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初为父母须知之二:宝宝的护理与成长 (0~4岁)
作者:home99
发表时间:2009-11-16
更新时间:2009-11-16
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写给准妈妈1
宝宝护理与成长3
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写给新妈妈
宝宝护理与成长1
异国他乡

从Nutrition、Growth and Development、Safety到Common Problems及Checkup几个方面对每个年龄阶段的宝宝的护理与成长特点进行了介绍,对初为父母的我们可能会比较实用,贴出来供大家参考啊!

这个贴子包含对newborn到preschool的较详尽阐述,如下:

● Your Two Week Old - What You Need To Know
● Your Two Month Old - What You Need To Know
● Your Four Month Old - What You Need To Know
● Your Six Month Old - What You Need To Know
● Your Nine Month Old - What You Need To Know
● Your Twelve Month Old - What You Need To Know
● Your Fifteen Month Old - What You Need To Know
● Your Eighteen Month Old - What You Need To Know
● Your Two Year Old - What You Need To Know
● Your Three Year Old - What You Need To Know
● Your Four Year Old - What You Need To Know

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Your Two Week Old - What You Need To Know

1、Newborn Nutrition

Your baby will get all of his nutrition from breast milk or an iron fortified infant formula until he is four to six months old. There is no need to supplement with water, juice or cereal at this time. He will probably be eating every two to six hours and if feeding on-demand and following your baby's cues remember that not all cries are 'hunger-cries' and you may have to set some limits (for example, not allowing him to feed every hour).
Most breastfeeding babies will eat for 10-15 minutes on each breast (although you shouldn't time your feedings) every 1 1/2 to 3 hours and bottle feeding babies will take 2-3 ounces every 2-4 hours. By 4-8 weeks, your baby will likely be on a more predictable schedule.

Your newborn will spend most of his time either sleeping or eating. At first, wake your baby for a feeding if he is sleeping for more than four to five hours. Later, if he is gaining weight well, you can let him sleep as long as he likes. Remember that a newborn should usually breastfeed about 8-12 times a day. He will probably not begin to sleep through the night until he is three to four months old.

Feeding practices to avoid are giving a breastfed baby a bottle before he is 4-6 weeks old, putting the bottle in bed or propping the bottle while feeding, putting cereal in the bottle, feeding honey, introducing solids before 4-6 months, or heating bottles in the microwave.

Also, avoid the use of low iron formulas, which are nutritionally inadequate to meet the needs of a growing infant. These types of infant formula do not contain enough iron and will put your child at risk for developing iron deficiency anemia (which has been strongly associated with poor growth and development and with learning disabilities). Iron fortified formulas do not cause colic, constipation or reflux and you should not switch to a low iron formula if your baby has one of these problems.

2、Newborn Growth and Development

Your baby will probably have regained most or all of the weight that he lost in his first week. At this age, you can expect your baby to look at your face, startle with loud noises, lift his head and begin to smile spontaneously. He may even begin to recognize familiar objects and sounds.

If using a pacifier, try and restrict its use to when your baby seems to need the self-comforting behavior of sucking. Avoid using it every time your baby cries (it is usually better to pick and hold your baby to comfort him when he is crying) and to be safe, use a one-piece commercial pacifier and do not hang it around your baby's neck.

Remember that all babies are unique and they have different temperaments. Many are quite and calm, while others are very active and some are very sensitive and get fussy easily (and may need less stimulating environments to stay calm). Try and keep your babies temperament in mind as you react to his needs.

3、Newborn Safety

Accidents are the leading cause of death for children. Most of these deaths could easily be prevented and it is therefore very important to keep your child's safety in mind at all times. Here are some tips to keep your two week old baby safe:
● Use a rear facing infant or convertible car seat, and place in the back seat until your baby is 1 y/o and 20lbs and never place your baby in the front seat of a car with a passenger side airbag.
● Make sure his crib is safe: have no more than 2 3/8 inches between the bars; the mattress should be firm and fit snuggly within the crib; place it away from windows and drafts; avoid placing fluffy blankets, stuffed animals, or pillows in the crib as they can cause smothering.
● Make sure that used or hand-me-down equipment, such as car seats, strollers and cribs, etc, haven't been recalled for safety reasons. Call the manufacturer or the Consumer Product Safety Commission for an up to date list of recalled products.
● Set the temperature of your hot water heater to 120 degrees F to prevent scalding burns.
● To prevent choking, never leave small objects or plastic bags in your baby's reach.
● Back To Sleep: put your baby to sleep on his back (alternate positions) to reduce his risk of SIDS and never put him down alone on a waterbed, bean bag, or soft blanket that can cover his face and cause choking.
● Prevent falls by not leaving your baby alone on a bed or changing table.
● Install smoke and carbon monoxide detectors and use flame retardant sleepware.
● Until your baby is older and his immune system is stronger, it is probably a good idea to keep him from large groups of people or other sick children to minimize his exposure to infections.
● Know signs and symptoms of illness: fever (call your Pediatrician right away if your baby has a temp at or above 100.4 before he is 2-3 months old), decreased appetite, vomiting, irritability, and lethargy, etc.

4、Common Newborn Problems

● Jaundice: yellowing of the skin occurs in almost half of all babies. It is usually treated by frequent feedings and the use of bilirubin lights in severe cases. Your doctor will be able to tell if treatment is necessary by examining your baby and/or doing a blood test. If your baby is yellow on his face and upper part of his chest, then you may be asked to place him in front of a window for ten to fifteen minutes 3-4 times each day, although many experts say that this is unnecessary and you should make sure that your baby doesn't get too hot or too cold. The sunlight (and ultraviolet light if it is cloudy) helps to convert the bilirubin that makes his skin yellow into another substance that can pass in the urine. In some cases of blood type incompatibility, your baby may become severely jaundiced and require more aggressive treatment.
● Constipation: defined as the passage of hard, pellet-like stools that cause pain or bleeding (groaning or straining is normal) and not so much by how often your baby has a bowel movement (some breastfed babies only have one BM each week after they are 1 to 2 months old). Initial treatment is by giving 2-4 ounces of water or diluted prune juice once or twice a day or by changing to a soy based formula.
● Stuffy Nose/Sneezing: very common and usually caused by irritation from dry air, smoke, or dust. Try to eliminate common irritants. You can try using a humidifier or salt water nose drops.
● Thrush: white patches that coat the inside of the cheeks and tongue and cannot be easily wiped off. It is caused by a very mild yeast infection and is easily cleared up with a prescription medicine called Nystatin or Fluconazole.
● baby acne, drooling rashes, and flaky skin that will usually clear up on their own without treatment.
● Dry Skin: usually normal, but you can use a mild soap and a moisturizer once or twice a day.
● Spitting Up: many babies spit up (reflux) after eating due to overfeeding or because the valve that closes the upper part of the stomach is immature. It is usually not a concern as long as your baby is gaining weight and it is not causing him to cough or choke. Some steps to take to improve this problem are feeding smaller amounts, more frequent burping during feeds, avoiding pressure on his belly or vigorous activity after eating. It improves with age, usually without treatment.
● Watery Eyes: this is usually caused by a blocked tear duct and is not a concern unless the eyes become infected (let your Pediatrician know so that they can prescribe antibiotic eye drops). It usually clears up on its own before your baby is 12 months old.
● Diaper Rashes: very common and usually clear up in 3-4 days with a diaper rash cream. If it is not clearing up or is bright red and surrounded by red dots, your baby may have a yeast infection and will need an antifungal cream to help clear it up. Diaper rashes can be prevented by frequent diaper changes, increasing air exposure by keeping the diaper off as much as possible, and using a mild soap only after bowel movements (rinse with just warm water at other times).
● Upper Respiratory Infections: these are very common and include symptoms of a clear or green runny nose and cough and are usually caused by cold viruses. The best treatment is to use salt water nasal drops and a bulb suctioner to keep their nose clear. Call your Pediatrician if your child has high fever, difficulty breathing or is not improving in 7-10 days

5、Taking Your Baby to the Doctor

It used to be that most babies were discharged from the nursery and then didn't see their pediatrician until they were two weeks old, but that advice has changed over the years.
Although it depends on whether or not your baby was already jaundiced when she went home, how well she was feeding, and if she had any medical problems, the American Academy of Pediatrics advises that 'it is important for your baby to be seen by a nurse or doctor when the baby is between 3 and 5 days old.'

Your baby will also likely have a checkup when he is two weeks old.

At the two week checkup, you can expect your doctor to check the weight, height and head circumference of your baby and review his growth and development. He will probably have a repeat of his newborn screen test and may have his first Hepatitis B vaccine (unless it was already given in the nursery).

The next check up with your pediatrician will be when your infant is two months old (although some doctors also recommend a visit at four weeks of age).

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Your Two Month Old - What You Need To Know

1、Nutrition

Your infant will get all of his nutrition from breast milk or an iron fortified infant formula until he is about four to six months old. There is no need to supplement with water, juice or cereal at this time. He will likely now be on a more predictable schedule and will probably be nursing or drinking 5-6 ounces of formula every 3-4 hours.
Feeding practices to avoid include putting the bottle in bed or propping the bottle while feeding, putting cereal in the bottle, feeding honey, introducing solids before 4-6 months, or heating bottles in the microwave.

Also, avoid the use of low iron formulas, which are nutritionally inadequate to meet the needs of a growing infant. These types of infant formula do not contain enough iron and will put your child at risk for developing iron deficiency anemia (which has been strongly associated with poor growth and development and with learning disabilities). Iron fortified formulas do not cause colic, constipation or reflux and you should not switch to a low iron formula if your baby has one of these problems.

2、Growth and Development

At this age you can expect your baby to smile, laugh and make noises, lift his head and chest up while lying on his stomach, turn toward sounds and to follow you around with his eyes. Over the next few months, developmental milestones will include rolling over, bearing weight on his legs, sitting with support and holding on to a rattle.

If using a pacifier, try and restrict its use to when your baby seems to need the self-comforting behavior of sucking. Avoid using it every time your baby cries (it is usually better to pick and hold your baby to comfort him when he is crying) and to be safe, use a one-piece commercial pacifier and do not hang it around your baby's neck. After six months of age, you should restrict pacifier use to only when your baby is in his crib.
Remember that all babies are unique and they have different temperaments. Many are quite and calm, while others are very active and some are very sensitive and get fussy easily (and may need less stimulating environments to stay calm). Try and keep your babies temperament in mind as you react to his needs.

3、Safety

Accidents are the leading cause of death for children. Most of these deaths could easily be prevented and it is therefore very important to keep your child's safety in mind at all times. Here are some tips to keep your infant safe:
● Use a rear facing infant or convertible car seat, and place in the back seat until your baby is 1 y/o and 20lbs and never place your baby in the front seat of a car with a passenger side airbag.
● Make sure his crib is safe: have no more than 2 3/8 inches between the bars; the mattress should be firm and fit snuggly within the crib; place it away from windows and drafts; avoid placing fluffy blankets, stuffed animals, or pillows in the crib as they can cause smothering.
● Make sure that used or hand-me-down equipment, such as car seats, strollers and cribs, etc, haven't been recalled for safety reasons. Call the manufacturer or the Consumer Product Safety Commission for an up to date list of recalled products.
● Set the temperature of your hot water heater to 120 degrees F to prevent scalding burns.
● To prevent choking, never leave small objects or plastic bags in your baby's reach.
● Back To Sleep: put your baby to sleep on his back (alternate positions) to reduce his risk of SIDS and never put him down alone on a waterbed, bean bag, or soft blanket that can cover his face and cause choking.
● Prevent falls by not leaving your baby alone on a bed or changing table.
● Install smoke and carbon monoxide detectors and use flame retardant sleepware.
● Until your baby is older and his immune system is stronger, it is probably a good idea to keep him from large groups of people or other sick children to minimize his exposure to infections.
● Know signs and symptoms of illness: fever (call your Pediatrician right away if your baby has a temp over 100.4 before he is 2-3 months old), decreased appetite, vomiting, irritability, and lethargy.

4、Common Infant Problems
● Constipation: defined as the passage of hard, pellet-like stools that cause pain or bleeding (groaning or straining is normal) and not so much by how often your baby has a bowel movement (some breastfed babies only have one BM each week). Initial treatment is by giving 2-4 ounces of water or diluted prune juice once or twice a day or by changing to a soy based formula if you are not breastfeeding.
● Stuffy Nose/Sneezing: very common and usually caused by irritation from dry air, smoke, or dust. Try to eliminate common irritants. You can try using a humidifier or salt water nose drops.
● Thrush: white patches that coat the inside of the cheeks and tongue and cannot be easily wiped off. It is caused by a very mild yeast infection and is easily cleared up with a prescription medicine called Nystatin.
● baby acne, drooling rashes, and flaky skin that will usually clear up on their own without treatment.
● Dry Skin: use a mild soap and a moisturizer once or twice a day.
● Spitting Up: many babies spit up (reflux) after eating due to overfeeding or because the valve that closes the upper part of the stomach is immature. It is usually not a concern as long as your baby is gaining weight and it is not causing him to cough or choke. Some steps to take to improve this problem are feeding smaller amounts, more frequent burping during feeds, avoiding pressure on his belly or vigorous activity after eating. It improves with age, usually without treatment.
● Watery Eyes: this is usually caused by a blocked tear duct and is not a concern unless the eyes become infected (let your Pediatrician know so that they can prescribe antibiotic eye drops). It usually clears up on its own before your baby is 12 months old.
● Diaper Rashes: very common and usually clear up in 3-4 days with a diaper rash cream. If it is not clearing up or is bright red and surrounded by red dots, your baby may have a yeast infection and will need an antifungal cream to help clear it up. Diaper rashes can be prevented by frequent diaper changes, increasing air exposure by keeping the diaper off as much as possible, and using a mild soap only after bowel movements (rinse with just warm water at other times).
● Upper Respiratory Infections: these are very common and include symptoms of a clear or green runny nose and cough and are usually caused by cold viruses. The best treatment is to use salt water nasal drops and a bulb suctioner to keep their nose clear. Call your Pediatrician if your child has high fever, difficulty breathing or is not improving in 7-10 days

5、Taking Your Child to the Doctor

You will be making frequent visits to your Pediatrician during the first year of your child's life, so that his growth and development can be closely monitored. Remember to write down any questions you may have for your doctor before the visit so that you don't forget them and consider using this Infant Well Child Checklist.

At the two month checkup, you can expect:
● A complete physical exam, with special attention to his hips.
● An examination of your infant's growth and development.
● A review of feeding and sleep schedules.
● Measurement of his height, weight and head circumference.
● Counseling for injury prevention.
● Immunizations: DTaP, HepB, Hib, IPV, Prevnar, RotaTeq.

The next check up with your pediatrician will be when your infant is four months old.

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Your Four Month Old - What You Need To Know

1、Infant Nutrition

At this age, breast milk or an iron fortified infant formula is the only food that your infant needs at this age and he should be nursing or drinking about 5-6 ounces 4-6 times each day (24-32 ounces), but over the next month or two, you can start to familiarize your infant with the feel of a spoon and start solid baby foods.

Cereal is the first solid you should give your infant and you can mix it with breast milk, formula or water and feed it to your him with a spoon (not in a bottle). Start by feeding one tablespoon of an iron-fortified Rice cereal at one feeding and then slowly increase the amount to 3-4 tablespoons one or two times each day. This is a very important source of iron for your growing infant (especially if you are breastfeeding). You can then begin vegetables and fruits at about six months of age.

Your infant will probably have given up middle of the night feedings by this age (although some breastfed infants continue to have a feeding in the middle of the night). If not, and your baby is gaining weight well, slowly reduce how much you are putting in the bottle each night and gradually stop this feeding all together.

Feeding practices to avoid are putting the bottle in bed or propping the bottle while feeding, putting cereal in the bottle, feeding honey, using a low-iron formula or heating bottles in the microwave.

2、Infant Growth and Development

At this age you can expect your infant to roll over (front to back), bear weight on his legs, sit with support, hold up his head and chest and support himself on his elbows if he is on his stomach, pull to a sitting position and hold on to a rattle. Over the next few months your infant will start to imitate speech sounds, reach for objects and sit without support.

If using a pacifier, try and restrict its use to when your baby seems to need the self-comforting behavior of sucking. Avoid using it every time your baby cries and to be safe, use a one-piece commercial pacifier and do not hang it around your baby's neck. After six months of age, you should restrict pacifier use to when your baby is in his crib.

Most babies take at least two to three naps (length of naps are usually very variable between different children, but naps are usually 1 1/2 - 2 hours each) during the day at this age and are able to sleep for the majority of the night. If not, check to make sure that your baby has a good bedtime routine and has developed the proper sleep associations.

3、Safety

Accidents are the leading cause of death for children. Most of these deaths could easily be prevented and it is therefore very important to keep your child's safety in mind at all times. Here are some tips to keep your infant safe:
● Use a rear facing infant or convertible car seat, and place in the back seat until your baby is 1 y/o and 20lbs and never place your baby in the front seat of a car with a passenger side airbag.
● Make sure his crib is safe: have no more than 2 3/8 inches between the bars; the mattress should be firm and fit snuggly within the crib; place it away from windows and drafts; avoid placing fluffy blankets, stuffed animals, or pillows in the crib as they can cause smothering.
● Make sure that used or hand-me-down equipment, such as car seats, strollers and cribs, etc, haven't been recalled for safety reasons. Call the manufacturer or the Consumer Product Safety Commission for an up to date list of recalled products.
● Set the temperature of your hot water heater to 120 degrees F to prevent scalding burns.
● To prevent choking, never leave small objects or plastic bags in your baby's reach.
● Back To Sleep: put your baby to sleep on his back (alternate positions) to reduce his risk of SIDS and never put him down alone on a waterbed, bean bag, or soft blanket that can cover his face and cause choking.
● Prevent falls by not leaving your baby alone on a bed or changing table.
● Install smoke and carbon monoxide detectors and use flame retardant sleepware.
● Until your baby is older and his immune system is stronger, it is probably a good idea to keep him from large groups of people or other sick children to minimize his exposure to infections.
● Know signs and symptoms of illness: fever (call your Pediatrician right away if your baby has a temp over 100.4 before he is 2-3 months old), decreased appetite, vomiting, irritability, and lethargy.

4、Common Infant Problems

● Constipation: defined as the passage of hard, pellet-like stools that cause pain or bleeding (groaning or straining is normal) and not so much by how often your baby has a bowel movement (some breastfed babies only have one BM each week). Initial treatment is by giving 2-4 ounces of water or diluted prune juice once or twice a day or by changing to a soy based formula.
● Stuffy Nose/Sneezing: very common and usually caused by irritation from dry air, smoke, or dust. Try to eliminate common irritants. You can try using a humidifier or salt water nose drops.
● Thrush: white patches that coat the inside of the cheeks and tongue and cannot be easily wiped off. It is caused by a very mild yeast infection and is easily cleared up with a prescription medicine called Nystatin or Fluconazole.
● Rashes: very common in infants and includes baby acne, drooling rashes, and flaky skin that will usually clear up on their own without treatment.
● Dry Skin: use a mild soap and a moisturizer once or twice a day.
● Spitting Up: many babies spit up (reflux) after eating due to overfeeding or because the valve that closes the upper part of the stomach is immature. It is usually not a concern as long as your baby is gaining weight and it is not causing him to cough or choke. Some steps to take to improve this problem are feeding smaller amounts, more frequent burping during feeds, avoiding pressure on his belly or vigorous activity after eating. It improves with age, usually without treatment.
● Watery Eyes: this is usually caused by a blocked tear duct and is not a concern unless the eyes become infected (let your Pediatrician know so that they can prescribe antibiotic eye drops). It usually clears up on its own before your baby is 12 months old.
● Diaper Rashes: very common and usually clear up in 3-4 days with a diaper rash cream. If it is not clearing up or is bright red and surrounded by red dots, your baby may have a yeast infection and will need an antifungal cream to help clear it up. Diaper rashes can be prevented by frequent diaper changes, increasing air exposure by keeping the diaper off as much as possible, and using a mild soap only after bowel movements (rinse with just warm water at other times).
● Upper Respiratory Infections: these are very common and include symptoms of a clear or green runny nose and cough and are usually caused by cold viruses. The best treatment is to use salt water nasal drops and a bulb suctioner to keep their nose clear. Call your Pediatrician if your child has high fever, difficulty breathing or is not improving in 7-10 days

5、Taking Your Child to the Doctor

You will be making frequent visits to your Pediatrician during the first year of your child's life, so that his growth and development can be closely monitored. Remember to write down any questions you may have for your doctor before the visit so that you don't forget them.

At the four month checkup, you can expect:
● A complete physical exam, with special attention to his hips.
● An examination of your infant's growth and development.
● A review of feeding and sleep schedules.
● Measurement of his height, weight and head circumference.
● Counseling for injury prevention.
● Immunizations: DTaP, HepB, Hib, IPV, Prevnar, and RotaTeq.

The next check up with your pediatrician will be when your infant is six months old.

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Your Six Month Old - What You Need To Know

1、Infant Nutrition

While continuing to give 4-5 feedings of breast milk or an iron fortified infant formula (24-32 ounces) and 4 or more tablespoons of an iron fortified cereal each day, you can now start to give well-cooked, strained, or mashed vegetables or commercially prepared baby foods. Start with one tablespoon of a mild tasting vegetable, such as green beans, peas, squash or carrots and gradually increase to 4-5 tablespoons one or two times each day.

Start fruits about a month after starting vegetables and again, gradually increase to 4-5 tablespoons one or two times each day. You can use peeled, cooked, or canned fruits (but only those packed in light syrup or water) that have been blenderized or strained. You can also begin to offer 2-4 ounces of 100% fruit juices. Start by mixing one part juice with two parts of water and offer it in a cup only.

Delay giving finger foods or meat and other protein foods until he is eight to nine months old. Some parents start meats earlier, but since many kids don't seem to like baby food meats as much as cereal, fruits, and vegetables, many parents go through all of the varieties of those foods before starting meats, and their baby is usually about eight or nine months old by that time.

To avoid having to supplement with fluoride, prepare powdered/concentrated formula with fluoridated tap water. If you are using ready-to-feed formula, or bottled or filtered water only, then your baby may need fluoride supplements.

Your infant will probably have given up middle of the night feedings by this age (although some breastfed infants continue to have a feeding in the middle of the night). If not, and your baby is gaining weight well, slowly reduce how much you are putting in the bottle each night and gradually stop this feeding all together.

Feeding practices to avoid are stopping breastfeeding before you are ready, putting the bottle in bed or propping the bottle while feeding, putting cereal in the bottle, feeding honey, using a low-iron formula, offering juice in a bottle or heating bottles in the microwave.

2、Infant Growth and Development

Your infant has probably doubled his birthweight by now. At this age, you can expect him to imitate speech sounds, reach for objects, roll over, and sit without support. Over the next few months, he will start to stand holding on to things, pull to a stand, jabber and combine syllables, crawl and transfer things from hand to hand.

If using a pacifier, now is a good time to start restricting its use to only when your baby is in his crib, or giving it up all together. Restricting its use will help to decrease his interest in it. Avoid giving your baby his pacifier every time he cries or allowing him to use it as a security object (offer other choices instead, such as a blanket).

Most infants take at least two naps during the day at this age (length of naps are usually very variable between different children, but naps are usually 1 1/2 - 2 hours each) and are able to sleep for the majority of the night (at least 10-11 hours). If not, check to make sure that he has a good bedtime routine and has developed the proper sleep associations. If you haven't already done so, now would be a good time to move him into a full size crib, in his own room if possible.

3、Safety

Accidents are the leading cause of death for children. Most of these deaths could easily be prevented and it is therefore very important to keep your child's safety in mind at all times. Here are some tips to keep your infant safe:
● Use a rear facing infant or convertible car seat, and place in the back seat until your baby is 1 y/o and 20lbs and never place your baby in the front seat of a car with a passenger side airbag.
● Make sure his crib is safe: have no more than 2 3/8 inches between the bars; the mattress should be firm and fit snuggly within the crib; place it away from windows and drafts; avoid placing fluffy blankets, stuffed animals, or pillows in the crib as they can cause smothering.
● Make sure that used or hand-me-down equipment, such as car seats, strollers and cribs, etc, haven't been recalled for safety reasons. Call the manufacturer or the Consumer Product Safety Commission for an up to date list of recalled products.
● Set the temperature of your hot water heater to 120 degrees F to prevent scalding burns.
● To prevent choking, never leave small objects or plastic bags in your baby's reach.
● Back To Sleep: put your baby to sleep on his back (alternate positions) to reduce his risk of SIDS and never put him down alone on a waterbed, bean bag, or soft blanket that can cover his face and cause choking.
● Prevent falls by not leaving your baby alone on a bed or changing table.
● Install smoke and carbon monoxide detectors and use flame retardant sleepware.
● Until your baby is older and his immune system is stronger, it is probably a good idea to keep him from large groups of people or other sick children to minimize his exposure to infections.
● Know signs and symptoms of illness: fever (call your Pediatrician right away if your baby has a temp over 100.4 before he is 2-3 months old), decreased appetite, vomiting, irritability, and lethargy.

4、Common Infant Problems

● Constipation: defined as the passage of hard, pellet-like stools that cause pain or bleeding (groaning or straining is normal) and not so much by how often your baby has a bowel movement (some breastfed babies only have one BM each week). Initial treatment is by giving 2-4 ounces of water or diluted prune juice once or twice a day or by changing to a soy based formula.
● Stuffy Nose/Sneezing: very common and usually caused by irritation from dry air, smoke, or dust. Try to eliminate common irritants. You can try using a humidifier or salt water nose drops.
● Thrush: white patches that coat the inside of the cheeks and tongue and cannot be easily wiped off. It is caused by a very mild yeast infection and is easily cleared up with a prescription medicine called Nystatin or Fluconazole.
● Rashes: very common in infants and includes baby acne, drooling rashes, and flaky skin that will usually clear up on their own without treatment.
● Dry Skin: use a mild soap and a moisturizer once or twice a day.
● Spitting Up: many babies spit up (reflux) after eating due to overfeeding or because the valve that closes the upper part of the stomach is immature. It is usually not a concern as long as your baby is gaining weight and it is not causing him to cough or choke. Some steps to take to improve this problem are feeding smaller amounts, more frequent burping during feeds, avoiding pressure on his belly or vigorous activity after eating. It improves with age, usually without treatment.
● Watery Eyes: this is usually caused by a blocked tear duct and is not a concern unless the eyes become infected (let your Pediatrician know so that they can prescribe antibiotic eye drops). It usually clears up on its own before your baby is 12 months old.
● Diaper Rashes: very common and usually clear up in 3-4 days with a diaper rash cream. If it is not clearing up or is bright red and surrounded by red dots, your baby may have a yeast infection and will need an antifungal cream to help clear it up. Diaper rashes can be prevented by frequent diaper changes, increasing air exposure by keeping the diaper off as much as possible, and using a mild soap only after bowel movements (rinse with just warm water at other times).
● Upper Respiratory Infections: these are very common and include symptoms of a clear or green runny nose and cough and are usually caused by cold viruses. The best treatment is to use salt water nasal drops and a bulb suctioner to keep their nose clear. Call your Pediatrician if your child has high fever, difficulty breathing or is not improving in 7-10 days

5、Taking Your Child to the Doctor

You will be making frequent visits to your Pediatrician during the first year of your child's life, so that his growth and development can be closely monitored. Remember to write down any questions you may have for your doctor before the visit so that you don't forget them and consider using this Infant Well Child Checklist.

At the six month checkup, you can expect:
● A complete physical exam, with special attention to his hips.
● An examination of your infant's growth and development.
● A review of feeding and sleep schedules.
● Measurement of his height, weight and head circumference.
● Counseling for injury prevention.
● Immunizations: DTaP, Hib, Prevnar, RotaTeq (he might also get a HepB and IPV if he is getting the combination vaccine Pediarix).

The next check up with your pediatrician will be when your infant is nine months old.

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Your Nine Month Old - What You Need To Know

1、Infant Nutrition

While continuing to give 3 to 5 feedings of breast milk or an iron fortified infant formula (24-32 ounces) and 4 or more tablespoons of cereal, vegetables and fruit one or two times each day, you can now start to give more protein containing foods. These include well-cooked, strained or ground plain meats (chicken, beef, turkey, veal, lamb, boneless fish, or liver), yogurt, mild cheese, or egg yolks (no egg whites as there is a high chance of allergic reactions in infants less than 12 months old). If using commercially prepared jars of baby food, do not use vegetables with meat as they have little meat and less protein and iron than jars with plain meat. Start with 1-2 tablespoons and increase to 3-4 tablespoons once each day. If your baby doesn't seem to like to eat plain meat, you can mix it with a vegetable that they already like as you offer it.

You can also start to offer soft table foods and finger foods at this age. Give soft, bite-size pieces of food, such as soft fruit and vegetable pieces, pastas, graham or saltine crackers, and dry cheerios, but do not give these foods if the he is going to be unattended in case of choking. Over the next three months your baby's diet will begin to resemble that of the rest of the families, with 3 meals and 2 snacks each day. You can also give 4-6 ounces of diluted 100% fruit juice in a cup.

To avoid having to supplement with fluoride, prepare powdered/concentrated formula with fluoridated tap water. If you are using ready-to-feed formula, or bottled or filtered water only, then your he may need fluoride supplements.

Your infant will probably have given up middle of the night feedings by this age. If not, slowly reduce how much you are feeding each night and gradually stop this feeding all together.

Feeding practices to avoid are changing to regular milk before your child is twelve months old, putting the bottle in bed or propping the bottle while feeding, feeding honey, giving too much juice, using a low-iron formula, offering juice in a bottle or heating bottles in the microwave.

2、Infant Growth and Development

At this age you can expect your infant to sit alone, pull to a stand, stand holding on to things, jabber and imitate sounds, crawl, wave bye-bye, and begin to show separation and stranger anxiety. Over the next few months he will start to combine syllables, say mama/dada, walk with his hands held, and bang objects together.

Your infant will now begin to explore how things work, enjoy playing peekaboo and pat-a-cake and being read to. It is important to give lots of praise and many opportunities for exploration. If using a pacifier, it is a good time to start restricting its use to only when your baby is in his crib (or giving it up all together), so that his interest in it will decrease.

Most infants at this age take two naps during the day (length of naps are usually very variable between different children, but naps are usually 1 - 2 hours each) and are able to sleep for the majority of the night. If not, check to make sure that he has a good bedtime routine and has developed the proper sleep associations. He may start waking again at times of stress, illness or after learning a new task (such as walking).

If you haven't already done so, now would be a good time to move him into a full size crib, in his own room if possible.

3、Safety

Accidents are the leading cause of death for children. Most of these deaths could easily be prevented and it is therefore very important to keep your child's safety in mind at all times. Here are some tips to keep your infant safe:
● Use a rear facing infant or convertible car seat, and place in the back seat until your baby is 1 y/o and 20lbs and never place your baby in the front seat of a car with a passenger side airbag.
● Make sure his crib is safe: have no more than 2 3/8 inches between the bars; the mattress should be firm and fit snuggly within the crib; place it away from windows and drafts; avoid placing fluffy blankets, stuffed animals, or pillows in the crib as they can cause smothering.
● Make sure that used or hand-me-down equipment, such as car seats, strollers and cribs, etc, haven't been recalled for safety reasons. Call the manufacturer or the Consumer Product Safety Commission for an up to date list of recalled products.
● Set the temperature of your hot water heater to 120 degrees F to prevent scalding burns.
● To prevent choking, never leave small objects or plastic bags in your baby's reach.
● Back To Sleep: put your baby to sleep on his back (alternate positions) to reduce his risk of SIDS and never put him down alone on a waterbed, bean bag, or soft blanket that can cover his face and cause choking.
● Prevent falls by not leaving your baby alone on a bed or changing table.
● Install smoke and carbon monoxide detectors and use flame retardant sleepware.
● Know signs and symptoms of illness: fever (call your Pediatrician right away if your baby has a temp over 100.4 before he is 2-3 months old), decreased appetite, vomiting, irritability, and lethargy.

4、Common Infant Problems

● Constipation: defined as the passage of hard, pellet-like stools that cause pain or bleeding (groaning or straining is normal) and not so much by how often your baby has a bowel movement (some breastfed babies only have one BM each week, although this is unusual by nine months when they are eating a lot of solid foods too). Initial treatment is by giving 2-4 ounces of water or diluted prune juice once or twice a day or by changing to a soy based formula if your baby is formula fed.
● Stuffy Nose/Sneezing: very common and usually caused by irritation from dry air, smoke, or dust. Try to eliminate common irritants. You can try using a humidifier or salt water nose drops.
● Thrush: white patches that coat the inside of the cheeks and tongue and cannot be easily wiped off. It is caused by a very mild yeast infection and is easily cleared up with a prescription medicine called Nystatin or Fluconazole.
● Rashes: very common in older infants and includes eczema, drooling rashes, and heat rash.
● Dry Skin: use a mild soap and a moisturizer once or twice a day.
● Spitting Up: many babies spit up (reflux) after eating due to overfeeding or because the valve that closes the upper part of the stomach is immature. It is usually not a concern as long as your baby is gaining weight and it is not causing him to cough or choke. Some steps to take to improve this problem are feeding smaller amounts, more frequent burping during feeds, avoiding pressure on his belly or vigorous activity after eating. It improves with age, usually without treatment, and often by the time a child is 9 to 18 months old.
● Watery Eyes: this is usually caused by a blocked tear duct and is not a concern unless the eyes become infected (let your Pediatrician know so that they can prescribe antibiotic eye drops). It usually clears up on its own before your baby is 9 to 12 months old.
● Diaper Rashes: very common and usually clear up in 3-4 days with a diaper rash cream. If it is not clearing up or is bright red and surrounded by red dots, your baby may have a yeast infection and will need an antifungal cream to help clear it up. Diaper rashes can be prevented by frequent diaper changes, increasing air exposure by keeping the diaper off as much as possible, and using a mild soap only after bowel movements (rinse with just warm water at other times).
● Upper Respiratory Infections: these are very common and include symptoms of a clear or green runny nose and cough and are usually caused by cold viruses. The best treatment is to use salt water nasal drops and a bulb suctioner to keep their nose clear. Call your Pediatrician if your child has high fever, difficulty breathing or is not improving in 7-10 days

5、Taking Your Child to the Doctor

You will be making frequent visits to your Pediatrician during the first year of your child's life, so that his growth and development can be closely monitored. Remember to write down any questions you may have for your doctor before the visit so that you don't forget them.

At the nine month checkup, you can expect:
● A complete physical exam, with special attention to his hips.
● An examination of your infant's growth and development.
● A review of feeding and sleep schedules.
● Measurement of his height, weight and head circumference.
● Counseling for injury prevention.
● Immunizations: HepB (if the 3rd dose was not already given at the 6 month checkup.
● Screening tests: blood level to check for anemia, screening questionaire for lead poisoning risk.

The next check up with your pediatrician will be when your infant is twelve months old.

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Your Twelve Month Old - What You Need To Know

1、Toddler Nutrition

You may now give your baby homogenized whole cow's milk, although if you are continuing to breastfeed your toddler at least 2 or 3 times a day, then he likely doesn't need cow's milk yet.

If switching from breastmilk or infant formula to milk, do not use 2%, low fat, or skim milk until your child is 2 years old though.

Your infant's diet will begin to resemble that of the rest of the families, with 3 meals and 2 snacks each day. You should limit milk and dairy products to about 16 to 24 oz each day (in a cup or bottle) and juice to 4-6oz each day (offered in a cup only) and offer a variety of foods to encourage good eating habits later.

Your child should want to feed himself with his fingers and a spoon or fork and should be able to drink out of a cup. The next few months will be time to stop using a bottle. Remember that your infant's appetite may decrease and become pickier over the next few years as his growth rate slows. Your infant will probably have given up middle of the night feedings by this age. If not, slowly reduce how much you are putting in the bottle each night and gradually stop this feeding all together.

To avoid having to supplement with fluoride, use fluoridated tap water. If you are using bottled or filtered water only, then your child may need fluoride supplements (check with the manufacturer for your water's fluoride levels).

Feeding practices to avoid are giving large amounts of sweet deserts, soft drinks, fruit-flavored drinks, sugarcoated cereals, chips or candy, as they have little nutritional value. Also avoid giving foods that your child can choke on, such as raw carrots, peanuts, whole grapes, tough meats, popcorn, chewing gum or hard candy.

2、Toddler Growth and Development

Your child has probably tripled his birthweight by now. You can expect him to combine syllables, say mama/dada, walk while holding on to things, take a few steps alone, bang objects together, enjoy reading interactively, and point to pictures. Over the next few months he will start to walk well alone, say 3-6 words, understand simple commands, and begin to use a spoon or fork.

This is also a time that your child will begin to explore and try and figure out how things work and will enjoy playtime. It is important to give lots of praise and many opportunities for exploration. If using a pacifier, it is a good time to start restricting its use (or giving it up all together) to only when your baby is in his crib, so that his interest in it will decrease.

Most toddlers take two naps during the day at this age (length of naps are usually very variable between different children, but naps are usually 1-1 1/2 hours each) and are able to sleep for the majority of the night (at least 11 hours). If not, check to make sure that your child has a good bedtime routine and has developed the proper sleep associations. He may start waking again at times of stress, illness or after learning a new task (such as walking).

If you haven't already done so, now would be a good time to move him into a full size crib, in his own room if possible.

3、Safety

Accidents are the leading cause of death for children. Most of these deaths could easily be prevented and it is therefore very important to keep your child's safety in mind at all times. Here are some tips to keep your toddler safe:
● Use a rear facing infant or convertible car seat, and place in the back seat until your baby is 1 y/o and 20lbs and never place your baby in the front seat of a car with a passenger side airbag. If he is over 20lbs when he turns one, then you can use a forward facing toddler or convertible safety seat in the back seat.
● Make sure his crib is safe: have no more than 2 3/8 inches between the bars; the mattress should be firm and fit snuggly within the crib; place it away from windows and drafts; avoid placing fluffy blankets, stuffed animals, or pillows in the crib as they can cause smothering.
● Make sure that used or hand-me-down equipment, such as car seats, strollers and cribs, etc, haven't been recalled for safety reasons. Call the manufacturer or the Consumer Product Safety Commission for an up to date list of recalled products.
● To prevent choking, never leave small objects or plastic bags in your toddler's reach.
● Correctly use a harness when he is seated in a high chair.
● Avoid exposing your child to too much sun (use sunscreen).
● Back To Sleep: put your baby to sleep on his back (alternate positions) to reduce his risk of SIDS and never put him down alone on a waterbed, bean bag, or soft blanket that can cover his face and cause choking.
● Prevent falls by not leaving your baby alone on a bed or changing table.
● Install smoke and carbon monoxide detectors and use flame retardant sleepware.
● If you must have a gun in the house keep it and the bullets in a separate locked place.
● Practice water safety: teach your child to swim, do not let your child play around any water (lake, pool, ocean, etc.) without adult supervision (even if he is a good swimmer), always wear a life preserver or safety vest when on a boat, and childproof the pool by enclosing it in a fence with a self-closing, self-latching door.
● Be cautious of certain dog breeds (Rottweilers, pit bulls, German Shepards) that account for over fifty percent of fatal dog bites and closely supervise children when in the presence of animals.
● Clean his teeth with a washcloth or soft toothbrush with non-fluoride toothpaste (Baby Oragel toothpaste) or just a pea-sized amount of a fluoride toothpaste (to prevent fluorosis) until he learns to spit out the toothpaste.
● Child Proof the House (Set the temperature of your hot water heater to 120 degrees F, use gates on stairs, covers on electrical outlets and latches on cabinets, keep household cleaners, chemicals and medicines completely out of reach and always store them in their original container and know the Poison Control Center number (1800-222-1222), do not carry hot liquids or food near your child and do not allow your child near stoves, heaters or other hot appliances (especially curling irons), and when cooking, use the back burners and turn pot handles inward, to prevent drowning, empty all water from bathtubs and pails, keep the door to the bathroom closed and never leave your child alone near any container of water, keep a list of emergency numbers near the phone, and lock rooms that are not child proof).

4、Common Toddler Problems

● Constipation: defined as the passage of hard, pellet-like stools that cause pain or bleeding (groaning or straining is normal) and not so much by how often your toddler has a bowel movement. Initial treatment is by giving 2-4 ounces of water or diluted apple or prune juice once or twice a day and a lot of high fiber foods.
● Stuffy Nose/Sneezing: very common and usually caused by irritation from dry air, smoke, or dust. Try to eliminate common irritants. You can try using a humidifier or salt water nose drops.
● Watery Eyes: this is usually caused by a blocked tear duct and is not a concern unless the eyes become infected (let your Pediatrician know so that they can prescribe antibiotic eye drops). It usually clears up on its own before your baby is 12 months old.
● Diaper Rashes: very common and usually clear up in 3-4 days with a diaper rash cream. If it is not clearing up or is bright red and surrounded by red dots, your baby may have a yeast infection and will need an antifungal cream to help clear it up. Diaper rashes can be prevented by frequent diaper changes, increasing air exposure by keeping the diaper off as much as possible, and using a mild soap only after bowel movements (rinse with just warm water at other times).
● Upper Respiratory Infections: these are very common and include symptoms of a clear or green runny nose and cough and are usually caused by cold viruses. The best treatment is to use salt water nasal drops and a bulb suctioner to keep their nose clear. Call your Pediatrician if your child has high fever, difficulty breathing or is not improving in 7-10 days
● Vomiting: usually accompanies diarrhea as part of a viral infection. If your child starts vomiting, it is best to give them a break from eating and drinking for an hour or so and then start to give small amounts of Pedialyte (1 teaspoon) every five or ten minutes. Once your child is able to tolerate drinking these small amounts you can increase the Pedialyte to about a tablespoon every five or ten minutes and then larger amounts as tolerated and then change back to his regular formula. Avoid giving just Pedialyte for more than 12 hours. Call your Pediatrician if the vomit has blood in it, if it is dark green, or if your child is showing signs of dehydration (which includes not urinating in 6-8 hours, having a dry mouth and weight loss).
● Diarrhea: a common problem and is often caused by a viral infection. Call your Pediatrician if the diarrhea has blood or pus in it, if it is not getting better in 1-2 weeks or if you see signs of dehydration (which includes not urinating in 6-8 hours, having a dry mouth and weight loss). You should continue with their regular diet, but may give 1-2 ounces of Pedialyte each time that he has large diarrhea stool to prevent dehydration.

5、Taking Your Child to your Pediatrician

You will be making frequent visits to your Pediatrician during the first year of your child's life, so that his growth and development can be closely monitored. Remember to write down any questions you may have for your doctor before the visit so that you don't forget them.

At the twelve month checkup, you can expect:
● An examination of your toddler's growth and development.
● A review of feeding and sleep schedules.
● Measurement of his height, weight and head circumference.
● Counseling for injury prevention, dental health, and a proper diet.
● Immunizations: Hib, IPV (if not given yet), MMR, Varivax, Prevnar, Hepatitis A.

The next check up with your pediatrician will be when your infant is fifteen months old.

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Your Fifteen Month Old - What You Need To Know

1、Toddler Nutrition

You may now give your baby homogenized whole cow's milk, although if you are continuing to breastfeed your toddler at least 2 or 3 times a day, then he likely doesn't need cow's milk yet.

If switching from breastmilk or infant formula to milk, do not use 2%, low fat, or skim milk until your child is 2 years old though.

Your infant's diet will begin to resemble that of the rest of the families, with 3 meals and 2 snacks each day. You should limit milk and dairy products to about 16 to 24 oz each day (in a cup or bottle) and juice to 4-6oz each day (offered in a cup only) and offer a variety of foods to encourage good eating habits later.

Your child should want to feed himself with his fingers and a spoon or fork and should be able to drink out of a cup. The next few months will be time to stop using a bottle. Remember that your infant's appetite may decrease and become pickier over the next few years as his growth rate slows. Your infant will probably have given up middle of the night feedings by this age. If not, slowly reduce how much you are putting in the bottle each night and gradually stop this feeding all together.

To avoid having to supplement with fluoride, use fluoridated tap water. If you are using bottled or filtered water only, then your child may need fluoride supplements (check with the manufacturer for your water's fluoride levels).

Feeding practices to avoid are giving large amounts of sweet deserts, soft drinks, fruit-flavored drinks, sugarcoated cereals, chips or candy, as they have little nutritional value. Also avoid giving foods that your child can choke on, such as raw carrots, peanuts, whole grapes, tough meats, popcorn, chewing gum or hard candy.

2、Toddler Growth and Development

You can expect him to combine syllables, say mama/dada, walk well alone, bang objects together, enjoy reading interactively, and point to pictures. He is also probably able to say 3-6 words, understand simple commands, and begin to use a spoon or fork.

Over the next few months, you can expect him to walk backwards, walk up steps with her hand held, run, kick a ball, say 10 to 25 words, name 3 body parts, turn pages of a book, remove pieces of clothing and stack two blocks together.

This is also a time that your child will begin to explore and try and figure out how things work and will enjoy playtime. It is important to give lots of praise and many opportunities for exploration. If using a pacifier, it is a good time to start restricting its use (or giving it up all together) to only when your baby is in his crib, so that his interest in it will decrease.

Most toddlers take two naps during the day at this age (length of naps are usually very variable between different children, but naps are usually 1-1 1/2 hours each). By eighteen months, many toddlers are only taking one longer nap.

Most toddlers are able to sleep for the majority of the night (at least 11 hours). If not, check to make sure that your infant has a good bedtime routine and has developed the proper sleep associations. He may start waking again at times of stress, illness or after learning a new task (such as walking).

3、Safety

Accidents are the leading cause of death for children. Most of these deaths could easily be prevented and it is therefore very important to keep your child's safety in mind at all times. Here are some tips to keep your toddler safe:
● Use a rear facing infant or convertible car seat, and place in the back seat until your baby is 1 y/o and 20lbs and never place your child in the front seat of a car with a passenger side airbag. If he is over 20lbs when he turns one, then you can use a forward facing toddler or convertible safety seat in the back seat.
● Make sure his crib is safe: have no more than 2 3/8 inches between the bars; the mattress should be firm and fit snuggly within the crib; place it away from windows and drafts; avoid placing fluffy blankets, stuffed animals, or pillows in the crib as they can cause smothering.
● Make sure that used or hand-me-down equipment, such as car seats, strollers and cribs, etc, haven't been recalled for safety reasons. Call the manufacturer or the Consumer Product Safety Commission for an up to date list of recalled products.
● To prevent choking, never leave small objects or plastic bags in your baby's reach.
● Correctly use a harness when he is seated in a high chair.
● Avoid exposing your child to too much sun (use sunscreen).
● Back To Sleep: put your baby to sleep on his back (alternate positions) to reduce his risk of SIDS and never put him down alone on a waterbed, bean bag, or soft blanket that can cover his face and cause choking.
● Prevent falls by not leaving your baby alone on a bed or changing table.
● Install smoke and carbon monoxide detectors and use flame retardant sleepware.
● If you must have a gun in the house keep it and the bullets in a separate locked place.
● Practice water safety: teach your child to swim, do not let your child play around any water (lake, pool, ocean, etc.) without adult supervision (even if he is a good swimmer), always wear a life preserver or safety vest when on a boat, and childproof the pool by enclosing it in a fence with a self-closing, self-latching door.
● Be cautious of certain dog breeds (Rottweilers, pit bulls, German Shepards) that account for over fifty percent of fatal dog bites and closely supervise children when in the presence of animals.
● Clean his teeth with a washcloth or soft toothbrush with non-fluoride toothpaste (Baby Oragel toothpaste) or just a pea-sized amount of a fluoride toothpaste (to prevent fluorosis) until he learns to spit out the toothpaste.
● Child Proof the House (Set the temperature of your hot water heater to 120 degrees F, use gates on stairs, covers on electrical outlets and latches on cabinets, keep household cleaners, chemicals and medicines completely out of reach and always store them in their original container and know the Poison Control Center number (1800-222-1222), do not carry hot liquids or food near your child and do not allow your child near stoves, heaters or other hot appliances (especially curling irons), and when cooking, use the back burners and turn pot handles inward, to prevent drowning, empty all water from bathtubs and pails, keep the door to the bathroom closed and never leave your child alone near any container of water, keep a list of emergency numbers near the phone, and lock rooms that are not child proof).

4、Common Toddler Problems

● Constipation: defined as the passage of hard, pellet-like stools that cause pain or bleeding (groaning or straining is normal). Initial treatment is by giving giving extra water, apple, or prune juice, increasing the amount of fiber in your toddler's diet, and decreasing constipating foods.
● Stuffy Nose/Sneezing: very common and usually caused by irritation from dry air, smoke, or dust. Try to eliminate common irritants. You can try using a humidifier or salt water nose drops.
● Diaper Rashes: very common and usually clear up in 3-4 days with a diaper rash cream. If it is not clearing up or is bright red and surrounded by red dots, your baby may have a yeast infection and will need an antifungal cream to help clear it up. Diaper rashes can be prevented by frequent diaper changes, increasing air exposure by keeping the diaper off as much as possible, and using a mild soap only after bowel movements (rinse with just warm water at other times).
● Upper Respiratory Infections: these are very common and include symptoms of a clear or green runny nose and cough and are usually caused by cold viruses. The best treatment is to use salt water nasal drops and a bulb suctioner to keep their nose clear. Call your Pediatrician if your child has high fever, difficulty breathing or is not improving in 7-10 days
● Vomiting: usually accompanies diarrhea as part of a viral infection. If your child starts vomiting, it is best to give them a break from eating and drinking for an hour or so and then start to give small amounts of Pedialyte (1 teaspoon) every five or ten minutes. Once your child is able to tolerate drinking these small amounts you can increase the Pedialyte to about a tablespoon every five or ten minutes and then larger amounts as tolerated and then change back to his regular formula. Avoid giving just Pedialyte for more than 12 hours. Call your Pediatrician if the vomit has blood in it, if it is dark green, or if your child is showing signs of dehydration (which includes not urinating in 6-8 hours, having a dry mouth and weight loss).
● Diarrhea: a common problem and is often caused by a viral infection. Call your Pediatrician if the diarrhea has blood or pus in it, if it is not getting better in 1-2 weeks or if you see signs of dehydration (which includes not urinating in 6-8 hours, having a dry mouth and weight loss). You should continue with their regular diet, but may give 1-2 ounces of Pedialyte each time that he has large diarrhea stool to prevent dehydration.

5、Taking Your Child to your Pediatrician

You will be making frequent visits to your Pediatrician during the first few years of your child's life, so that his growth and development can be closely monitored. Remember to write down any questions you may have for your doctor before the visit so that you don't forget them.

At the fifteen month checkup, you can expect:
● An examination of your toddler's growth and development.
● A review of feeding and sleep schedules.
● Measurement of his height, weight and head circumference.
● Counseling for injury prevention, dental health, and a proper diet.
● Immunizations: Hib, IPV, MMR, Varivax, Prevnar, Hepatitis A (if they weren't given at the twelve month checkup).
The next check up with your pediatrician will be when your infant is eighteen months old.

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Your Eighteen Month Old - What You Need To Know

1、Toddler Nutrition

You may now give your baby homogenized whole cow's milk, although if you are continuing to breastfeed your toddler at least 2 or 3 times a day, then he likely doesn't need cow's milk yet.

If switching from breastmilk or infant formula to milk, do not use 2%, low fat, or skim milk until your child is 2 years old though.

Your infant's diet will begin to resemble that of the rest of the families, with 3 meals and 2 snacks each day. You should limit milk and dairy products to about 16 to 24 oz each day and juice to 4-6oz each day and offer a variety of foods to encourage good eating habits later.

Now is a good time to give up the bottle if you haven't already.

To prevent feeding problems, teach your child to feed himself as early as possible, provide him with healthy choices and allow experimentation. Mealtimes should be enjoyable and pleasant and not a source of struggle. Common mistakes are allowing your child to drink too much milk or juice so that he isn't hungry for solids, forcing your child to eat when he isn't hungry, or forcing him to eat foods that he doesn't want.

Your child may now start to refuse to eat some foods, become a very picky eater or even go on binges where he will only want to eat a certain food. An important way that children learn to be independent is through establishing independence about feeding. Even though your child may not be eating as well rounded a diet as you would like, as long as your child is growing normally and has a normal energy level, there is probably little to worry about. Remember that this is a period in his development where he is not growing very fast and doesn't need a lot of calories. Also, most children do not eat a balanced diet each and every day, but over the course of a week or so, their diet will usually be well balanced. You can consider giving your child a daily vitamin if you think he is not eating well, although most children don't need them.

While you should provide three well-balanced meals each day, it is important to keep in mind that most toddlers will only eat one or two full meals each day. If you child has had a good breakfast and lunch, then it is okay that he doesn't want to eat much at dinner.

Other ways to prevent feeding problems are to not use food as a bribe or reward for desired behaviors, avoid punishing your child for not eating well, limit mealtime conversation to positive and pleasant topics, avoid discussing or commenting on your child's poor eating habits while at the table, limit eating and drinking to the table or high chair, and limit snacks to two nutritious snacks each day.

To avoid having to supplement with fluoride, use fluoridated tap water. If you are using bottled or filtered water only, then your child may need fluoride supplements (check with the manufacturer for your water's fluoride levels).

Feeding practices to avoid are giving large amounts of sweet deserts, soft drinks, fruit-flavored drinks, sugarcoated cereals, chips or candy, as they have little nutritional value. Also avoid giving foods that your child can choke on, such as raw carrots, peanuts, whole grapes, tough meats, popcorn, chewing gum or hard candy.

2、Toddler Growth and Development

At this age you can expect your child to walk backwards, walk up steps with his hand held, kick a ball, say 10 to 25 words, name 3 body parts, turn pages of a book and stack two blocks together. Over the next few months your child will learn new words, start to throw a ball overhand, and use two word combinations.

He may begin to play with other children, but it will be 'parallel play.' Children at this age are very self-centered and may play alongside each other, but it will be some time before they actually start playing together. Your child will probably not want to share his things and he may be very possessive. It is important to closely supervise children that are playing together at this age and reassure them that the other child will not keep his toys. Keep a few of his favorite items separate and not available for sharing so that he feels he has some control over things.

This is also a time that your child will begin to explore and try and figure out how things work and will enjoy playtime. It is important to give lots of praise and many opportunities for exploration. If using a pacifier, it is a good time to start restricting its use (or give it up all together) to only when your baby is in his crib, so that his interest in it will decrease.

Most toddlers take at least one naps (length of naps are usually very variable between different children, but naps are usually 1-1 1/2 hours long) during the day at this age and are able to sleep all night (for 11-12 hours). If not, check to make sure that your toddler has a good bedtime routine and has developed the proper sleep associations.

Once your child is able to climb out of his crib (and you have already lowered the mattress and removed the bumper pads), it is time to move him into a toddler bed. If your child is three feet tall, you may want to move him to a toddler bed even if he isn't climbing out of his crib yet. The usual age for moving out of a crib is about eighteen months to two years.

3、Safety

Accidents are the leading cause of death for children. Most of these deaths could easily be prevented and it is therefore very important to keep your child's safety in mind at all times. Here are some tips to keep your toddler safe:
● Use a toddler/convertible safety seat in the back seat. Continue to use it until your child outgrows it when he is about 40lbs and then use a booster seat until your car's lap and shoulder belts fit correctly (when your child is 80lbs and 4'9") and never place your child in the front seat of a car with a passenger side airbag. Also be careful if your car has side impact air bags.
● Make sure his crib is safe: have no more than 2 3/8 inches between the bars; the mattress should be firm and fit snuggly within the crib; place it away from windows and drafts; avoid placing fluffy blankets, stuffed animals, or pillows in the crib as they can cause smothering.
● Make sure that used or hand-me-down equipment, such as car seats, strollers and cribs, etc, haven't been recalled for safety reasons. Call the manufacturer or the Consumer Product Safety Commission for an up to date list of recalled products.
● To prevent choking, never leave small objects or plastic bags in your baby's reach.
● Correctly use a harness when he is seated in a high chair.
● Avoid exposing your child to too much sun (use sunscreen).
● Prevent falls by not leaving your baby alone on a bed or changing table.
● Install smoke and carbon monoxide detectors and use flame retardant sleepware.
● Practice food safety: wash fruits and vegetables, do not eat undercooked meats or poultry or drink unpasteurized milk or juices.
● If you must have a gun in the house keep it and the bullets in a separate locked place.
● Practice water safety: teach your child to swim, do not let your child play around any water (lake, pool, ocean, etc.) without adult supervision (even if he is a good swimmer), always wear a life preserver or safety vest when on a boat, and childproof the pool by enclosing it in a fence with a self-closing, self-latching door.
● Be cautious of certain dog breeds (Rottweilers, pit bulls, German Shepards) that account for over fifty percent of fatal dog bites and closely supervise children when in the presence of animals.
● Clean his teeth with a washcloth or soft toothbrush with non-fluoride toothpaste (Baby Oragel toothpaste) or just a pea-sized amount of a fluoride toothpaste (to prevent fluorosis) until he learns to spit out the toothpaste.
● Child Proof the House (Set the temperature of your hot water heater to 120 degrees F, use gates on stairs, covers on electrical outlets and latches on cabinets, keep household cleaners, chemicals and medicines completely out of reach and always store them in their original container and know the Poison Control Center number (1-800-222-1222), do not carry hot liquids or food near your child and do not allow your child near stoves, heaters or other hot appliances (especially curling irons), and when cooking, use the back burners and turn pot handles inward, to prevent drowning, empty all water from bathtubs and pails, keep the door to the bathroom closed and never leave your child alone near any container of water, keep a list of emergency numbers near the phone, and lock rooms that are not child proof).

4、Common Toddler Problems

● Constipation: a very common and frustrating problem in children. It is usually defined as the passage of hard and painful stools or going four or more days without a bowel movement. Constiption is most commonly caused by a diet that is low in fiber, but can also be caused by drinking too much milk (more than 16 to 24 oz/d), not drinking enough water or waiting too long to go to the bathroom. Initial treatment is increasing the amount of fluids he drinks and increasing the amount of fiber and bran in his diet. It is usually also helpful to decrease the amount of constipating foods in his diet, including cow's milk, yogurt, cheese, cooked carrots, and bananas. Stool softeners may be necessary if these steps don't work.
● Stuffy Nose/Sneezing: very common and usually caused by irritation from dry air, smoke, or dust. Try to eliminate common irritants. You can try using a humidifier or salt water nose drops.
● Diaper Rashes: very common and usually clear up in 3-4 days with a diaper rash cream. If it is not clearing up or is bright red and surrounded by red dots, your baby may have a yeast infection and will need an antifungal cream to help clear it up. Diaper rashes can be prevented by frequent diaper changes, increasing air exposure by keeping the diaper off as much as possible, and using a mild soap only after bowel movements (rinse with just warm water at other times).
● Upper Respiratory Infections: these are very common and include symptoms of a clear or green runny nose and cough and are usually caused by cold viruses. The best treatment is to use salt water nasal drops and a bulb suctioner to keep their nose clear. Call your Pediatrician if your child has high fever, difficulty breathing or is not improving in 7-10 days
● Vomiting: usually accompanies diarrhea as part of a viral infection. If your child starts vomiting, it is best to give them a break from eating and drinking for an hour or so and then start to give small amounts of Pedialyte (1 teaspoon) every five or ten minutes. Once your child is able to tolerate drinking these small amounts you can increase the Pedialyte to about a tablespoon every five or ten minutes and then larger amounts as tolerated and then change back to his regular formula. Avoid giving just Pedialyte for more than 12 hours. Call your Pediatrician if the vomit has blood in it, if it is dark green, or if your child is showing signs of dehydration (which includes not urinating in 6-8 hours, having a dry mouth and weight loss).
● Diarrhea: a common problem and is often caused by a viral infection. Call your Pediatrician if the diarrhea has blood or pus in it, if it is not getting better in 1-2 weeks or if you see signs of dehydration (which includes not urinating in 6-8 hours, having a dry mouth and weight loss). You should continue with their regular diet, but may give 1-2 ounces of Pedialyte each time that he has large diarrhea stool to prevent dehydration.

5、Taking Your Child to your Pediatrician

You will be making frequent visits to your Pediatrician during the first year of your child's life, so that his growth and development can be closely monitored. Remember to write down any questions you may have for your doctor before the visit so that you don't forget them.

At the eighteen month checkup, you can expect:
● An examination of your toddler's growth and development.
● A review of feeding and sleep schedules.
● Measurement of his height, weight and head circumference.
● Counseling for injury prevention, dental health, and a proper diet.
● A discussion of toilet training readiness.
● Immunizations: DTaP and possibly the Hepatitis A and IPV vaccines if they weren't given at the fifteen or twelve month checkup.

The next check up with your pediatrician will be when your child is two years old.

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Your Two Year Old - What You Need To Know

1、Toddler Nutrition

You can give your child homogenized whole cow's milk, or you can begin to use 2%, low fat, or skim milk now that your child is 2 years old.

Your child's diet should now resemble that of the rest of the families, with 3 meals and 2 snacks each day. You should limit milk and dairy products to about 16 to 24oz each day, and juice to 4 to 6oz each day, and offer a variety of foods to encourage good eating habits later.

To prevent feeding problems, teach your child to feed himself as early as possible, provide him with healthy choices and allow experimentation. Mealtimes should be enjoyable and pleasant and not a source of struggle. Common mistakes are allowing your child to drink too much milk or juice so that he isn't hungry for solids, forcing your child to eat when he isn't hungry, or forcing him to eat foods that he doesn't want.

Your child may now start to refuse to eat some foods, become a very picky eater or even go on binges where he will only want to eat a certain food. An important way that children learn to be independent is through establishing independence about feeding. Even though your child may not be eating as well rounded a diet as you would like, as long as your child is growing normally and has a normal energy level, there is probably little to worry about. Remember that this is a period in his development where he is not growing very fast and doesn't need a lot of calories. Also, most children do not eat a balanced diet each and every day, but over the course of a week or so, their diet will usually be well balanced. You can consider giving your child a daily vitamin if you think he is not eating well, although most children don't need them.

While you should provide three well-balanced meals each day, it is important to keep in mind that most children will only eat one or two full meals each day. If you child has had a good breakfast and lunch, then it is okay that he doesn't want to eat much at dinner.

Other ways to prevent feeding problems are to not use food as a bribe or reward for desired behaviors, avoid punishing your child for not eating well, limit mealtime conversation to positive and pleasant topics, avoid discussing or commenting on your child's poor eating habits while at the table, limit eating and drinking to the table or high chair, and limit snacks to two nutritious snacks each day.

To avoid having to supplement with fluoride, use fluoridated tap water. If you are using bottled or filtered water only, then your child may need fluoride supplements (check with the manufacturer for your water's fluoride levels).

Feeding practices to avoid are continuing to use a bottle, giving large amounts of sweet deserts, soft drinks, fruit-flavored drinks, sugarcoated cereals, chips or candy, as they have little nutritional value. Also avoid giving foods that your child can choke on, such as raw carrots, peanuts, whole grapes, tough meats, popcorn, chewing gum or hard candy.

2、Toddler Growth and Development

At this age you can expect him to put on clothing, brush his teeth with help, stack 4-6 blocks, combine words, know over 50 words, use pronouns (I, me, you, mine), follow two step commands, know his body parts, walk up steps, kick a ball, jump up, throw a ball overhead, and his speech should be half understandable.

Over the next year his speech will become more understandable, and he will be able to name pictures and colors.

He may begin to play with other children, but it will be 'parallel play.' Children at this age are very self-centered and may play alongside each other, but it will be some time before they actually start playing together. Your child will probably not want to share his things and he may be very possessive. It is important to closely supervise children that are playing together at this age and reassure them that the other child will not keep his toys. Keep a few of his favorite items separate and not available for sharing so that he feels he has some control over things.

This is also a time that your child will begin to explore and try and figure out how things work and will enjoy playtime. It is important to give lots of praise and many opportunities for exploration.

Most toddlers take at least one naps (length of naps are usually very variable between different children, but naps are usually 1-1 1/2 hours long) during the day at this age and are able to sleep all night (for 11-12 hours). If not, check to make sure that your toddler has a good bedtime routine and has developed the proper sleep associations.

Once your child is able to climb out of his crib (and you have already lowered the mattress and removed the bumper pads), it is time to move him into a toddler bed. If your child is three feet tall, you may want to move him to a toddler bed even if he isn't climbing out of his crib yet. The usual age for moving out of a crib is about eighteen months to two years.

3、Safety

Accidents are the leading cause of death for children. Most of these deaths could easily be prevented and it is therefore very important to keep your child's safety in mind at all times. Here are some tips to keep your toddler safe:
● Use a toddler/convertible safety seat in the back seat. Continue to use it until your child outgrows it when he is about 40lbs and then use a booster seat until your car's lap and shoulder belts fit correctly (when your child is 80lbs and 4'9") and never place your child in the front seat of a car with a passenger side airbag. Also be careful if your car has side impact air bags.
● Make sure his crib is safe: have no more than 2 3/8 inches between the bars; the mattress should be firm and fit snuggly within the crib; place it away from windows and drafts; avoid placing fluffy blankets, stuffed animals, or pillows in the crib as they can cause smothering.
● Make sure that used or hand-me-down equipment, such as car seats, strollers and cribs, etc, haven't been recalled for safety reasons. Call the manufacturer or the Consumer Product Safety Commission for an up to date list of recalled products.
● To prevent choking, never leave small objects or plastic bags in your child's reach.
● Correctly use a harness when he is seated in a high chair.
● Avoid exposing your child to too much sun (use sunscreen).
● Prevent falls by not leaving your baby alone on a bed or changing table.
● Install smoke and carbon monoxide detectors and use flame retardant sleepware.
● Practice food safety: wash fruits and vegetables, do not eat undercooked meats or poultry or drink unpasteurized milk or juices.
● If you must have a gun in the house keep it and the bullets in a separate locked place.
● Practice water safety: teach your child to swim, do not let your child play around any water (lake, pool, ocean, etc.) without adult supervision (even if he is a good swimmer), always wear a life preserver or safety vest when on a boat, and childproof the pool by enclosing it in a fence with a self-closing, self-latching door.
● Be cautious of certain dog breeds (Rottweilers, pit bulls, German Shepards) that account for over fifty percent of fatal dog bites and closely supervise children when in the presence of animals.
● Clean his teeth with a washcloth or soft toothbrush with non-fluoride toothpaste (Baby Oragel toothpaste) or just a pea-sized amount of a fluoride toothpaste (to prevent fluorosis) until he learns to spit out the toothpaste.
● Limit television and encourage reading and storytelling.
● Child Proof the House (Set the temperature of your hot water heater to 120 degrees F, use gates on stairs, covers on electrical outlets and latches on cabinets, keep household cleaners, chemicals and medicines completely out of reach and always store them in their original container and know the Poison Control Center number (1-800-222-1222), do not carry hot liquids or food near your child and do not allow your child near stoves, heaters or other hot appliances (especially curling irons), and when cooking, use the back burners and turn pot handles inward, to prevent drowning, empty all water from bathtubs and pails, keep the door to the bathroom closed and never leave your child alone near any container of water, keep a list of emergency numbers near the phone, and lock rooms that are not child proof).

4、Common Toddler Problems

● Constipation: a very common and frustrating problem in children. It is usually defined as the passage of hard and painful stools or going four or more days without a bowel movement. Constiption is most commonly caused by a diet that is low in fiber, but can also be caused by drinking too much milk (more than 16 to 24oz/d), not drinking enough water or waiting too long to go to the bathroom. Initial treatment is increasing the amount of fluids he drinks and increasing the amount of fiber and bran in his diet. It is usually also helpful to decrease the amount of constipating foods in his diet, including cow's milk, yogurt, cheese, cooked carrots, and bananas. Stool softeners may be necessary if these steps don't work.
● Stuffy Nose/Sneezing: very common and usually caused by irritation from dry air, smoke, or dust. Try to eliminate common irritants. You can try using a humidifier or salt water nose drops.
● Diaper Rashes: very common and usually clear up in 3-4 days with a diaper rash cream. If it is not clearing up or is bright red and surrounded by red dots, your baby may have a yeast infection and will need an antifungal cream to help clear it up. Diaper rashes can be prevented by frequent diaper changes, increasing air exposure by keeping the diaper off as much as possible, and using a mild soap only after bowel movements (rinse with just warm water at other times).
● Upper Respiratory Infections: these are very common and include symptoms of a clear or green runny nose and cough and are usually caused by cold viruses. The best treatment is to use salt water nasal drops and a bulb suctioner to keep their nose clear. Call your Pediatrician if your child has high fever, difficulty breathing or is not improving in 7-10 days
● Vomiting: usually accompanies diarrhea as part of a viral infection. If your child starts vomiting, it is best to give them a break from eating and drinking for an hour or so and then start to give small amounts of Pedialyte (1 teaspoon) every five or ten minutes. Once your child is able to tolerate drinking these small amounts you can increase the Pedialyte to about a tablespoon every five or ten minutes and then larger amounts as tolerated and then change back to his regular formula. Avoid giving just Pedialyte for more than 12 hours. Call your Pediatrician if the vomit has blood in it, if it is dark green, or if your child is showing signs of dehydration (which includes not urinating in 6-8 hours, having a dry mouth and weight loss).
● Diarrhea: a common problem and is often caused by a viral infection. Call your Pediatrician if the diarrhea has blood or pus in it, if it is not getting better in 1-2 weeks or if you see signs of dehydration (which includes not urinating in 6-8 hours, having a dry mouth and weight loss). You should continue with their regular diet, but may give 1-2 ounces of Pedialyte each time that he has large diarrhea stool to prevent dehydration.

5、Taking Your Child to your Pediatrician

You will be making frequent visits to your Pediatrician during the first year of your child's life, so that his growth and development can be closely monitored. Remember to write down any questions you may have for your doctor before the visit so that you don't forget them.

At the two year checkup, you can expect:
● An examination of your toddler's growth and development.
● A review of feeding and sleep schedules.
● Measurement of his height, weight and head circumference.
● Counseling for injury prevention, dental health, and a proper diet.
● A discussion of toilet training readiness.
● Immunizations: a review of your child's immunizations to make sure they are up to date. If they are, the next immunizations will be his four year boosters. At two years, your child may need his Hepatitis A booster shot if he hasn't gotten it already.
● Screening test: blood level to check for anemia, screening questionnaire for lead poisoning risk.
The next check up with your pediatrician will be when your child is three years old.

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Your Three Year Old - What You Need To Know

1、Preschool Nutrition

You can give your three year old homogenized whole cow's milk, but remember that the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that you begin to use 2%, low fat, or skim milk once your child is 2 years old. So you might make the switch to low fat milk if you haven't already.

Your child's diet should now resemble that of the rest of the families, with 3 meals and 2 snacks each day. You should limit milk and dairy products to about 16 to 24oz each day, and juice to 4 to 6oz each day, and offer a variety of foods to encourage good eating habits later.

To prevent feeding problems, teach your child to feed himself as early as possible, provide him with healthy choices and allow experimentation. Mealtimes should be enjoyable and pleasant and not a source of struggle. Common mistakes are allowing your child to drink too much milk or juice so that he isn't hungry for solids, forcing your child to eat when he isn't hungry, or forcing him to eat foods that he doesn't want.

Your child may now start to refuse to eat some foods, become a very picky eater or even go on binges where he will only want to eat a certain food. An important way that children learn to be independent is through establishing independence about feeding. Even though your child may not be eating as well rounded a diet as you would like, as long as your child is growing normally and has a normal energy level, there is probably little to worry about. Remember that this is a period in his development where he is not growing very fast and doesn't need a lot of calories. Also, most children do not eat a balanced diet each and every day, but over the course of a week or so, their diet will usually be well balanced. You can consider giving your child a daily vitamin if you think he is not eating well, although most children don't need them.

While you should provide three well-balanced meals each day, it is important to keep in mind that most children will only eat one or two full meals each day. If you child has had a good breakfast and lunch, then it is okay that he doesn't want to eat much at dinner.

Other ways to prevent feeding problems are to not use food as a bribe or reward for desired behaviors, avoid punishing your child for not eating well, limit mealtime conversation to positive and pleasant topics, avoid discussing or commenting on your child's poor eating habits while at the table, limit eating and drinking to the table or high chair, and limit snacks to two nutritious snacks each day.

To avoid having to supplement with fluoride, use fluoridated tap water. If you are using bottled or filtered water only, then your child may need fluoride supplements (check with the manufacturer for your water's fluoride levels).

Feeding practices to avoid are continuing to use a bottle, giving large amounts of sweet deserts, soft drinks, fruit-flavored drinks, sugarcoated cereals, chips or candy, as they have little nutritional value. Also avoid giving foods that your child can choke on, such as raw carrots, peanuts, whole grapes, tough meats, popcorn, chewing gum or hard candy.

2、Preschool Growth and Development

At this age your child is becoming more independent and you can expect him to dress himself and button clothes, brush his teeth with help, stack 9-10 blocks, draw circles and squares, use scissors, walk up steps by alternating his feet, jump from a step, hop, walk on his toes, pedal a tricycle, play with imaginary friends, have a very large vocabulary and use 3-4 word sentences and his speech should be 3/4 understandable. Over the next year his speech will become fully understandable.

Your child may now begin to ask 'why' questions, tell stories, remember nursery rhymes, appreciate special events, and understand daily routines.

Your three year old will now begin to play cooperatively with other children in small groups, share his toys and develop friendships. Playtime may include structured games and fantasy activities.

Most toddlers take at least one nap (length of naps are usually very variable between different children, but naps are usually 1-1 1/2 hours long) during the day at this age and are able to sleep all night (for about 11 hours). If not, check to make sure that your toddler has a good bedtime routine and has developed the proper sleep associations.

Once your child is able to climb out of his crib (and you have already lowered the mattress and removed the bumper pads), it is time to move him into a toddler bed. If your child is three feet tall, you may want to move him to a toddler bed even if he isn't climbing out of his crib yet. The usual age for moving out of a crib is about eighteen months to two years.

3、Safety

Accidents are the leading cause of death for children. Most of these deaths could easily be prevented and it is therefore very important to keep your child's safety in mind at all times. Here are some tips to keep your preschooler safe:
● Use a toddler/convertible safety seat in the back seat. Continue to use it until your child outgrows it when he is about 40lbs and then use a booster seat until your car's lap and shoulder belts fit correctly (when your child is 80lbs and 8 years old) and never place your child in the front seat of a car with a passenger side airbag. Also be careful if your car has side impact air bags.
● Make sure that used or hand-me-down equipment, such as car seats, strollers and cribs, etc, haven't been recalled for safety reasons. Call the manufacturer or the Consumer Product Safety Commission for an up to date list of recalled products.
● Never leave small objects in your child's reach to prevent choking, including coins, toys with small parts (children under age three should not be allowed to play with toys that have parts that are smaller than 1 1/4 inch in diameter and/or 2 1/2 inches long), and rubber or latex balloons. Take the time to look for small items, especially coins, safety pins, tacks, etc in the areas where your children are playing.
● Correctly use a harness when he is seated in a high chair.
● Teach pedestrian (crossing streets, etc.) and playground safety (including not playing on trampolines).
● Teach stranger awareness (review scenarios that predators may use, including offering candy or toys to get in the car, asking to help look for a lost pet, or being told they are picking your child up because you are sick).
● Avoid exposing your child to too much sun (use sunscreen).
● Install smoke and carbon monoxide detectors and use flame retardant sleepware.
● Practice food safety: wash fruits and vegetables, do not eat undercooked meats or poultry or drink unpasteurized milk or juices.
● If you must have a gun in the house keep it and the bullets in a separate locked place.
● Practice water safety: teach your child to swim, do not let your child play around any water (lake, pool, ocean, etc.) without adult supervision (even if he is a good swimmer), always wear a life preserver or safety vest when on a boat, and childproof the pool by enclosing it in a fence with a self-closing, self-latching door.
● Be cautious of certain dog breeds (Rottweilers, pit bulls, German Shepards) that account for over fifty percent of fatal dog bites and closely supervise children when in the presence of animals.
● Clean his teeth with a soft toothbrush with just a pea-sized amount of a fluoride toothpaste (to prevent fluorosis) until he learns to spit out the toothpaste. The first visit to the dentist is usually by age 3 years.
● Limit television and encourage reading and storytelling.
● Child Proof the House (Set the temperature of your hot water heater to 120 degrees F, use gates on stairs, covers on electrical outlets and latches on cabinets, keep household cleaners, chemicals and medicines completely out of reach and always store them in their original container and know the Poison Control Center number (1-800-222-1222), do not carry hot liquids or food near your child and do not allow your child near stoves, heaters or other hot appliances (especially curling irons), and when cooking, use the back burners and turn pot handles inward, to prevent drowning, empty all water from bathtubs and pails, keep the door to the bathroom closed and never leave your child alone near any container of water, keep a list of emergency numbers near the phone, and lock rooms that are not child proof).

4、Common Preschool Problems

● Constipation: a very common and frustrating problem in children. It is usually defined as the passage of hard and painful stools or going four or more days without a bowel movement. Constiption is most commonly caused by a diet that is low in fiber, but can also be caused by drinking too much milk (more than 16 to 24oz/d), not drinking enough water or waiting too long to go to the bathroom. Initial treatment is increasing the amount of fluids he drinks and increasing the amount of fiber and bran in his diet. It is usually also helpful to decrease the amount of constipating foods in his diet, including cow's milk, yogurt, cheese, cooked carrots, and bananas. Stool softeners may be necessary if these steps don't work.
● Upper Respiratory Infections: these are very common and include symptoms of a clear or green runny nose and cough and are usually caused by cold viruses. The best treatment is to use salt water nasal drops and a bulb suctioner to keep their nose clear. Call your Pediatrician if your child has high fever, difficulty breathing or is not improving in 7-10 days
● Vomiting: usually accompanies diarrhea as part of a viral infection. If your child starts vomiting, it is best to give them a break from eating and drinking for an hour or so and then start to give small amounts of Pedialyte (1 teaspoon) every five or ten minutes. Once your child is able to tolerate drinking these small amounts you can increase the Pedialyte to about a tablespoon every five or ten minutes and then larger amounts as tolerated and then change back to his regular formula. Avoid giving just Pedialyte for more than 12 hours. Call your Pediatrician if the vomit has blood in it, if it is dark green, or if your child is showing signs of dehydration (which includes not urinating in 6-8 hours, having a dry mouth and weight loss).
● Diarrhea: a common problem and is often caused by a viral infection. Call your Pediatrician if the diarrhea has blood or pus in it, if it is not getting better in 1-2 weeks or if you see signs of dehydration (which includes not urinating in 6-8 hours, having a dry mouth and weight loss). You should continue with their regular diet, but may give 1-2 ounces of Pedialyte each time that he has large diarrhea stool to prevent dehydration.

5、Taking Your Child to your Pediatrician

At the three year checkup, you can expect:
● An examination of your preschooler's growth and development.
● A review of feeding and sleep schedules.
● Measurement of his height, weight and blood pressure.
● Counseling for injury prevention, dental health, and a proper diet.
● A discussion of toilet training progress.
● Immunizations: a review of your child's immunizations to make sure they are up to date. If they are, the next immunizations will be his four year boosters.
● Screening test: vision test.

The next check up with your pediatrician will be when your child is four years old.

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Your Four Year Old - What You Need To Know

1、Preschool Nutrition

Your child's nutrition is important to his overall health. Proper nutrition, which should include eating three meals a day and two nutritious snacks, limiting high sugar and high fat foods, eating fruits, vegetables, lean meats and low fat dairy products, including 3 servings of milk, cheese or yogurt to meet their calcium needs can also prevent many medical problems, including becoming overweight, developing weak bones, and developing diabetes. It will also ensure that your child physically grows to his full potential.

The best nutrition advise to keep your child healthy includes encouraging him to:
● Eat a variety of foods
● Balance the food you eat with physical activity
● Choose a diet with plenty of grain products, vegetables and fruits
● Choose a diet low in fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol
● Choose a diet moderate in sugars and salt
● Choose a diet that provides enough calcium and iron to meet their growing body's requirements

You can also help promote good nutrition by setting a good example. Healthy eating habits and regular exercise should be a regular part of your family's life. It is much easier if everyone in the house follows these guidelines, than if your child has to do it alone. You should also buy low-calorie and low-fat meals, snacks and deserts, low fat or skim milk and diet drinks. Avoid buying high calorie deserts or snacks, such as snack chips, regular soft drinks or regular ice cream.

The Food Guide Pyramid for young children was designed by the US Dept. of Agriculture to promote healthy nutrition in children over two years of age. It is meant to be a general guide to daily food choices. The main emphasis of the food pyramid is on the five major food groups, all of which are required for good health. It also emphasises that foods that include a lot of fats, oils and sweets should be used very sparingly.

To prevent feeding problems, teach your child to feed himself as early as possible, provide him with healthy choices and allow experimentation. Mealtimes should be enjoyable and pleasant and not a source of struggle. Common mistakes are allowing your child to drink too much milk or juice so that he isn't hungry for solids, forcing your child to eat when he isn't hungry, or forcing him to eat foods that he doesn't want.

An important way that children learn to be independent is through establishing independence about feeding. Even though your child may not be eating as well rounded a diet as you would like, as long as your child is growing normally and has a normal energy level, there is probably little to worry about. Also, most children do not eat a balanced diet each and every day, but over the course of a week or so, their diet will usually be well balanced. You can consider giving your child a daily vitamin if you think he is not eating well, although most children don't need them.

Other ways to prevent feeding problems are to not use food as a bribe or reward for desired behaviors, avoid punishing your child for not eating well, limit mealtime conversation to positive and pleasant topics, avoid discussing or commenting on your child's poor eating habits while at the table, limit eating and drinking to the table or high chair, and limit snacks to two nutritious snacks each day.

Feeding practices to avoid are giving large amounts of sweet deserts, soft drinks, fruit-flavored drinks, sugarcoated cereals, chips or candy, as they have little nutritional value. Also be careful with foods that your child can choke on, such as raw carrots, peanuts, whole grapes, tough meats, popcorn, chewing gum or hard candy.

2、Preschool Growth and Development

At this age you can expect your child to dress himself, brush his teeth without help, play board and card games and follow simple rules, name 4 colors, hop, walk down stairs alternating feet, talk in 4-5 word sentences, sing songs, listen to stories, shares things spontaneously, count to 4, and his speech should be fully understandable. Over the next few years he will be able to count to ten, recognize letters of the alphabet, and be able to learn his phone number and address.

Most four year olds take one nap during the afternoon of about 1 hour in length (he will give up this nap between 3-6 years of age) and are able to sleep all night for at least eleven and a half hours. If not, check to make sure that he has a good bedtime routine and has developed the proper sleep associations.

3、Safety

Accidents are the leading cause of death for children. Most of these deaths could easily be prevented and it is therefore very important to keep your child's safety in mind at all times. Here are some tips to keep your preschooler safe:
● Use a belt-positioning booster seat in the back seat until your child is about 80lbs or 4'9" and correctly fits in the car's own lap/shoulder belts and never place your child in the front seat of a car with a passenger side airbag.
● Do not allow your child to ride in the cargo area of a pick up truck, even if it is enclosed. In an accident, children in the back of a pick up truck have little protection from serious injury or death.
● Always wear a bicycle helmet and avoid bicycling near traffic.
● Practice sports safety: teach your child to always wear all of the appropriate safety equipment made for each sport (helmets, mouth guards, pads, etc.).
● Teach pedestrian (crossing streets, etc.) and playground safety (including not playing on trampolines).
● Teach stranger awareness (review scenarios that predators may use, including offering candy or toys to get in the car, asking to help look for a lost pet, or being told they are picking your child up because you are sick).
● Avoid exposing your child to too much sun (use sunscreen).
● Install smoke and carbon monoxide detectors and use flame retardant sleepware.
● Practice food safety: wash fruits and vegetables, do not eat undercooked meats or poultry or drink unpasteurized milk or juices.
● If you must have a gun in the house keep it and the bullets in a separate locked place.
● Practice water safety: teach your child to swim, do not let your child play around any water (lake, pool, ocean, etc.) without adult supervision (even if he is a good swimmer), always wear a life preserver or safety vest when on a boat, and childproof the pool by enclosing it in a fence with a self-closing, self-latching door.
● Be cautious of certain dog breeds (Rottweilers, pit bulls, German Shepards) that account for over fifty percent of fatal dog bites and closely supervise children when in the presence of animals.
● Brush his teeth with a fluoride toothpaste twice a day and have regular dental checkups (every six months). The first visit to the dentist is usually by age 3 years.
● Limit television and encourage reading and storytelling.
● Supervise your child's use of computers (a child at this age should not have unsupervised access to the Internet), computer games, movies, and know what they have access to at their friend's homes.
● Child Proof the House (Set the temperature of your hot water heater to 120 degrees F, use gates on stairs, covers on electrical outlets and latches on cabinets, keep household cleaners, chemicals and medicines completely out of reach and always store them in their original container and know the Poison Control Center number (1-800-222-1222), do not carry hot liquids or food near your child and do not allow your child near stoves, heaters or other hot appliances (especially curling irons), and when cooking, use the back burners and turn pot handles inward, to prevent drowning, empty all water from bathtubs and pails, keep the door to the bathroom closed and never leave your child alone near any container of water, keep a list of emergency numbers near the phone, and lock rooms that are not child proof).
● Be a good example for your child by always using a seat belt, helmet, etc.

4、Common Preschool Problems

● Constipation: a very common and frustrating problem in children. It is usually defined as the passage of hard and painful stools or going four or more days without a bowel movement. Constiption is most commonly caused by a diet that is low in fiber, but can also be caused by drinking too much milk (more than 16 to 24oz/d), not drinking enough water or waiting too long to go to the bathroom. Initial treatment is increasing the amount of fluids he drinks and increasing the amount of fiber and bran in his diet. It is usually also helpful to decrease the amount of constipating foods in his diet, including cow's milk, yogurt, cheese, cooked carrots, and bananas. Stool softeners may be necessary if these steps don't work.
● Upper Respiratory Infections: these are very common and include symptoms of a clear or green runny nose and cough and are usually caused by cold viruses. The best treatment is to use salt water nasal drops and a bulb suctioner to keep their nose clear. Call your Pediatrician if your child has high fever, difficulty breathing or is not improving in 7-10 days
● Vomiting: usually accompanies diarrhea as part of a viral infection. If your child starts vomiting, it is best to give them a break from eating and drinking for an hour or so and then start to give small amounts of Pedialyte (1 teaspoon) every five or ten minutes. Once your child is able to tolerate drinking these small amounts you can increase the Pedialyte to about a tablespoon every five or ten minutes and then larger amounts as tolerated and then change back to his regular formula. Avoid giving just Pedialyte for more than 12 hours. Call your Pediatrician if the vomit has blood in it, if it is dark green, or if your child is showing signs of dehydration (which includes not urinating in 6-8 hours, having a dry mouth and weight loss).
● Diarrhea: a common problem and is often caused by a viral infection. Call your Pediatrician if the diarrhea has blood or pus in it, if it is not getting better in 1-2 weeks or if you see signs of dehydration (which includes not urinating in 6-8 hours, having a dry mouth and weight loss). You should continue with their regular diet, but may give 1-2 ounces of Pedialyte each time that he has large diarrhea stool to prevent dehydration.

5、Taking Your Child to your Pediatrician

At the four year checkup, you can expect:
● An examination of your preschooler's growth and development.
● A review of feeding and sleep schedules.
● Measurement of his height, weight and blood pressure.
● Counseling for injury prevention, dental health, and a proper diet.
● A discussion of toilet training progress.
● Immunizations: DTaP, IPV, Varivax (if your child has not had chickenpox), and MMR boosters.
● Screening test: vision test and hearing test.

The next check up with your pediatrician will be when your child is five years old.

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