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某和平教简史
作者:waterloo0165
发表时间:2015-02-13
更新时间:2015-02-13
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::: 栏目 :::

687 CE — Battle of Kufa
691 CE — Battle of Deir ul Jaliq
700 CE — Military campaigns in North Africa
702 CE — Battle of Deir ul Jamira
711 CE — Invasion of Gibraltar and conquest of Spain
712 CE — Conquest of Sindh
713 CE — Conquest of Multan
716 CE — Invasion of Constantinople
732 CE — Battle of Tours in France
740 CE — Battle of the Nobles.
741 CE — Battle of Bagdoura in North Africa
744 CE — Battle of Ain al Jurr
746 CE — Battle of Rupar Thutha
748 CE — Battle of Rayy
749 CE — Battle of lsfahan and Nihawand
750 CE — Battle of Zab
772 CE — Battle of Janbi in North Africa
777 CE — Battle of Saragossa in Spain
Many smaller and unsuccessful campaigns, undertaken during the same period, have been excluded from this
list. For example, attacks on India frontiers had started in 636 during the reign of second Caliph Omar. After
many attempts over a period of eight decades to establish a permanent foothold for Islam in India, success
finally came in 712 when Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh. To this long list, we must add another
long list of wars on numerous fronts in the later centuries, like those in India, started by Sultan Mahmud of
Ghazni in 1000 and continued as long as Muslims held the power in India. The Umayyad Caliph Mu'awiyah
(661–80) tried to capture Constantinople for five years (674–78) during which he launched a number of
unsuccessful and often disastrous attacks. Later on, the campaign to capture Constantinople was revived in
716, which also failed suffering severe reverses. More attempts were made to capture it over the next
centuries before Muslims ultimately wrestled the prized center of Christianity in 1453.
Despite this long list of aggressive and bloody wars against non-Muslims, waged by Prophet
Muhammad, the succeeding caliphs and other Muslim rulers, Muslims have their way of explaining away
those blood-letting atrocities and are still able to argue that Prophet Muhammad was a peaceful man and that
non-Muslims all over the world accepted Islam because of the essence of peace and justice inherent in the
Islamic creed. In this chapter, these arguments will be discussed in detail mainly in the context of the Muslim
population growth in medieval India under the Muslim rule. It must be noted beforehand that the version of
Islam, enforced in India, was based on the Hanafi School—the mildest amongst the four major Schools of
Islamic laws. This is the only School that gives legal right to life to idolaters by provisionally elevating them
to the status of dhimmi (tolerated people), clearly violating the canonical Quranic dictum, which demands
their conversion on the pain of death [Quran 9:5].

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