 40% since
this recommendation was first made in 1992. It is now also recommended that
premature infants sleep only on their backs.

It is thought that some babies sleeping on their stomachs may have a greater
tendency toward sleep obstruction and rebreathing their own carbon dioxide
because they are less likely to rouse themselves to change head positions.
Another possibility is that they may suffocate on softer bedding if they are
lying face-down.

Once your child is rolling over on his or her own, around 5 to 6 months of
age, you no longer need to worry about sleep positioning. If you have
difficulty getting your baby to sleep on his or her back before this age,
though, talk to your baby\\\'s doctor.

Many cultures endorse cosleeping. But studies indicate that there is a
greater incidence of SIDS in households where the infant slept in the bed
with the parents. Use of substances that decrease the parents\\\' awareness,
such as alcohol, also may allow the parent to roll over onto the baby.

● How Can I Encourage My Baby to Sleep?

If you haven\'t already, try establishing a bedtime routine that will be
familiar and relaxing for your baby. Bathing, reading, and singing can be
soothing for parents and babies, and signal an end to the day. Be consistent,
and your baby will soon associate these steps with sleeping. Keep in mind
that if part of your bedtime routine is to rock your baby for half an hour,
then whenever your baby wakes up at night he or she is going to expect and
need that step to get back to sleep. Ideally, your baby should be put into a
crib or bassinet while drowsy but still awake. This way your baby will
learn to fall asleep on his or her own.

Although it may be hard at first, some experts suggest this is also the age
to start letting your baby fuss for a few minutes when he or she wakes
during the night. Your baby may simply be in a phase of light slumber, even
though you think your baby is totally awake. Some babies squirm, whine, and
even cry in their sleep before putting themselves back to sleep. Unless you
suspect that your baby is hungry or ill, try to see what happens if you
leave your baby alone. It will help you all in the long run if your baby can
develop the skill of going back to sleep without your immediate help.

● When to Call Your Baby\'s Doctor

Any time your baby\\\'s sleep habits are causing you concern, bring them up to
your child\\\'s doctor. He or she will be able to reassure you or get to the
root of a physical problem that may have no other symptoms besides
crankiness or sleeplessness. Either way, the doctor can help get you on the
right track . . . the one leading to more quality sleep for your baby and
for you!

3.宝宝4-7个月

By this age, your baby should be well on the way toward an established sleep
pattern. Most likely the pattern includes at least two naps a day, plus at
least 7 or 8 hours of nighttime sleep.

During these months, your baby will learn to roll over and position himself
or herself for sleep. Toward the end of this period, your child may be able
to stay awake or be kept awake by surroundings, so this is the time to
instill good sleep habits by sticking to a bedtime routine.

● How Long Will My Baby Sleep?

While the average number of hours slept per day at this age is 14, the range
of normal is quite wide, with some babies sleeping only 9 hours and others
sleeping as much as 18.
The average amount of daytime sleep at this age is 3 to 4 hours. If left up
to your baby, daily naps will be as long as he or she needs them to be.
Again, some babies will nap 20 minutes, others will sleep much longer than
average.

Keep in mind that your baby would rather be with you than anywhere else. So
your baby may need more than a 20-minute nap, but wakes because he or she
would just rather be playing with you than sleeping in the crib. Also, as
your baby becomes a toddler and starts resisting naps, it still may be a
good idea to have a period of quiet time, for both of you.

Naps usually help prevent a baby from becoming too cranky to sleep well at
night, allowing your baby (and you) to enjoy the waking hours more. Most
babies this age like to nap once in the morning, then again sometime after
lunch. If you feel the napping is interfering with your baby\'s bedtime, you
can wake the baby from an afternoon nap a little earlier. Keep in mind that
if your baby is overly tired, he or she will not sleep well at night.

● Where and How Should My Baby Sleep?

Always keep sleep safety in mind. Make sure the crib you are using meets
current safety standards. Don\\\'t put anything in the crib that can interfere
with your baby\\\'s breathing - stuffed animals, blankets, or soft pillows can
fall on a baby\\\'s face and block breathing. Avoid items with ties or ribbons
that can wrap around a baby\'s neck, and objects with any kind of sharp edge
or corner.

Once your baby is pulling himself or herself up using the sides of the crib,
it\\\'s time to remove the soft bumper cushions around the crib and the
mobiles hanging over it. The bumpers can give your baby a dangerous \\\"leg up\\\"
for climbing out of the crib and falling, and babies can get tangled in
hanging mobiles. Don\\\'t forget to look around for the things that your baby
can touch from a standing position in the crib. Wall hangings, pictures,
draperies, and window blind cords are potentially harmful if left within
your baby\\\'s reach.

The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends that healthy infants be
placed on their backs to sleep, not on their stomachs. The incidence of
sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has decreased by more than 40% since
this recommendation was first made in 1992. It is now also recommended that
premature infants sleep only on their backs.

Until your baby is rolling over unaided and picking a position for sleep,
place your little one on his or her back to sleep. It is thought that some
babies sleeping on their stomachs may have a greater tendency toward sleep
obstruction and rebreathing their own carbon dioxide because they are less
likely to rouse themselves to change head positions. Another possibility is
that they may suffocate on softer bedding if they are lying face-down.

Many cultures endorse cosleeping. But studies indicate that there is a
greater incidence of SIDS in households where the infant slept in the bed
with the parents. Use of substances that decrease the parents\' awareness,
such as alcohol, also may allow a parent to roll over onto the baby.

● How Can I Encourage My Child\\\'s Sleep?

You have probably already established a bedtime routine and are staying with
it. If you haven\\\'t established one, start now. Soothing activities that
lead up to \\\"night-night\\\" time can help relax your baby. A warm bath followed
by stories or singing will signal transition to sleep, and these same
activities can be used at bedtime for years.

At this age, you will probably want your baby to start falling asleep on his
or her own. This may mean performing your nighttime routine and putting the
baby into the crib while he or she is still awake. If the baby cries, stay
away for a few minutes. Your baby may settle down and go to sleep. If the
crying continues, go back in and soothe the baby for a moment, without
picking him or her up. This may go on a few times until your baby figures
out that the crying is not getting anywhere. Expect that this may be a
difficult exercise for you, simply because it\'s distressing to hear your
baby cry. Try to remember that if you know your baby is safe, a little
crying now so that you can all sleep better later is ultimately the
healthier choice.

Even a baby who has already been sleeping through the night (anywhere from 7
to 12 hours) will occasionally awaken in the wee hours. After ruling out
teething pain, illness, or an extremely soiled diaper, it\'s best to let your
baby struggle back to sleep on his or her own. Give your baby a few fussy
minutes before you respond, then after seeing that everything is OK, leave
your baby alone to fall back to sleep. Don\'t forget that any cuddling,
feeding, or talking you do may prompt your baby to wake each night for this
attention.

If your baby is waking up many times each night, perhaps there is an
external reason. Is your baby too big for the bassinet? Move him or her to a
full-size crib. Do you still have the baby in your bedroom? Your little one
may be sensitive to your presence and may need to be put in his or her own
room to get a good night\'s sleep. Is the baby\'s room too warm? Too cold? Too
dark? Explore these possibilities.

Another common sleep \"problem\" at this age is the early riser - the baby who
begins to babble or cry for you before the crack of dawn. There is probably
nothing you can do to prevent your baby from getting up when he or she is
ready, but a few safe toys in the crib may soothe your baby for a while
longer, and a window shade to keep out the first light of day may let you
get another few minutes of early-morning rest.

● When to Call Your Baby\'s Doctor

If you have ruled out external reasons for nighttime waking and you still
think your baby\'s not sleeping enough (or is even sleeping too much!), don\'t
hesitate to call your child\'s doctor. Teething pain is a common reason for
sleep problems at this age, and the doctor may be able to suggest some ways
to relieve your baby\'s discomfort. Perhaps there is an illness involving no
other symptoms besides sleeplessness, or maybe your doctor can help you find
ways to enhance your nighttime routine with your baby.

4.宝宝8-12个月

Though your baby is beginning to develop in so many positive ways, certain
sleep problems may start to crop up as your child approaches the first
birthday. These problems are often due to your baby\'s increased awareness of
his or her \"separateness\" from you. Stranger anxiety and separation anxiety
are two normal stages of development that typically occur during this time,
and they can get in the way of much-needed nighttime sleep for you and your
baby.

This may mean tears and tantrums when you try to leave your child in the
crib at night - and more sleep interruption when your baby wakes up and
looks around for some sign that you are near. This is also the age when
night terrors can appear. These can be more \"terrifying\" for the parent than
the baby if you are not sure what is happening.
It can be difficult to respond to your 8- to 12-month-old\'s nighttime needs
with the right balance of concern and consistency, but remember: This is the
time to set the stage for future restful nights for the whole family. The
important thing now is to try to keep the sleep experience a positive one
for your baby and to be consistent with your response to wakefulness at
night.

● How Long Will My Baby Sleep?

While the average amount of sleep per day at this age is 13 to 14 hours, the
range of normal is still quite wide at this stage in your child\'s life.

Your baby is probably still taking two naps a day - one in the morning and
another sometime after lunch. The average length of a nap now is about 1
hour. Some babies will nap 20 minutes, others a few hours. Naps help prevent
your baby from becoming too cranky to sleep well at night, so it is
important that they be long enough.

This is the age when your baby may start resisting taking naps because he or
she doesn\'t want to be away from you, but naps will help your little one
(and you) enjoy the waking hours more. The key is to be as consistent as
possible with nap times and your approach to putting your child in the crib.

● Where and How Should My Baby Sleep?

By this age, if your baby is developing well, he or she is likely rolling
over and picking a comfortable position for sleep. Your baby will move
around a lot during the course of a night\'s rest!

Night terrors can start to occur at this age, so don\'t be surprised if your
baby starts screaming and crying in the middle of the night and nothing you
do seems to help. Night terrors are different from nightmares. Night terrors
occur during the deep part of sleep and although they may seem worrisome to
you, your baby is actually still asleep - even if your baby\'s eyes are open
- and has no idea that he or she is crying. Make sure that your baby is
safe and he or she will eventually quiet down. Nightmares usually start
around 3 to 4 years of age and children wake up from them feeling scared.

When your baby wakes up in the night and cries for you, remember not to
reward him or her for this, or it may continue for a long time. Reassure
your baby quietly that you are indeed there, but then send the message that
he or she needs to go back to sleep. The best bet may be a soothing pat on
the back, a repositioning of the blanket, and a quick exit. If you are firm
and consistent about requiring your baby to put herself or himself back to
sleep, this stage should pass pretty quickly.

Of course, during these middle-of-the-night \"visits\" with your baby you\'ll
want to rule out illness or a very soiled diaper. If you do need to change
your baby, remember not to turn on too many lights and to keep interaction
to a minimum.

Always keep sleep safety in mind. Make sure the crib you are using meets
current safety standards. Keep large stuffed animals, which can fall onto
your baby\'s face, out of the crib. Avoid items with ties or ribbons that can
wrap around a baby\'s neck, and objects with any kind of sharp edge or
corner.

Once your baby is pulling himself or herself up using the sides of the crib,
it\'s time to remove the soft bumper cushions around the crib and the
mobiles hanging over it. The bumpers can give your baby a dangerous \"leg up\"
for climbing out of the crib and falling, and babies can get tangled in
hanging mobiles. Don\'t forget to look around for the things that your baby
can touch from a standing position in the crib. Wall hangings, pictures,
draperies, and window blind cords are potentially harmful if left within
your baby\'s reach.

● How Can I Encourage My Child\'s Sleep?

Your child is attached to you and doesn\'t like to be away from you, but try
to handle nighttime \"detachment\" the same way you manage separation anxiety
during the day (for example, when you leave your child with a babysitter).
Follow your usual bedtime routine with an extra hug and kiss, let your baby
know that you will see him or her soon, and make a quick exit.

If your baby has a favorite toy or blanket that you feel is safe to have in
the crib, he or she can use it for comfort. This is when \"transitional\"
objects become important to your baby\'s sense of comfort. They help your
baby transition from being with you most of the time to having some time
away from you and becoming more independent.

Try leaving your baby\'s door open so he or she can hear your activity in the
next room. This may help your little one feel less alone. If your child
keeps on crying and calling for you, a few words of reassurance from the
bedroom door (\"Mommy\'s right here but it\'s time for you to go to sleep now\")
and another quick exit may do the trick. Try and lengthen the time between
these personal appearances until - at long last - your baby is asleep.

● When to Call Your Baby\'s Doctor

Teething pain is a common reason for sleep problems at this age, and your
doctor may be able to suggest some ways to relieve your baby\'s discomfort.
Call the doctor if your baby can\'t be consoled or seems to be irritable day
after day because of interrupted sleep. Perhaps there is an illness
involving no other symptoms besides sleeplessness, or maybe your doctor can
help you find ways to enhance your nighttime routine with your child.

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