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来自FDA的准妈妈安全饮食指南(Food Safety for Moms-To-Be)(下)
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发表时间:2011-09-30
更新时间:2011-09-30
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【Lifelong Food Safety】

Good food safety practices are important during your pregnancy and for a lifetime! This section shows you how to prevent foodborne illness in four easy steps: Clean, Separate, Cook, and Chill.

In addition to your increased vulnerability during pregnancy, there may be other people in your home - children, the elderly, or people with weakened immune systems - who can be severely affected by foodborne illness. For your health, the health of your baby, and your entire family, develop these safe food-handling habits that will last a lifetime!

If you have food safety questions about specific foods, be sure to check out Safe Eats. It's your helpful guide to handling and selecting foods safely!

【Lifelong Food Safety - Clean】

CLEAN

Wash hands and surfaces often

Did you know that foodborne bacteria are invisible and can spread throughout the kitchen and get on cutting boards, utensils, sponges, countertops, and food? If eaten, harmful foodborne bacteria can cause foodborne illness. Keep your family safe by keeping your hands, surfaces, and utensils clean. And, make sure fruits and veggies are washed thoroughly, too!

Clean Hands Are Key!

How to Wash Hands:
●Wet hands thoroughly with warm water and add soap.
●Thoroughly scrub your hands, wrists, fingernails, and in between fingers - for at least 20 seconds.
●Rinse, then dry hands with a clean cloth towel or use a paper towel so you can throw the germs away!

When to Wash Hands:
●Before and after handling food.
●After using the bathroom, changing diapers, or handling pets.

Did You Know?
20% of consumers don't wash hands and kitchen surfaces before preparing food.

Keep These Handy...
●Make sure there is handwashing soap and paper towels or a clean cloth towel at every sink in your home.
●If soap and water aren't available, alcohol-based wipes or gel formulas are effective for sanitizing hands.

Surface Safety
●Wash cutting boards, dishes, utensils (including knives), and countertops with hot, soapy water after preparing each food item and before going on to the next food.

Sanitize It!

Periodically sanitize kitchen countertops using a kitchen sanitizer. One teaspoon of liquid chlorine bleach per quart of clean water can also be used to sanitize surfaces. Leave the bleach solution on the surface for about 10 minutes to be effective.
●Replace excessively worn cutting boards (including plastic, non-porous acrylic, and wooden boards). Bacteria can grow in the hard-to-clean grooves and cracks.
●Consider using paper towels to clean up kitchen surfaces. Then, throw the germs away with the towels! If you use cloth towels, launder them often, using hot water. Note: Don't dry your hands with a towel that was previously used to clean up raw meat, poultry, or seafood juices. These raw juices may contain harmful bacteria that can spread to your hands and throughout the kitchen.

Keep pets off kitchen counters and away from food.

Fridge TIPS
●Clean your refrigerator regularly.
●Wipe up spills immediately.
●Clean inside walls and shelves with hot water and a mild liquid dishwashing detergent; then rinse.
●Once a week, check expiration and "use by" dates, and throw out foods if the date has passed.

Fruits & Veggies
●Rinse raw fruits and vegetables thoroughly under running water to help remove germs and soils. (Don't use soap, detergents, or bleach solutions.)
●For thick or rough-skinned vegetables and fruits (potatoes, carrots, cantaloupe, etc.), use a small vegetable brush to remove surface dirt. Try to cut away damaged or bruised areas on produce - bacteria can thrive in these places.

【Lifelong Food Safety: Separate, Don't Cross-Contaminate】

SEPARATE

Separate, Don't Cross-Contaminate

Raw meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs can contain harmful bacteria. Here's how to properly handle these foods to prevent cross-contamination - the spread of bacteria from foods, hands, utensils, or food preparation surfaces to another food.

Protect yourself, your baby, and other family members by keeping harmful bacteria from s-p-r-e-a-d-i-n-g!

Safely Separate

Separate raw meat, poultry, and seafood from ready-to-eat foods in your grocery shopping cart, refrigerator, and while preparing and handling foods at home. Consider placing these raw foods inside plastic bags in your grocery shopping cart to keep the juices contained.

Seal It
●To prevent juices from raw meat, poultry, or seafood from dripping onto other foods in the refrigerator, place these raw foods in sealed containers or sealable plastic bags.

Lather Up
●Thoroughly wash cutting boards, dishes, and utensils (including knives) with soap and hot water after they come in contact with raw meat, poultry, seafood, eggs, and unwashed fresh produce.

Cutting Boards: Take Two
●If possible, use one cutting board for raw meat, poultry, and seafood and another one for fresh fruits and vegetables.
●If two cutting boards aren't available, prepare fruits and vegetables first, and put them safely out of the way. Wash cutting boards thoroughly with soap and hot water. Then, prepare the raw meat, poultry, or seafood. Follow by washing the cutting board again.

Clean Your Plate
●Place cooked food on a clean plate. If cooked food is placed on an unwashed plate that previously held raw meat, poultry, or seafood, bacteria from the raw food could contaminate the cooked food.

Marinating Mandate
●Marinades used on raw meat, poultry, or seafood can contain harmful bacteria. Don't re-use these marinades on cooked foods, unless you boil them first.
●Never taste uncooked marinade or sauce that was used to marinate raw meat, poultry, or seafood.

【Lifelong Food Safety - Cook】

COOK

Cook to Proper Temperatures

Heating foods to the right temperature for the proper amount of time will kill harmful bacteria that cause foodborne illness. Use a food thermometer to check the internal temperature. Keep food and your family safe by practicing these TIPS.

The Danger Zone...

This refers to the range of temperatures at which bacteria can grow - usually between 40° and 140° F (4° and 60° C). For food safety, keep food below or above the "danger zone." Remember the 2-Hour Rule: Discard any perishables (foods that can spoil or become contaminated by bacteria if unrefrigerated) left out at room temperature for longer than two hours. When temperatures are above 90° F (32° C), discard food after one hour.

See the Apply the Heat (PDF | 20.3KB) chart for the "danger zone."

Meat and Poultry
●Cook ground beef, veal, lamb, and pork to at least 160° F (71° C).
●Cook all poultry to a minimum of 165° F (74° C).
●Cook pork roasts to at least 145° F (63° C), with a 3 minute rest time.

Take Special Care with Ground Meat and Poultry
When meat and poultry are ground up, bacteria that might have been on the surface of the meat or poultry can end up inside. Make sure the meat is cooked all the way through, so harmful bacteria are killed. Always use a food thermometer to check.

Eggs
●Cook eggs until the yolks and whites are firm.
●Cook fried eggs for 2 to 3 minutes on each side, 4 minutes in a covered pan.
●Cook scrambled eggs until they're firm throughout.
●Boil eggs for 7 minutes.
●Don't use recipes in which eggs remain raw or only partially cooked.

Make these recipes safer by...
●Adding the eggs to the amount of liquid called for in the recipe, then heating the mixture thoroughly.
●Purchasing pasteurized eggs. These eggs can be found in some supermarkets and are labeled "pasteurized." Here are several types consumers can buy:
*Fresh, pasteurized eggs in the shell (found in the refrigerator section).
*Liquid, pasteurized egg products (found in the refrigerator section).
*Frozen, pasteurized egg products (found in the frozen food section).
*Powdered egg whites (found in the baking section).

Seafood
Finfish should be cooked to an internal temperature of 145° F (63° C). When a food thermometer is not available or appropriate, follow these tips to determine when seafood is done:
●Cook fish until it's opaque (milky white) and flakes with a fork.
●Cook shrimp, lobster, and scallops until they reach their appropriate color. The flesh of shrimp and lobster should be an opaque (milky white) color. Scallops should be opaque (milky white) and firm.
●Cook clams, mussels, and oysters to the point at which their shells open. This means that they are done. Throw away the ones that didn't open.

Leftovers
●Reheat leftovers to 165° F (74° C).
●Bring leftover sauces, soups, and gravies to a boil.
●Don't leave food out at room temperature for more than two hours. On a hot day (90° F or higher), reduce this time to one hour.

Microwave Musts!
Microwaves often cook foods unevenly. This uneven cooking creates hot and cold spots in the food; and bacteria can survive in the cold spots. Microwaves also heat fats, sugars, and liquids more quickly than carbohydrates and proteins. For example, the gravy for your roast may be bubbling hot, but the meat may still be cold!

For food safety, follow these tips to even out the cooking:
●Add a little liquid to the food and cover it with plastic wrap (vented in a corner) or a glass cover. This creates steam, which kills harmful bacteria.
●For even heating, turn the dish several times during cooking, and stir soups and stews periodically during reheating.
●When done cooking, make sure the food is hot and steaming. Using a food thermometer, test the food in two or three different areas to check that it has reached a safe internal temperature.
●Follow the recommended "let stand" times on food packages or in recipes. Food finishes cooking during the stand time.
●After defrosting food in the microwave, cook the food immediately. Keep in mind that some areas of the food may become warm and begin to cook while you're defrosting. However, the internal temperature of the food probably hasn't reached the temperature needed to kill harmful bacteria. It may have reached the "danger zone," the temperatures at which bacteria grow. That's why you should be sure to cook the food as soon as you're finished defrosting.

【Lifelong Food Safety - Chill】

CHILL

Refrigerate Promptly

At room temperature, harmful bacteria can grow rapidly in food. The more bacteria there are, the greater your chances of becoming sick. Cold temperatures keep most harmful bacteria from multiplying, so keep perishable foods (foods that can spoil or become contaminated by bacteria) in the refrigerator.

Prompt refrigeration of foods will help keep you and your family safe!

Cool Rules
●Your refrigerator should register at 40° F (4° C) or below and the freezer unit at 0° F (-18° C). Place a refrigerator thermometer in the refrigerator, and check the temperature periodically.
●Refrigerate or freeze perishables, prepared food, and leftovers within two hours of eating or preparation.
●Use ready-to-eat, perishable foods, such as dairy, meat, poultry, seafood, and produce, as soon as possible.
●Hot food won't harm your refrigerator, so it's okay to place hot food inside. Be sure to divide large amounts of leftovers into shallow containers for quicker cooling in the refrigerator.
●Marinate foods in the refrigerator - not at room temperature.

Don't Pack Your Refrigerator...
●Don't pack the refrigerator too full with food. Cold air must circulate to keep food safe.

...But Be Sure to Pack Your Cooler
●At outdoor events, use a cooler to keep perishable foods cold. And, fill the cooler with food and ice or cold packs. A full cooler will maintain its cold temperatures longer than one that's partially filled.

Did You Know? 23% of consumers' refrigerators are not cold enough!

3 Ways to Defrost Frozen Foods
●In the refrigerator. Cold temperatures keep most harmful bacteria from multiplying.
●In cold water. Change the water every half-hour to keep the water cold.
●Using the microwave, but cook the food immediately after it's defrosted.

Note: Don't defrost foods at room temperature. Bacteria can grow in the "danger zone," the range of temperatures usually between 40° and 140° F (4° and 60° C).

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Highlights

Entertaining All Year - Enjoy social events while keeping your unborn baby safe from foodborne bacteria.

A Special Note: As you learn more about food safety, you may discover that there are things related to safe food handling that you should have done differently in the past. Don't worry, you and your baby are probably okay! But if you do have health concerns, see your doctor or health-care provider.

【Highlights - Happy Spring】

It's spring - the season to enjoy the great outdoors and celebrate special occasions, such as Easter, Passover, graduation, and Mother's Day! Prevent any unwelcome guests (a.k.a. harmful bacteria) from attending these events by following good food safety practices. Follow these tips...

Preventing foodborne illness is easy as...
1. Clean Wash hands and surfaces often.
2. Separate Don't cross-contaminate.
3. Cook Cook to proper temperatures.
4. Chill Refrigerate promptly.

For more information about the 4 Simple Steps to Food Safety, see Lifelong Food Safety.

On the Egg Hunt
Here's how to plan a safe, egg-citing egg hunt:
●To prevent the spread of dirt and germs, wash your hands thoroughly with soap and warm water before handling eggs at every preparation step, including cooking, cooling, dyeing, and hiding.
●Keep hard-cooked Easter eggs refrigerated until just before the hunt. Cold temperatures keep most harmful bacteria from multiplying.
●Hide eggs in places that are protected from dirt, pets, and other potential sources of bacteria.
●After the hunt, discard eggs that are cracked or dirty. Bacteria can enter eggs through cracks in the shell.
●Rinse uncracked eggs, then place them back in the refrigerator until it's time to eat them.

The 2-Hour Rule
Discard eggs or food left unrefrigerated for more than two hours. On a hot day (90°F or higher), reduce this time to one hour.

It's Picnic Time!
Plan your next picnic with these food safety tips in mind.
●Before preparing and cooking foods, thoroughly wash your hands with soap and warm water. If soap and water won't be available, bring alcohol-based wipes or gel formulas for cleaning hands.
●When preparing fruit or veggie salads, thoroughly rinse fresh produce under running water before serving, especially fruits that require peeling or cutting, like cantaloupe and other melons.
●Take only the amount of food that will be eaten to avoid having leftovers that might not be able to be stored safely.

Cool Rules
Use a cooler with ice or cold packs to keep these perishable foods cold:
●Cold fried chicken
●Eggs and foods containing eggs
●Cold pasta dishes with meat, poultry, seafood, and dairy products.

Also, fill the cooler with food and ice or cold packs. A full cooler will maintain its cold temperatures longer than one that's partially filled.

Eating Out in Spring!
Many of your springtime celebrations may take place in restaurants. To keep your baby safe, it's important to be aware of risky foods that might be on the menu. Here's a list of foods you should avoid and why.

Risky Orders
Caesar salad dressing, custards, and sauces that are made with raw (uncooked) eggs
Why? Harmful bacteria can be found in raw or undercooked eggs.

Raw or undercooked fish (such as sushi or sashimi) or foods made with raw fish
Why? Raw fish is more likely to contain parasites or bacteria than cooked fish.

Swordfish, tilefish, king mackerel, and shark
Why? These fish can contain high levels of methylmercury, a metal that can be harmful to your unborn baby. It's okay to eat other cooked fish/seafood as long as a variety of other kinds are selected during pregnancy or while a woman is trying to become pregnant. She can eat up to 12 ounces (2 average meals) a week of a variety of fish and shellfish that are lower in mercury. Five of the most commonly eaten fish that are low in mercury are shrimp, canned light tuna, salmon, pollock, and catfish. Another commonly eaten fish, albacore ("white") tuna has more mercury than canned light tuna. So, when choosing your two meals of fish and shellfish, you may eat up to 6 ounces (one average meal) of albacore tuna per week. For more information, see Methylmercury.

Sprouts of any kind (including alfalfa, clover, radish, and mung bean)
Why? Bacteria can get into the sprout seeds through cracks in the shell before the sprouts are grown. Once this occurs, these bacteria are nearly impossible to wash out. And, thoroughly cooking sprouts doesn't guarantee that you've gotten rid of harmful bacteria.

Juices by the glass
Why? Juices that are fresh-squeezed and sold by the glass at some juice bars, for example, may not be pasteurized or otherwise treated to ensure their safety. Warning labels are not required on these products. Pregnant women and young children should avoid these juices.

Take Note,
Moms-to-Be
Listeria, a bacterium that can be particularly harmful to you and your unborn baby, can be found in ready-to-eat, perishable foods (dairy, meat, poultry, and seafood). To prevent foodborne illness:
●Use ready-to-eat, perishable foods as soon as possible.
●Clean the refrigerator regularly.
●Use a refrigerator thermometer to make sure that the refrigerator always stays at 40° F (4° C) or below.
●Select foods carefully.

For a list of foods you shouldn't eat, see Listeria.

【Highlights - Fall Events】

Welcome to Fall - the season to celebrate harvest, Halloween, Thanksgiving, and your favorite fall sporting events! Make these events even more enjoyable - and safe - for you and your unborn baby. The key is to handle foods carefully while you're pregnant and beyond!

Preventing foodborne illness is easy as...
1. Clean Wash hands and surfaces often.
2. Separate Don't cross-contaminate.
3. Cook Cook to proper temperatures.
4. Chill Refrigerate promptly.

For more information about the 4 Simple Steps to Food Safety, see Lifelong Food Safety.

Boo!... It's Halloween
Follow these tips for a safe Halloween bash...
●No matter how tempting, don't taste raw cookie dough or cake batter if it contains raw eggs. Harmful bacteria can be lurking in the raw eggs... so wait until the goodies are cooked.
●Before going "bobbing for apples," an all-time favorite Halloween game, reduce the number of bacteria that might be present on apples and other raw fruits and vegetables by thoroughly rinsing them under running water. As an added precaution, use a produce brush to remove surface dirt.
●"Scare" bacteria away by keeping all perishable foods chilled until serving time. These include: finger sandwiches, cheese platters, fruit or tossed salads, cold pasta dishes with meat, poultry, or seafood, and cream pies or cakes with whipped-cream and cream-cheese frostings. Cold temperatures keep most harmful bacteria from multiplying.

The 2-Hour Rule
Remember the 2-Hour Rule: Discard any perishables (foods that can spoil or become contaminated by bacteria if unrefrigerated) left out at room temperature for longer than two hours. When temperatures are above 90° F (32° C), discard food after one hour.

Note: See the Food Tampering fact sheet for how to detect and report product tampering.

Time for Tailgating
Keep food safe at a tailgating party by keeping hot foods hot and cold foods cold. Here's how...

Bring Out the Hibachi!
●Grill hot dogs until they're steaming hot and hamburgers until they reach 160° F (71 ° C).
●Use a food thermometer to check the temperature. Heating foods to the right temperature for the proper amount of time kills harmful bacteria.

Sassy Soups & Cider
●Serve up hot soup, chili, or crab dip, but keep it all piping hot by placing these foods in insulated thermal containers. Keep the container closed until serving time.
●Toast your team's victory with hot apple cider, but make sure the cider is pasteurized or otherwise treated to kill harmful bacteria. Unpasteurized cider may contain harmful bacteria. Be sure to read the label!

The Must-Chill Menu
●If shrimp cocktail and cold dips are on the menu, serve them chilled on a bed of ice.
●Pack perishables, like cold fried chicken, directly from the refrigerator into the cooler - and include a cold pack. Keep all perishables chilled until serving time.

The best thing about the holidays are the leftovers!
Here's how to handle them safely...
●Reheat leftovers to 165° F (74° C). Use a food thermometer to check.
●Bring leftover sauces, soups, and gravies to a boil before serving.
●Refrigerate or freeze leftovers within two hours of eating. Remember the 2-Hour Rule: Don't leave food out at room temperature for more than two hours. On a hot day (90° F or higher), reduce this time to one hour.

Happy Thanksgiving!
Here's how to make your holiday feast safe...
●Cook the turkey to 165° F (74° C). Insert the food thermometer into the thickest part of the thigh muscle without touching the bone to get an accurate reading.
●For even heating, cook stuffing separately to 165° F (74° C). Use a food thermometer to check.

【Highlights - Summer Fun】

Summer's here - the perfect time to enjoy the great outdoors with backyard barbecues and buffets! As you enjoy warm weather feasts, use these tips for keeping the invisible enemy (a.k.a. foodborne bacteria) at bay.

Preventing foodborne illness is easy as...
1. Clean Wash hands and surfaces often.
2. Separate Don't cross-contaminate.
3. Cook Cook to proper temperatures.
4. Chill Refrigerate promptly.

For more information about the 4 Simple Steps to Food Safety, see Lifelong Food Safety.

Prevent the S-p-r-e-a-d...of Bacteria
During your outdoor grilling celebrations, it's important to handle raw meat, poultry, and seafood safely to prevent the spread of bacteria. Here's how:
●Separate raw meat, poultry, and seafood from other foods in your grocery shopping cart, refrigerator, and while preparing and handling foods at home. Also, consider placing these raw foods inside plastic bags in your grocery shopping cart to keep the juices contained.
●Wash hands thoroughly with soap and warm water before and after handling raw meat, poultry, and seafood. If possible, use one cutting board for raw meat, poultry, and seafood and another one for fresh fruits and vegetables. Wash cutting boards thoroughly with soap and hot water between uses.
●Place cooked food on a clean plate for serving. If cooked food is placed on an unwashed plate that previously held raw meat, poultry, or seafood, bacteria from the raw food could contaminate the cooked food.
●Marinades used on raw meat, poultry, or seafood can contain harmful bacteria. Don't reuse these marinades on cooked foods, unless you boil them before applying.

Savory Seafoodfests
Serving up seafood at an outdoor buffet? Here's how to keep seafood safe:

Cook...
Finfish should be cooked to an internal temperature of 145° F (63° C). When a food thermometer is not available or appropriate, follow these tips to determine when seafood is done.
●Cook fish until it's opaque (milky white) and flakes with a fork.
●Cook shrimp, lobster, and scallops until they reach their appropriate color. The flesh of shrimp and lobster should be an opaque (milky white) color. Scallops should be opaque (milky white) and firm.
●Cook clams, mussels, and oysters until their shells open. This means that they are done. Throw away the ones that didn't open.

Attention Pregnant Women - Don't Eat Raw Fish
Raw fish (such as sushi or sashimi) or foods made with raw fish are more likely to contain parasites or bacteria than foods made from cooked fish.

To keep you and your baby safe, avoid eating raw or undercooked finfish or shellfish (including oysters, clams, mussels, and scallops).

Be Aware of Methylmercury
Avoid eating swordfish, tilefish, king mackerel, and shark. These fish can contain high levels of methylmercury, a metal that can be harmful to your unborn baby.

It's okay to eat other cooked fish/seafood as long as a variety of other kinds are selected during pregnancy or while a woman is trying to become pregnant. You can choose shellfish, canned fish, smaller ocean fish, or farm-raised fish. You can safely eat 12 ounces per week of a variety of cooked fish. A typical serving size of fish is from three to six ounces. Of course, if your serving sizes are smaller, you can eat fish more frequently. For more information, see Methylmercury.

Keep Hot Foods Hot
On a buffet table, hot foods should be kept at an internal temperature of 140° F (71° C) or warmer. Keep foods hot with chafing dishes, slow cookers, and warming trays.

Hot Off the Grill!
Remember that heating foods to the right temperature for the proper amount of time kills harmful bacteria. So, when serving meat and poultry at an outdoor barbecue, cook these foods to safe internal temperatures. And, always use a clean food thermometer to check the internal temperatures of these foods.
●Cook ground beef to 160°F (71°C).
●Cook steaks to at least 145°F (63°C).
●Cook chicken breasts to 165°F (74°C).
●Cook pork to 145°F (63°C), with a 3 minute rest time.

Keep Cold Foods Cold
On a buffet table, cold foods should be kept at 40° F (4° C) or colder.

...and Chill
If you're serving shrimp cocktail, serve it chilled on a bed of ice. Cold temperatures keep most harmful bacteria from multiplying.

Moms-to-Be: Be Sure to Do This
Grill hot dogs until steaming hot. Ready-to-eat foods like hot dogs can become contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes, a bacterium that can be harmful to you and your unborn baby. For more information, see Listeria.

Remember the 2-Hour Rule
Discard food left unrefrigerated for more than two hours. On a hot day (90° F or higher), reduce this time to one hour.

Have fun this summer!

【Food Safety for Moms to Be: Highlights - Entertaining All Year】

Whether you're hosting or attending a shower, pot-luck dinner, birthday party, school fair, or other social event - they all involve food! Enjoy these events while keeping your unborn baby safe from foodborne bacteria. Use these tips to help you select, prepare, and handle food safely year-round!

Preventing foodborne illness is easy as...
1. Clean Wash hands and surfaces often.
2. Separate Don't cross-contaminate.
3. Cook Cook to proper temperatures.
4. Chill Refrigerate promptly.

For more information about the 4 Simple Steps to Food Safety, see Lifelong Food Safety.

First Things First
Always wash your hands thoroughly with soap and warm water before and after handling food.

Safe Food Handling for Social Events

Make food safety the center of your entertaining activities during your pregnancy and beyond!

4 Steps to Safe Food Shopping
●Separate raw meat, poultry, and seafood from other foods in your grocery shopping cart and your grocery bags. Raw juices from these foods can contain harmful bacteria, which can spread to other foods. Consider placing these raw foods inside plastic bags to keep the juices contained.
●Don't purchase foods if the "sell by" date has passed.
●Transport food home right away and refrigerate perishables immediately to prevent any bacteria from rapidly growing in the food.
●When the weather's hot, place groceries in the air-conditioned passenger compartment of your car rather than the hot trunk. Bacteria can multiply rapidly at high temperatures.

Take Note, Moms-to-Be!
Don't include these foods on your shopping list. They're not safe for you or your unborn baby.
●Sushi or sashimi. Raw fish (including oysters, clams, mussels, and scallops) or foods made with raw fish are more likely to contain parasites or bacteria than foods made from cooked fish.
●Swordfish, tilefish, king mackerel, and shark. These fish can contain high levels of methylmercury, a metal that can be harmful to your unborn baby. It's okay to eat other cooked fish/seafood as long as a variety of other kinds are selected during pregnancy or while a woman is trying to become pregnant. You can eat up to 12 ounces (2 average meals) a week of a variety of fish and shellfish that are lower in mercury. Five of the most commonly eaten fish that are low in mercury are shrimp, canned light tuna, salmon, pollock, and catfish. Another commonly eaten fish, albacore ("white") tuna has more mercury than canned light tuna. So, when choosing your two meals of fish and shellfish, you may eat up to 6 ounces (one average meal) of albacore tuna per week.
●Raw Sprouts (including alfalfa, clover, radish, and mung bean). Bacteria can get into sprout seeds through cracks in the shell before the sprouts are grown. Once this occurs, these bacteria are nearly impossible to wash out. Sprouts grown in the home are also risky if eaten raw. Many outbreaks have been linked to contaminated seed. If pathogenic bacteria are present in or on the seed, they can grow to high levels during sprouting - even under clean conditions.
●Unpasteurized or Untreated Juice. These are normally in the refrigerated sections of grocery stores, health-food stores, cider mills, or farm markets. Such juices must have this warning on the label:
●WARNING: This product has not been pasteurized and therefore, may contain harmful bacteria that can cause serious illness in children, the elderly, and persons with weakened immune systems.

Note: Juices that are fresh-squeezed and sold by the glass, such as at farmer's markets, at roadside stands, or in some juice bars, may not be pasteurized or otherwise treated to ensure their safety. Warning labels are not required on these products. Pregnant women and young children should avoid these juices.

If you can't tell if a juice has been processed to destroy harmful bacteria, either don't use the product - or boil it before using it to kill any harmful bacteria.

It's okay to drink pasteurized or shelf-stable juice. Pasteurized juice can be found in the refrigerated or frozen juice sections of stores. Like milk, pasteurized juice must be refrigerated or frozen. Shelf-stable juice is able to be stored unrefrigerated on the shelf and is normally found in the non-refrigerated juice section of stores. It's packaged in shelf-stable containers, such as boxes, bottles, or cans.

A Note About Listeria
This bacterium that can be particularly harmful to you and your unborn baby and can be found in these foods:
●Hot dogs and luncheon meats. They're okay to eat if you reheat them until steaming hot.
●Soft cheeses (including Feta, Brie, Camembert, "blue-veined cheeses," "queso blanco," "queso fresco," and Panela). They're okay to eat if the label says they're made with pasteurized milk. Check the label.
●Refrigerated pbtés or meat spreads.
●Refrigerated smoked seafood. They're okay to eat if in a cooked dish, such as a casserole. (Refrigerated smoked seafood, such as salmon, trout, whitefish, cod, tuna, or mackerel is most often labeled as "nova-style," "lox," "kippered," "smoked," or "jerky." These types of fish are found in the refrigerator section or sold at deli counters of grocery stores and delicatessens.)
●Raw (unpasteurized) milk or foods that contain unpasteurized milk. All milk sold in interstate commerce is pasteurized (heat-processed to kill harmful bacteria). However, other dairy products, such as some cheeses, are not necessarily made with pasteurized milk. These products may be produced and sold locally, such as on dairy farms or local cheese stores. Be sure that all the dairy products you consume are made with pasteurized milk. Check the label.

3 Ways to Safely Defrost Frozen Foods
●In the refrigerator. Cold temperatures keep most harmful bacteria from multiplying.
●In cold water. Change the water every half-hour to keep the water cold.
●Using the microwave, but cook the food immediately after it's defrosted.

Note: Don't defrost foods at room temperature. Bacteria can grow in the "danger zone," the range of temperatures usually between 40° and 140°F (4° and 60°C).

FunPlatters
Be creative and tempt your party guests with an array of fun platters, but keep food selections safe. Here's how:

Cook Thoroughly
●Heating foods to the right temperature for the proper amount of time kills harmful bacteria, so cook meat, poultry, fish, and eggs thoroughly. For the recommended cooking temperatures, see Cook.
●Some raw eggs can contain harmful bacteria. Some of your favorite homemade recipes may call for raw or lightly-cooked eggs. These may include recipes for Caesar salad dressing, ice cream, custards, chocolate mousse, and some sauces. Here are safe ways to make your favorite egg-containing foods:
●Add the eggs to the amount of liquid called for in the recipe, then heat the mixture thoroughly.
●Use store-bought products of the foods listed above, which are often already cooked or pasteurized.
●Purchase pasteurized eggs. These eggs can be found in some supermarkets and are labeled "pasteurized." Here are several types consumers can buy:
*Fresh, pasteurized eggs in the shell (found in the refrigerator section).
*Liquid, pasteurized egg products (found in the refrigerator section).
*Frozen, pasteurized egg products (found in the frozen food section).
*Powdered egg whites (found in the baking section).

Keep Cool
Refrigerate all perishables (foods that can spoil or become contaminated by bacteria if unrefrigerated) up until serving time. These foods include:
●Finger sandwiches
●Cheese chunks
●Soufflés
●Fruit salad
●Dips
●Foods that contain dairy products

BuffetBonanza

Plan a bacteria-free buffet with these helpful tips:

Size Matters
If you're planning a buffet at home and are not sure how quickly the food will be eaten, keep buffet portions small. Prepare a number of small platters and dishes ahead of time. Store cold back-up dishes in the refrigerator or keep hot dishes in the oven set at 200° F to 250° F (-73° C to -23° C) prior to serving. This way, your late-arriving guests can enjoy the same appetizing arrangements as the early arrivals.

Take Temperatures
Hot foods should be kept at an internal temperature of 140° F (60° C) or warmer. Use a food thermometer to check. Serve or keep food hot in chafing dishes, crock pots, and warming trays. Note: Some warmers only hold food at 110° F to 120° F (-163° C to -153° C), so check the product label to make sure your warmer has the capability to hold foods at 140° F or warmer.

Chill Out
Cold foods should be kept at 40° F (4 ° C) or colder. Keep cold foods refrigerated until serving time. If food is going to stay out on the buffet table longer than two hours, place plates of cold food on ice to retain the chill.

Keep It Fresh
Don't add new food to an already-filled serving dish. Instead, replace nearly-empty serving dishes with freshly-filled ones. Bacteria from people's hands may have contaminated the food. Plus, bacteria may have started to multiply at room temperature.

Watch the Clock
Remember the 2-Hour Rule: Discard any perishables left out at room temperature for more than two hours, unless you're keeping it hot or cold. If the buffet is held in a place where the temperature is above 90°F, the safe-holding time is reduced to one hour.

Leaving with Leftovers?
Be sure to refrigerate leftovers immediately after you arrive home.

【Highlights - Holiday Goodies】

Happy holidays! This season of goodwill and giving thanks is also a festive celebration of food. Make this holiday feasting season a healthy one by keeping foods safe.

Preventing foodborne illness is easy as...
1. Clean Wash hands and surfaces often.
2. Separate Don't cross-contaminate.
3. Cook Cook to proper temperatures.
4. Chill Refrigerate promptly.

For more information about the 4 Simple Steps to Food Safety, see Lifelong Food Safety.

Delicious Delights

During the holidays, there are lots of delicious foods to choose from. Some of these foods may contain raw or lightly-cooked eggs. Bacteria might be inside some raw eggs, but you can safely enjoy these foods by simply cooking raw eggs and egg-containing foods thoroughly.

Chocolate, macaroons, and gingerbread...
Treat yourself to freshly-baked treats, but avoid taste testing raw cookie dough, cake batter, or pie filling if they contain raw eggs.

If any of your holiday recipes call for raw or lightly-cooked eggs, you can:
●Use store-bought products of the foods listed above, which are often already cooked or pasteurized.
●Make recipes that call for raw eggs safer by adding the eggs to the amount of liquid called for in the recipe, then heating the mixture thoroughly. See Quick Recipe Fixes below.
●Purchase pasteurized eggs. These eggs are heat-processed to kill harmful bacteria. They can be found in some supermarkets and are labeled "pasteurized." Here are several types consumers can buy:
*Fresh, pasteurized eggs in the shell (found in the refrigerator section).
*Liquid, pasteurized egg products (found in the refrigerator section).
*Frozen, pasteurized egg products (found in the frozen food section).
*Powdered egg whites (found in the baking section).

Quick Recipe Fix

(Chocolate Mocha Mousse)
Directions:
●In a pan, melt the chocolate with the amount of liquid called for in the recipe.
●Add the eggs to the mixture. Continue to gently heat the mixture until it reaches the safe temperature of 160° F (71° C). Use a food thermometer to check the temperature.
●When you've added all the ingredients, cool the mixture quickly by setting the pan in a bowl of cold water.
●Stir mixture occasionally for about 10 minutes. Then continue to follow the rest of the directions.

Quick Recipe Fix

(Custard or Cream Pies)
Option #1: Cook the egg mixture for custard or cream pie fillings on the stovetop to 160° F (71° C). Use a food thermometer to check. Then follow the recipe's directions.
Option #2: If baked in a pie shell from scratch, be sure the filling reaches 160° F (71° C). Use a food thermometer to check.

Holiday Cheer!
Nothing inspires the holiday mood more than the pleasant scents of vanilla and nutmeg! To start your holiday celebration, try this safe recipe for eggnog. Or, make a toast to the season using store-bought, pasteurized eggnog! Cheers!

Holiday Eggnog
Ingredients:
1 quart of 2% milk 1 teaspoon vanilla
6 eggs 1 cup whipping cream
¼ teaspoon salt whipped ground nutmeg
½ cup sugar

Calories: 135 per ½ cup
Cholesterol: 120 mg per ½ cup
Yield: 2 quarts

Directions:
●Heat milk in large saucepan until hot (do not boil or scald). While milk is heating, beat together eggs and salt in a large bowl, gradually adding the sugar.
●Gradually add the hot milk mixture to the egg mixture while continually stirring.
●Transfer the mixture back to the large saucepan and cook on medium-low heat. Stir constantly with a whisk until the mixture thickens and just coats a spoon. The food thermometer should register 160° F (71° C). Stir in vanilla.
●Cool quickly by setting pan in a bowl of ice or cold water and stirring for about 10 minutes.
●Cover and refrigerate until thoroughly chilled several hours or overnight.
●Pour into a bowl or pitcher. Fold in whipped cream. Then dust with ground nutmeg.

'Tis the Season to Chill!

Bacteria can multiply quickly in moist desserts that contain dairy products. Cold temperatures keep most harmful bacteria from multiplying, so keep these foods refrigerated:
●Cream pies, cakes with whipped-cream and cream cheese frostings, and other creamy desserts
●Cold pasta dishes with meat, poultry, seafood, or dairy products. Quiches and soufflés, especially if you aren't serving them immediately.
●Reheat them to 165° F (74° C) before serving. Use a food thermometer to check.

The Joy of Giving and Receiving Food Safely

How can you be sure that food arrives safely during holiday shipping? The key is careful planning...

MAILING
A Perishable Food Gift....
●Make sure the food is frozen solid or refrigerator cold.
●Use an insulated cooler or a heavy corrugated box packed with a frozen gel-pack, or purchase dry ice for keeping food cold.
●Alert the recipient ahead of time and set a mutually-agreeable delivery date.
●Properly label the package: "Perishable - Keep Refrigerated," on the outside, and provide a complete mailing address and phone number to ensure proper delivery.
Ship your package by overnight delivery.

Tips for MAIL-ORDER FOOD GIFTS

When you send food via a mail-order company, be sure to specify overnight delivery, and request that the company supply a frozen gel-pack or dry ice in the packaging. This will help ensure that the food will arrive at your destination firm and refrigerator cold.

RECEIVING
A Perishable Food Gift...
●Open the package upon arrival.
●Make sure the food is still refrigerator cold.
●Immediately refrigerate or freeze the food.
●If perishable food doesn't arrive cold, don't eat it, and notify the shipper immediately.

Note: Remember, it's the shipper's responsibility to deliver perishable foods on time, but it's the customer's responsibility to have someone at home to receive the package.

For your baby's well-being, practice food safety this season and always!

【Highlights - Fact or Fiction】

When you're pregnant, you receive lots of advice - some of which can be confusing, conflicting, or inaccurate. To help you separate reality from fiction, here are seven common foodborne illness myths, along with the facts.

Preventing foodborne illness is easy as...
1. Clean Wash hands and surfaces often.
2. Separate Don't cross-contaminate.
3. Cook Cook to proper temperatures.
4. Chill Refrigerate promptly.

For more information about the 4 Simple Steps to Food Safety, see Lifelong Food Safety.

Myth 1: Foodborne illness doesn't happen very often, so it isn't a serious issue.

Fact: Foodborne illness is indeed a serious issue for everyone.

Each year in the U.S., foodborne illness accounts for:
●76 million gastrointestinal illnesses
●325,000 hospitalizations
●5,000 deaths

If you eat food that's contaminated, you could become sick. And, the risks are particularly serious for those in at-risk groups, such as pregnant women. For example, certain foodborne bacteria, such as Listeria, can be particularly harmful to moms-to-be and their unborn babies. For more information, see Listeria.

Myth 2: The only time food isn't safe to eat is when it looks or smells spoiled.

Fact: Many people assume that because food spoilage is visible, this is the only time that food isn't safe to eat. However, this is not always the case. Food that looks and smells fresh may contain harmful foodborne bacteria that you can't see. And, in fact, food-spoilage bacteria are not the same as bacteria that cause foodborne illness.

Food-spoilage bacteria deteriorate (decay) food. Basic cleaning practices and proper refrigeration will reduce or slow down spoilage. Foodborne bacteria, on the other hand, contaminate food - making it unsafe to eat. For more information on how to prevent foodborne illness, see Lifelong Food Safety.

Myth 3: Foodborne illness is caused by the last food you ate.

Fact: It's often difficult to determine which food actually caused the illness.

Eating a contaminated food will usually cause illness in one-to-three days, but sickness can also occur in as little as 20 minutes or as long as six weeks later. Within this amount of time, you would have eaten a wide range of foods, and any of these foods could have contributed to the illness.

Myth 4: Foodborne illness can only affect the mother - not her unborn child.

Fact: Not true. Harmful foodborne microorganisms that cause foodborne illness can seriously harm the mother and can also cross the placenta and infect her developing fetus. As a result, the infected fetus or newborn can experience a wide range of health problems - or even death. So, pregnant women should know the risks and how to prevent them.

See While You're Pregnant.

Myth 5: Seafood isn't safe to eat while I'm pregnant.

Fact: Seafood is a good source of high quality protein and other nutrients for you and your baby. However, it is true that you should avoid eating certain types of seafood while you're pregnant or trying to become pregnant, and you should carefully select and prepare seafood.

For example:
●Avoid eating raw or undercooked finfish or shellfish (including oysters, clams, mussels, and scallops). Raw fish (such as sushi or sashimi) or foods made with raw fish are more likely to contain parasites or bacteria than foods made from cooked fish.
●Always cook fish thoroughly, until it's opaque (milky white) and flakes easily with a fork.
●Avoid eating swordfish, tilefish, king mackerel, and shark. These fish may have high levels of methylmercury (a metal that can be harmful to an unborn baby).

It's okay to eat other cooked fish/seafood as long as you select a variety of other kinds while you're pregnant or trying to become pregnant. You can eat up to 12 ounces (2 average meals) a week of a variety of fish and shellfish that are lower in mercury. Five of the most commonly eaten fish that are low in mercury are shrimp, canned light tuna, salmon, pollock, and catfish. Another commonly eaten fish, albacore ("white") tuna has more mercury than canned light tuna. So, when choosing your two meals of fish and shellfish, you may eat up to 6 ounces (one average meal) of albacore tuna per week.

For more information, see Methylmercury.

Myth 6: Cheese is safe to eat, whether it's hard or soft.

Fact: It all depends on the type. Cheese made from unpasteurized milk can become contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes, a bacterium that can be harmful to a pregnant woman and her unborn baby. Since some soft cheeses may be made with unpasteurized milk - especially traditional, homemade soft cheeses - pregnant women should not eat soft cheeses, such as Feta, Brie, Camembert, "blue-veined cheeses," or "queso blanco," "queso fresco," or Panela - unless they're made with pasteurized milk. Check the label to make sure it says, "made with pasteurized milk."

For more information, see Listeria.

Myth 7: Hot dogs are pre-cooked, so it's okay to eat them raw.

Fact: Actually, it's important to always reheat hot dogs until they're steaming hot. Some ready-to-eat foods, such as hot dogs, can become contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes after they have been processed and packaged at the plant. If it's not possible to reheat hot dogs, don't eat them.

For more information, see Listeria.

Food Safety Bloopers Caught on Tape
Many foodborne illnesses are probably caused by food prepared in the home. To test this theory, the Food and Drug Administration funded a survey in which scientists videotaped 100 families preparing food in their kitchens. The families initially thought they were being taped on how to make a specific recipe, and they also thought their kitchens were relatively "food safe." Here's what the scientists found out:
●One woman handled raw chicken and then fixed a baby's bottle without washing her hands.
●Dozens of people dried their hands with the same dish towel they used to clean up raw meat juices.
●One person dropped a baby's bottle in raw eggs and neglected to use soap when the bottle was rinsed off.
●Only 45% of the people washed their hands before working in the kitchen and 16% of those who washed didn't use soap.
●30% did not wash the lettuce they used, and some placed salad ingredients in raw-meat-contaminated containers.
●25% of the people didn't know how to tell if chicken was cooked to a safe internal temperature, so they undercooked it.

Handle foods safely to keep yourself and your family safe!

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Once Baby Arrives

Send out those baby announcements - your bundle of joy has finally arrived! You've completed your first nine months of the journey. Now, here's how you, grandparents, and caregivers can help keep baby's food safe from here on...

Foodborne illness is a serious health issue, especially for your new baby and any other children in your home. Each year in the U.S., 800,000 illnesses affect children under the age of 10. Infants and young children are particularly vulnerable to foodborne illness because their immune systems are not developed enough to fight off foodborne bacterial infections. That's why extra care should be taken when handling and preparing their food.

Infants and young children are particularly vulnerable to foodborne illness because their immune systems are not developed enough to fight off foodborne bacterial infections. In fact, 800,000 illnesses affect children under the age of 10 in the U.S. each year.

【Handwashing】
Your First Step in Keeping Your Children Safe

Your hands can pick up bacteria and spread bacteria to your baby - for example, from:
●Diapers containing feces and urine
●Raw meat, poultry, seafood, and eggs
●Pets, such as dogs, cats, turtles, snakes, birds, and lizards.
●Soil

Washing your hands can remove harmful bacteria, so wash your hands often to help prevent foodborne illness. Also, teach your children how and when to wash their hands.

3 Critical Handwashing Steps
●Wet your hands thoroughly with warm water and add soap.
●Thoroughly scrub your hands, wrists, fingernails, and in between fingers - for at least 20 seconds.
●Rinse, then dry hands with a clean cloth towel or use a paper towel so the germs are thrown away.

"Washing hands is one of the most important actions parents can take to prevent foodborne illness in their children." (FDA)

When to Wash
●Before and after handling food.
●After using the bathroom, changing diapers, or handling pets.

Who's Not Washing?
According to a Penn State University study on mothers with infants less than four months old:
●41% didn't wash their hands after petting animals;
●32% didn't wash their hands after changing the baby's diaper;
●15% didn't wash their hands after using the bathroom;
●10% didn't wash their hands after handling raw meat;
●5% didn't wash their hands after gardening or working with soil.

Foodborne Illness: When to Call the Doctor

Prevention is key to keeping your baby safe from infections. However, food-handling mistakes can happen. If your baby experiences any of the following symptoms, he or she may have foodborne illness and may need to see a doctor:
●Blood in diarrhea
●Prolonged, high fever
●Not taking fluids
●Not able to keep anything down due to vomiting

In these cases, take your baby to a doctor or health-care provider immediately. He or she can properly diagnose foodborne illness, have the specific bacteria identified if necessary, and prescribe the best treatment.

【Handling Baby's Food Safely... 】

Protect your baby and young children by following these DOs and DON'Ts for preparing and handling their food safely.

DOs:
●Follow the manufacturer's recommendations for preparing bottles before filling them with formula or milk. Observe "use-by" dates on formula cans.
●Check to see that the safety button on the lid of commercial baby-food jars is down. If the jar lid doesn't "pop" when opened, don't use the product. Discard any jars with chipped glass or rusty lids.
●Use detergent and hot water to wash all blenders, food processors, and utensils (including the can opener) that come in contact with a baby's foods. Rinse well with hot water after washing.
●Transport bottles and food in an insulated cooler when traveling with the baby. Perishable items (milk, formula, or food) left out of the refrigerator or without a cold source for more than two hours should not be used. Cold temperatures keep most harmful bacteria from multiplying.
●Place the ice chest in the passenger compartment of the car. It's cooler than the trunk.
●Use frozen gel packs to keep food or bottles cold on long outings.
●Freeze home-made baby food by putting the mixture into an ice cube tray. Note: One cube equals one serving. Cover with heavy-duty plastic wrap and place the tray in the freezer. Once the food cubes are frozen, pop them into a freezer bag or airtight container and date it. Store for up to three months (discard unused food after three months). As an option, small jars can also be used for freezing. Leave about 1/2 inch of space at the top because food expands when frozen.

DON'Ts:
●Don't make more formula than you will need. Formula can become contaminated during preparation. If a large quantity of formula is prepared and not properly refrigerated, bacteria can multiply to very large numbers. The more bacteria there are, the greater the chances for foodborne illness. Preparing formula in smaller quantities on an as-needed basis greatly reduces the possibility of contamination. If using powder, reconstitute immediately before feeding. If using liquid concentrates or ready-to-feed products, follow label instructions provided by the manufacturer.
●Don't put a bottle back in the refrigerator if the baby doesn't finish it. Harmful bacteria from a baby's mouth can be introduced into the bottle during feeding; they can grow and multiply even after refrigeration (some bacteria can grow at refrigerator temperatures) and reheating. The temperature that's needed to kill harmful bacteria is extremely high for consumption by a baby. Also, it's not a good idea to repeatedly reheat formula because lots of nutrients can be lost.
●Don't feed a baby from a jar of baby food and then put it in the refrigerator. Saliva on the spoon may contaminate the remaining food. Instead, put a serving size on a dish. Refrigerate the food remaining in the jar. Throw away the food in the serving dish that's not eaten.
●Don't use honey as a sweetener to entice babies to drink water from a bottle. Honey isn't safe for children less than a year old. It can contain the Clostridium botulinum organism that could cause serious illness or death.
●Don't give raw or unpasteurized milk or unpasteurized fruit or vegetable juice to infants or young children. Unpasteurized milk or juice may contain harmful bacteria. Unpasteurized juices are normally found in the refrigerated sections of grocery stores, health-food stores, cider mills, or farm markets. Such juices must have this warning on the label:
WARNING: This product has not been pasteurized and therefore may contain harmful bacteria that can cause serious illness in children, the elderly, and persons with weakened immune systems.
NOTE: Juices that are fresh-squeezed and sold by the glass, such as at farmer's markets, at roadside stands, or in some juice bars, may not be pasteurized, or otherwise treated to ensure their safety. Warning labels are not required on these products. Young children should avoid these juices.
If you can't tell if a juice has been processed to destroy harmful bacteria, either don't use the product or boil it to kill any harmful bacteria.
●Don't leave formula out at room temperature for more than 2 hours. Harmful bacteria can grow rapidly in food at room temperature. Discard formula that's been left out for more than two hours.
●Don't place dirty diapers in the same bag with bottles or food. Harmful bacteria from a dirty diaper can spread to baby's food.
●Don't give infants "teas" brewed from star anise. Brewed "teas" containing star anise have been associated with illnesses affecting infants. The illnesses ranged from serious neurological effects, such as seizures, to vomiting, jitteriness, and rapid eye movement.

【Two Ways to Heat Breast Milk or Formula】
(for bottles with disposable inserts or hard plastic and glass bottles)
●In Hot Tap Water
Place bottle under hot, running tap water until the desired temperature is reached. This should take one-to-two minutes.
●On the Stove
Heat water in a pan. Remove the pan from the heat and set the bottle in it until it's warm.

Special Notes:

When heating baby's milk, always shake the liquid to even out the temperature and test on top of your hand - not the wrist (this is one of the areas least sensitive to heat) - before feeding. Milk that's "baby-ready" should feel lukewarm.

Heating breast milk or infant formula in the microwave is not recommended. Studies have shown that microwaves heat baby's milk and food unevenly. This results in "hot spots" that can scald a baby's mouth and throat.

【Safe Microwaving of Solid Foods】

Studies show that the when baby food is microwaved in a jar, it's often heated unevenly. The hottest places are in the center of the foods. The coolest places are next to the glass sides, which could lead you to believe that the food is not too hot. Follow these precautions when microwaving baby's food.
●Don't microwave baby foods in the jar. Instead, transfer the food to a dish before microwaving it. This way the food can be stirred and taste-tested for temperature.
●Microwave 4 ounces of solid food in a dish for about 15 seconds on high power. Always stir, let stand 30 seconds, and taste-test before feeding.
●Don't heat baby-food meats, meat sticks or eggs in the microwave. Use the stovetop instead. These foods have a high fat content, and since microwaves heat fats faster than other substances, these foods can cause splattering and overheating.

Special Note:
When heating baby's food, always stir, let stand 30 seconds, and taste-test before feeding. Food that's "baby-ready" should taste or feel lukewarm.

【How to Store Mother's Milk】

Careful home handling and storage of breast milk is essential in preserving its special qualities. Here's how to properly store breast milk:
●Refrigerate breast milk if it will be used within 24 hours. If the milk will not be used in that time, it should be frozen - but only for a maximum of 3-6 months. Date it when you freeze it.
●Store breast milk in the back of the freezer, not in the freezer door. The door is the warmest spot in the freezer. This avoids the possibility of unintentionally defrosting the milk, which can happen with frequent openings and closings of the door.

【SAFE STORAGE OF BABY FOOD】
LIQUIDS Refrigerator Freezer
Expressed breast milk 24 hours 3 to 6 months
Formula (stored in individual baby bottles) 2 days Not recommended
Whole milk 5 days 3 months
Reconstituted evaporated milk 3 to 5 days Not recommended
SOLIDS - opened or freshly made Refrigerator Freezer
Strained fruits and vegetables 2 to 3 days 6 to 8 months
Strained meats and eggs 1 day 1 to 2 months
Meat/vegetable combinations 1 to 2 days 1 to 2 months
Homemade baby foods 1 to 2 days 3 to 4 months

Important Tips to Remember for Baby...
●Don't leave baby food solids or liquids out at room temperature for more than two hours.
●Don't put a bottle or baby-food back in the refrigerator if the baby doesn't finish it.
●To reduce the risks of choking, be watchful of babies and young children while they are eating, and teach children to chew their food well.
(In addition, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that children younger than 4 years old not be fed any round, firm food unless it is cut into small pieces no larger than one-half inch.)
For more on choking, see
*MedlinePlus: Choking
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/choking.html

【Contact Us】

Outreach and Information Center (HFS-009)
1-888-SAFEFOOD
1-888-723-3366

Consumers:
[email protected]

Industry:
[email protected]

Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition

Food and Drug Administration

5100 Paint Branch Parkway

College Park, MD 20740

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